0
Sudan's Civil War and Darfur's Misery<br />Courtney Schreiber<br />
2<br />
Religion<br />70% are Muslims<br />Official State religion in 1983<br />5% are Christians<br />Most live in the South.<br ...
Dinka Cow Herder<br />4<br />
360 member National Assembly make the laws.<br />In 2005, the assembly approved a new constitution for Sudan. It’ll be in ...
Omar al-Bashir<br />6<br />
Economy<br />Minerals:<br />Oil, iron ore, copper and chrome.<br />Agricultural:<br />Cotton, sorghum, millet, gum arabic,...
Sudan’s Flag<br />8<br />
Population<br />32,600,000; annual growth 2.4%<br />Languages<br />Arabic<br />Nubian<br />Ta Bedawie<br />Nilotic<br />Ni...
In 1821,  Egypt conquered the Funj.<br />In 1881, a Sudanese Muslim religious teacher named Muhammad Ahmed proclaimed hims...
12<br />Muhammad Ahmed<br />
In the early 1900’s, many Sudanese began to demand an end to British rule.<br />In 1924, Sudanese troops under Egyptian le...
In 1953, the United Kingdom and Egypt agreed on steps leading to self-government.<br />In 1955, Sudan’s parliament voted f...
15<br />Independence<br />
The South leaders feared that the North leaders would not share power equally.<br />They objected to use Arabic as the nat...
Sudan’s first independent government failed to improve north-south relations.<br />In 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a m...
18<br />General Ibrahim Abboud<br />
In 1969, Colonel Gaafar Nimeiri seized control of the government.<br />He outlawed political parties and arrested most lea...
20<br />Colonel Gaafar Nimeiri<br />
Sudan adopted a new constitution in 1973.<br />It established a strong presidency and weak legislature.<br />It provided o...
Civil War<br />22<br />
In 1983, Nimeiri established Islamic Law.<br />He ended the regional government in the south.<br />Southerners protested a...
In 1985, a group of military officers forced Nimeiri out of power, disbanded the Sudanese Socialist Union, and established...
25<br />Civil War<br />
In 1989, Brigadier General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir led a group of military officers that overthrew Mahdi.<br />Bashir w...
In 1996, Sudan held presidential and parliamentary elections.<br />Bashir was elected president.<br />The new parliament e...
28<br />Hassan al-Turabi<br />
In the late 1990’s, tension grew between Bashir and Turabi.<br />In December 1999, Bashir removed Turabi as speaker, disso...
In December 2000, Bashir was re-elected president and the National Congress won majority in the Assembly.<br />The main op...
31<br />Civil War<br />
From 1983 to 2004, the fighting between Sudan’s government and rebels in the south killed about 2 million people.<br />The...
In July 2002, the government and the rebels signed an agreement providing that Islamic law would apply in northern Sudan b...
In January 2005, the two sides signed a full peace agreement that ended their conflict.<br />In July 2005, the National As...
35<br />Violence in Darfur<br />In 2003, a separate conflict erupted in the western region of Darfur.<br />Rebels from ind...
36<br />Darfur Refugee Camp<br />
Violence in Darfur rose in 2003 and 2004.<br />Tens of thousands of people died.<br />2 million forced from their homes.<b...
38<br />Starving Children<br />
39<br />Violence in Darfur<br />
The End<br />
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Sudan

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Transcript of "Sudan"

  1. 1. Sudan's Civil War and Darfur's Misery<br />Courtney Schreiber<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />
  3. 3. Religion<br />70% are Muslims<br />Official State religion in 1983<br />5% are Christians<br />Most live in the South.<br />Most people practice traditional religion.<br />Dinka<br />Nuba<br />Nuer<br />Zande.<br />Sudan Background Info<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Dinka Cow Herder<br />4<br />
  5. 5. 360 member National Assembly make the laws.<br />In 2005, the assembly approved a new constitution for Sudan. It’ll be in effect until 2011.<br />It provides for power to be shared between northerners and southerners.<br />Also establishes a regional government in Southern Sudan with a large degree of self-rule.<br />Omar al-Bashir, President, is the head of state, head of government and commander in chief of the armed forces.<br />Sudan Background Info<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Omar al-Bashir<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Economy<br />Minerals:<br />Oil, iron ore, copper and chrome.<br />Agricultural:<br />Cotton, sorghum, millet, gum arabic, wheat, sesame and sheep.<br />Industries and Products:<br />Cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, and petroleum refining.<br />Sudan Background Info<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Sudan’s Flag<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Population<br />32,600,000; annual growth 2.4%<br />Languages<br />Arabic<br />Nubian<br />Ta Bedawie<br />Nilotic<br />Nilo-Hamitic<br />Sudanic<br />English<br />Sudan Background Info<br />9<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. In 1821, Egypt conquered the Funj.<br />In 1881, a Sudanese Muslim religious teacher named Muhammad Ahmed proclaimed himself the Mahdi, which is a divinely appointed guide.<br />For the next four years, he led a successful revolt against the Egyptians.<br />In 1898, the United Kingdom and Egypt joined forces to defeat the Sudanese at the Battle of Omdurman. They both agreed to rule the country together.<br />Egyptian & British Control<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Muhammad Ahmed<br />
  13. 13. In the early 1900’s, many Sudanese began to demand an end to British rule.<br />In 1924, Sudanese troops under Egyptian leadership rose up against the British.<br />The mutiny failed and the British expelled most Egyptian officials from Sudan.<br />The Egyptian officials did not return until 1936, when Egypt signed a new agreement with the United Kingdom.<br />Egyptian & British Control<br />13<br />
  14. 14. In 1953, the United Kingdom and Egypt agreed on steps leading to self-government.<br />In 1955, Sudan’s parliament voted for self-government.<br />Sudan become an independent nation on January 1st, 1956.<br />Independence<br />14<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Independence<br />
  16. 16. The South leaders feared that the North leaders would not share power equally.<br />They objected to use Arabic as the national language. The South also feared that the Northern Administrators would force the South to be more like Arab Muslims.<br />Differences in ethnicity, language, and religion resulted in years of suspicion and fighting between the North and the South.<br />After Independence<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Sudan’s first independent government failed to improve north-south relations.<br />In 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military take-over of the government. He abolished all political parties and put man politicians in jail.<br />His attempts to force southern leaders to cooperate with his government only increased tensions in the south.<br />In 1964, teachers, students, lawyers, and union organizers held a general strike against Abboud.<br />They forced the army to return the government to civilian control.<br />After Independence<br />17<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />General Ibrahim Abboud<br />
  19. 19. In 1969, Colonel Gaafar Nimeiri seized control of the government.<br />He outlawed political parties and arrested most leading politicians.<br />In 1971, he became president of Sudan.<br />In 1972, he bought an end to the rebellion in the south and signed agreements that gave the southern provinces a regional government.<br />After Independence<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Colonel Gaafar Nimeiri<br />
  21. 21. Sudan adopted a new constitution in 1973.<br />It established a strong presidency and weak legislature.<br />It provided one official political, the Sudanese Socialist Union.<br />Nimeiri served as party leader.<br />After Independence<br />Constitution<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Civil War<br />22<br />
  23. 23. In 1983, Nimeiri established Islamic Law.<br />He ended the regional government in the south.<br />Southerners protested against these actions.<br />Fighting broke out between government forces and southerners.<br />In addition, severe nationwide economic problems led to general strikes and rioting.<br />Civil War<br />23<br />
  24. 24. In 1985, a group of military officers forced Nimeiri out of power, disbanded the Sudanese Socialist Union, and established a military government.<br />They soon helped set up a transitional government that included civilians.<br />In 1986, elections where held for a new legislature, and Sadiq al Mahdi, head of the Umma Party, became prime minister.<br />Civil War<br />24<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Civil War<br />
  26. 26. In 1989, Brigadier General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir led a group of military officers that overthrew Mahdi.<br />Bashir was backed by a political group called the National Islamic Front.<br />The NIF has sought to shape Sudan’s government according to traditional Islamic law.<br />Bashir got rid off the legislature and replaced it with a military council.<br />He suspended the Constitution and banned all political parties.<br />In 1993, the military council the got rid of itself.<br />Civil War<br />26<br />
  27. 27. In 1996, Sudan held presidential and parliamentary elections.<br />Bashir was elected president.<br />The new parliament elected Hassan al-Turabi, the leader of NIF, as speaker.<br />NIF later became as the National Congress in the late 1990’s.<br />In 1998, Sudan adopted a new constitution that allowed the formation of political parties.<br />Several parties were organized in 1999.<br />Civil War<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Hassan al-Turabi<br />
  29. 29. In the late 1990’s, tension grew between Bashir and Turabi.<br />In December 1999, Bashir removed Turabi as speaker, dissolved the National Assembly and suspended parts of the Constitution.<br />In June 2000, after being expelled from the National Congress, Turabi formed a new party called the Popular National Congress.<br />29<br />Civil War<br />
  30. 30. In December 2000, Bashir was re-elected president and the National Congress won majority in the Assembly.<br />The main opposition parties boycotted the vote.<br />In 2001, police arrested and confined Turabi and other PNC members.<br />He was released in 2003, detained again in 2004, and released in 2005.<br />30<br />Civil War<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Civil War<br />
  32. 32. From 1983 to 2004, the fighting between Sudan’s government and rebels in the south killed about 2 million people.<br />The fighting interfered with the production and distribution of food and caused widespread hunger.<br />Many civilians fled to the north or to neighboring countries.<br />Droughts in the mid- 1980’s through the early 2000’s contributed to the spread of hunger and disease.<br />32<br />Civil War<br />
  33. 33. In July 2002, the government and the rebels signed an agreement providing that Islamic law would apply in northern Sudan but not in southern Sudan.<br />The government also agreed to eventually allow southerners to hold a referendum in independence.<br />In 2003 and 2004, the government and the rebels signed further agreements on sharing of power, the distribution of oil wealth and other issues. <br />33<br />Civil War<br />
  34. 34. In January 2005, the two sides signed a full peace agreement that ended their conflict.<br />In July 2005, the National Assembly approved a new constitution that was to remain in effect until 2011.<br />It established a temporary power-sharing government, as well as regional government in the south.<br />34<br />Civil War<br />
  35. 35. 35<br />Violence in Darfur<br />In 2003, a separate conflict erupted in the western region of Darfur.<br />Rebels from indigenous African ethnic groups claimed that the Sudanese government was ignoring Darfur and began attacking government targets in the region.<br />Arab militias known as the Janjaweed began attacking both rebels and civilians in Darfur.<br />There have been longstanding tensions over land and grazing rights in Darfur between herders, who are mostly Arabs, and farmers, who are mostly indigenous Africans.<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />Darfur Refugee Camp<br />
  37. 37. Violence in Darfur rose in 2003 and 2004.<br />Tens of thousands of people died.<br />2 million forced from their homes.<br />Many international groups accused the government and the Janjaweed of massive human rights abuses, including murder and rape.<br />The United States described it as genocide.<br />37<br />Violence in Darfur<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />Starving Children<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Violence in Darfur<br />
  40. 40. The End<br />
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