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Autonomous vehicles[1]






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    Autonomous vehicles[1] Autonomous vehicles[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Autonomous Vehicles
    • History
      The first actual representation was in 1977 at the Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab in Japan
      - Got up to 30 km/h by tracking white street markers
    • History Cont.
      1980s DARPA-funded Autonomous Land Vehicle in U.S. achieved first road following demonstration that used:
      - laser (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan)
      - computing vision (Carnegie Mellon University and SRI)
      - autonomous robotic control (Carnegie Mellon and Martin Marietta)
      - Goes up to 30km/h
    • History Cont.
      In 2000 three U.S. Gov’t funded military efforts known as Demo I (Army), Demo II (DARPA), and Demo III (Army) are underway.
      Demo III demonstrated the ability to drive on off-road terrain and avoid obstacles.
    • History Cont.
      In 2010, VisLab ran VIAC (VisLabIntercontinental Autonomous Challenge)
      - 13,000 km test run
      - 4 driverless vans ended the drive from Italy to China by arriving at Shanghai Expo on October 28
      In 2008, General Motors said they would begin testing driverless cars by 2015 and could be on the road by 2018.
    • http://selectluxury.wordpress.com/page/2/
    • Paved Road Autonomous Vehicles
      Google Driverless Car
      Euro EUREKA Prometheus Project
      VIAC Challenge
      DARPA Grand Challenge
      Argo Vehicle
      Stanford’s Racing Team’s car
      Volkswagen Golf GTI 53+1
    • Free Ranging Autonomous Vehicles
      DARPA Grand Challenge
      European Robot Trial
      Israeli Military- Industrial Complex
    • Automated Highway System
      Efforts to construct special lanes with magnets to allow vehicles to stay in the center of the lane while communicating with other vehicles
    • Free Ranging Grid
      Combination of autonomous vehicles and a supervisory central system
      - The vehicle locates itself using odometer readings, recalibrating themselves occasionally using a “maze” of magnets embedding in the environment, and GPS
      -They avoid wrecks using lasers and ultra sonic sensors
      -Only for commercial use.
    • Sensorial-Informative
      Warn or inform drivers about events that have passed unnoticed such as
      - Lane Warning system
      - Rear-view alarm- detect obstacles behind
      - Visibility aid for the driver to cover blind spots and enhanced vision system such as radar, wireless vehicle safety communication, and night vision
      - Infrastructure-based, driver warning/ information-giving systems such as those developed by Japanese government
    • Actuation- Corrective
      Modify driver’s instruction to execute them in a more effective way
      - anti lock brakes
      - traction control system
      - four wheel drive
      - electronic stability control
      - dynamic steering response
    • Systemic
      Automatic parking
      Following another car
      Distance control assistance
      Dead man’s switch
    • Existing and Missing Technologies
      Understanding immediate environment (Sensors)
      • Knowing where it is and where it wants to go (Navigation)
      Finding its way in Traffic (Motion Planning)
      • Operating Mechanics of the vehicle (Actuation)
    • Short Term Advantages
      Increasing roadway capacity by reducing distance between cars
      Reduce congestion by controlling flow of traffic
      Can do work or rest while driver
      No longer need to leave work to do errands
      Takes itself to gas station and to get repaired/serviced
    • Long Term Advantages
      Longer commutes will be more tolerable.
      Cut down on commuter rail ridership
      Cut down on costs of bus service
      You can just click an app on you Smartphone to get a car to you immediately
      Become a much cheaper way to live in the city without a car
      - like owning a car without worrying about parking
      Increase safety by reducing driver error
      Fewer mechanical problems and breakdowns.
      Decrease amount of import oil
      Reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions by 80%
    • Ethical Implications
      Not enough proper training on vehicles for users
      One corporation may control all technology and may not take ethical considerations seriously
      - Could create monopoly
    • Bibliography
      Forrest, Alex. "Autonomous Cars and Society." WPI. N.p., 01/05/2007. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf>.
      "Driverless Car." Wikipedia. N.p., 31/10/2010. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driverless_car>.
      Schmidhuber, J. "Robot Cars." idsia. N.p., 2005. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/robotcars.html>.
      Templeton, Brad. "Where Robot Cars Can Really Take Us." Templetons.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <http://www.templetons.com/brad/robocars/>.
      Finn, Anthony. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles : a compendium . 1st ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2010. 23-49. Print.
      Smith, Mary. "Driverless Car Technology Through GM." Newsoxy 14 Nov 2010, Print.