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Presentation Of Physical Disabilities

Presentation Of Physical Disabilities



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    Presentation Of Physical Disabilities Presentation Of Physical Disabilities Presentation Transcript

    • Cerebral Palsy Presentation of Physical Disabilities Presented by: Shirlyn, Crystal, Sushi & Suhaidah
    • What are Physical Disabilities?
      • Physical disabilities affect the function of a person’s motor mobility.
      • Different types of PD:
        • Cerebral Palsy
          • Non progressive lesion to the brain that affect the motor movement
        • Spinal Bifida
          • Paralysis due to damage to the spinal cord
        • Muscular Atrophies
          • Weak muscles, delayed in motor development
        • Spinal Muscular Mypathies
          • Low muscle tones
        • Osteogenesis Imperfecta
          • Brittle bones
    • History of Cerebral Palsy
      • Known as “Cerebral Paralysis” or “Little’s Disease” was identified by a British surgeon William Little in 1860.
      • Definition of CP
        • Cerebral (Brain) Palsy (Weakness in a person’s movement)
        • A non- progressive neurological disorder
        • Affects communication between the brain and the muscles
    • Types of Cerebral Palsy
      • May be classified by the type of movement problem
        • Spastic
          • inability of a muscle to relax
        • Athetoid
          • inability to control the movement of a muscle
        • Ataxic
          • problems with balance and coordination.
      • By the body parts involved
        • Monoplegia – affect 1 limb
        • Hemiplegia – affect left and right side of the body
        • Double hemiplegia - affect both side of the body (different severity)
        • Diplegia - effect only 2 limbs
        • Quadriplegia – affect both side of the body (diff. severity)
    • Possible Causes of Cerebral Palsy
      • Babies who have congenital malformations in systems such as heart, kidneys & spine can then have congenital malformations in the brain
      • Brain injuries
        • During fetal development
        • At birth or shortly after birth
      • Premature
        • Low weight at birth
        • Lack of oxygen to the brain
        • Does not cry in the first five minutes after delivery
    • Possible Causes of Cerebral Palsy
      • Seizures in a newborn
      • Fetus during/after birth exposed to
        • certain chemicals
        • infections
      • Expectant mother suffers severe physical trauma
      • Drug/ alcohol abuse or smoking during pregnancy
    • Other Complications…
      • Delay in milestone development
        • fine and complex gross motor development
      • Auditory or Visual perceptual deficit
      • Difficulties in communication
      • Other concerns – asthma, epilepsy, seizure and drooling
    • What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom?
      • Physical setting
        • Students in wheelchair and with auditory or visual problem
          • seated where there are minimal movement behind them
          • near the teacher and blackboard
      • Classroom should be organised
        • promote social, cultural and emotional development & academic progress.
      • Provide mattress to cushion the fall during seizure attack
    • What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom?
      • Instructional Cues
        • Talking books
          • aid in learning
          • Give 1 direction at a time .
            • Use short, simple, one concept phrase to give direction.
            • Be patient and look at the student when giving instruction.
            • repeat verbal directions slowly, firmly and clearly or use visual cues.
    • What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom?
      • Social Emotional Support
        • Encourage sharing sessions among peers to develop friendships
        • Include them in most class and outdoor activities (E.g. P.E lessons, excursions, field trips)
        • Home-school partnership – Parental involvement
      • Behavioural Aspect
        • No special consideration and provision concerning rules and regulation, unless the need arises
    • Importance of Teacher’s Role
      • Teachers should be ready for specialized and high-tech equipment to be part of classroom environment
      • Teachers must be confident about specific procedures and in case of emergency (E.g. epilepsy, seizure)
      • Modify and accommodate
        • curriculum to support the learning
        • give extra time to complete schoolwork or tests
      • Provide opportunities for participation and success.
        • Focus on student’s strengths
    • Local resources / local practices / links /article
      • The Spastic Children's Association of Singapore (SCAS) was established in 1957 to provide medical treatment and therapy for children with cerebral palsy in Singapore
        • http://www.spastic.org.sg/
      • National Neuroscience Institute: Singhealth. Describes Neurosurgical Treatment of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy
        • http://www.nni.com.sg/ForDoctorsandHealthcareProfessionals/ClinicalNeuroscienceUpdates/Neurosurgical+Treatment+of+Spasticity+in+Cerebral+Palsy+-+an+Update.htm
      • Rainbow Centre runs 3 programmes, 2 of which caters to children with Physical CP:
        • EIPIC - Early Intervention Programme for Infants & Young Children
        • PCMH - Programme for Children with Multiple Handicaps
        • http://www.rainbowcentre.org.sg/sped.htm
    • Conclusion
      • “ … disorder of movement .. caused by a damage to the brain …
      • they are not stupid”
      • Source: (Stanton, M.1992. The Cerebral Palsy Handbook : A guide for parents and carers. London: Random House)
      • *Handouts will be given…