Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases

on

  • 1,153 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,153
Views on SlideShare
785
Embed Views
368

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

3 Embeds 368

http://dickmalott.com 232
http://www.dickmalott.com 128
http://dickmalott.squarespace.com 8

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases Presentation Transcript

  • Icon Exchange
    Discrimination Phases
    Created By: Courtney June
    Behavior Analysis Training System
    Western Michigan University
  • What is discrimination?
    The ability to choose between a preferred item and a non preferred item.
    “Which icon will get me something cool, and which one will get me something lame?”
  • General Info
    Always have the correct icon for each item
    If not, ask for it
    Reinforce within ½ second
    Use a variety of tutors and items, both preferred and non-preferred
    Set up for next trial while child is engaged with the reinforcer
    Number of icons on the
    three right strips is phase
    specific
  • Remember: There should never be more than 5 icons on the three right strips for discrimination phases
  • Preferred Vs. Non-preferred
    A preferred item-- an item the child consistently eats or engages with for 10 – 15 seconds
    Eating goldfish
    Putting a puzzle together
    Flipping through a book
    A non-preferred item-- something the child is not interested in, and will not engage in for 10 – 15 seconds
    A spoon
    A shoe
    A piece of paper
  • Non-preferred Vs. Neutral
    Again, a non-preferred is anything the child does not like and rejects
    Paper towel
    A sock
    A neutral item is an item that is non-preferred but used functionally:
    Using a fork to eat
    Drinking from a cup
    Putting on a shoe
    If you find a neutral item for your child do not use it as preferred or non-preferred, in the discrimination trials.
  • Phases 3
    The child learns to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item
    Previously the child always got something good from exchanging the icon, now they have to look at the icons to make sure they are getting what they want
  • Question #1:
    What is the maximum number of icons that can be on the three right strips of the PECS book?
  • Enticing vs. Prompting
    Entice a child “to want” an item
    and,
    Prompt a child “to ask” for an item
    Examples of enticing:
    Pretend to eat an edible without attending to the child
    Play with a car or toy by yourself
    Examples of prompting:
    “WOW look at this COOL car!”
    “OOO this is a YUMMY Cheeto
  • Which is Enticing? Prompting?
  • Enticing vs Prompting
    Prompting
    Enticing
  • What happens in an incorrect trial?
    The child chooses a non-preferred icon and rejects it when it is presented
    Examples of rejection:
    Not taking the item from you
    Throwing the item
    Pushing the item away
    Dropping the item
    If 3 incorrect responses occur, move onto the 4 Step Error Correction
  • Tips for Emotional Responding
    During instances of emotional rejection
    Such as crying or tantrums,
    Do not give the child a different preferred item to calm them,
    Work through the rest of the trial, giving prompts as needed, and
    If the child aggresses:
    Block it and continue to work through the trial
    After completing the trial do ELOs to achieve compliance
    Once child complies, move on to the next trial
  • Question #2:
    Which is an example of rejection?
    A. The child grabs the sock and makes a hand puppet.
    B. The child eats the cheeto.
    C. The child ignores the item and pretends to sleep.
  • Phase 3
    Allow the child to play with the preferred item for 10–15 seconds before the trial begins
    1 preferred item and 1 non-preferred item is used
    Do preference assessments every few trials to find both preferred and non-preferred items
    “OOO the new”
    Reinforce the childs correct reaching response with “OOO” as the child reaches for the correct icon during the trial
  • “OOO”
  • Phase 3
    Be sure to place the PECS book between the student and tutor
    Alternate back and forth between phases 3 and 2F
    5 trials of 2F outside of the booth
    5 trials of 3 in the setting the tutor chooses
    Trial is considered incorrect after 15 seconds
    If the child makes 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove incorrect icon during the 4 step error correction
  • Question #3:
    The tutor silently reading a child’s book in front of the child is an example of what?
    Question #4:
    Exclaiming “VROOM VROOM, this car is so much FUN!” in front of the child is an example of what?
  • Phase 3A
    The child learns to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item
    WHILE TRAVELING (outside the booth)
  • Phase 3A
    Again allow the child to eat or engage with the reinforcer for 10-15 seconds
    1 preferred and 2 non-preferred icons on any of the 3 right velcro strips
    Do preference assessments every few trials
    If the student does not engage in the item for at least 15 seconds, it is incorrect
    After 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove the incorrect icon and go into the 4 Step Error Correction
  • Question #5:
    If a child is given a sock and puts in on his/her foot, what kind of item is it?
    A: Preferred
    B: Non-preferred
    C: Neutral
  • The 4 Step Error Correction
    Step 1: Model
    Step 2: Practice
    Step 3: Distract
    Step 4: Repeat
  • Step 1: Model
    Point to the correct icon
    If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary
    Move onto step 2
  • Step 1: Model
    Gesturaly prompt to the correct icon
    If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary
    That is all step one requires move on to step 2
  • Step 2: Practice
    Let the child give you the icon you prompted towards
    Label item but do not give it to the child, this is just for practice
    Move on to step 3
  • Step 3: Distract
    Flip the book over and do an ELO:
    Clap hands
    Tap table
    Touch nose
    Move on to step 4
  • Step 4: Repeat
    Flip book back over
    Wait for the child to make an independent response.
    Entice if necessary
    If child makes incorrect response, repeat the 4 Step Error Correction
    If you go through the 4 step error correction 3 times in one trial, remove the incorrect icons so the child has to make a correct response during step 4
  • What problems could occur?
    Children’s preferences may change often
    If the child changes reinforcers often, make sure you do frequent preference assessments to ensure that you have what the child will be motivated enough to ask for
    Finding a non-preferred item can sometimes be difficult
    If you are having trouble finding a non-preferred item, keep doing a preference assessment until you find one, or ask a supervisor for help
  • No Motivation
  • Question 7: What are the 4 steps in the 4 Step Error Correction?
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    Get a supervisor to code the data sheet, end that PECS session and move on using the reinforcer the child tried to grab for another procedure
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    How should the supervisor code it?
  • Tips
    Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial
    DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction
    After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure
    Continuing the procedure then punishes responding
    Your supervisor should use the Implementation Problem code (IP) or the Alternative Appropriate Activity code (AAA)
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
    Note:
    If you do 3 consecutive initial trials & have to go through the 4 step error correction each time, STOP THE PROCEDURE & GET IT CODED BY A SUPERVISOR
  • Tips on Coding Data Sheet
    The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary
    If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial
    This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials)
    If you have to go through the 4 step error correction a few times, you still only take data on the initial trials.
  • Example Data Sheet
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    So, if I start the initial trial and the child rejects the item, I mark the data for the initial trial as - and do the 4 step error correction, with the possibility of doing the 4 steps up to three times?
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    That’s right!
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    Then what do I do?
  • What do we mean by the Initial Trial?
    The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.
    If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.
    Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure
    When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.
    You start the next initial trial, and take your next data mark.
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Child chooses icon
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Read from top to bottom following the arrows as necessary
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Label and give item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Accepts item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    Accepts item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Rejects item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Child chooses icon
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Label and give item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Accepts item
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Accepts item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Rejects item
    Go onto next trial
    Accepts item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Rejects item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • Phase 3B
    Phase 3B teaches discrimination between preferred items/icons while traveling
    Tutor has 2 highly preferred items available and the 2 corresponding icons on the book
    Incorrect responses:
    student reaches for a different item, or
    Chooses corresponding item but does not engage in interacting with it for at least 15 seconds
  • Phase 3B continued
    Correspondence checks are necessary for 50% of the trials
    5 of the 10 trials
    Rotate between correspondence checks and labeling while giving the item
    Label then give item
    Student does not accept the item when it is presented
    If the student makes 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove incorrect icon during 4 Step Error Correction
  • For Correspondence Checks
    Hold out the items corresponding to icons, and say,
    “Take it”
    Then mark “CC” in the OT column on the data sheet
    Correct trial: the child chooses the item corresponding to the icon they gave you
    Incorrect trial: the child chooses the item that does not correspond to the icon they gave you
    Block the incorrect response and go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction
    Start with pointing to the item the child should have taken
  • Requirement:
    Combine phases 2F and 3B
    Complete
    5 trials of 2F outside the booth
    5 trials of 3B in the setting the tutor chooses
  • Phase 3C
    Phase 3C teaches discrimination between preferred items/icons while traveling
    Tutor has 5 highly preferred items available
    And 5 corresponding icons on the book
    Run correspondence checks for 60% of the trials (6 of 10)
    Randomly rotate between correspondence checks and labeling while giving the item
  • Correspondence Checks
    Hold out the items on a bin lid corresponding to the icons, and say, “take it”
    Mark “CC” in the OT column on the data sheet
    REQUIREMENT:
    Combine phases 2F and 3C.
    5 trials must be completed outside the booth where the student must travel to book and then discriminate between icons
  • Phase 3C
    4 preferred items
    Do correspondence checks using all 4 items
    For this phase it is easier to put the items on a bin lid so that they are spread out and easily accessible to the child
    When items are not spread out and accessible, tutors can easily mistake which item the child is reaching for
    Trial is correct when child chooses the item they asked for
    Trial is incorrect if child chooses a different item then what they asked for
    Use 4 step error correction for incorrect trials
  • Phase 3C continued
    Trial is correct if the student gives the icon to the tutor then picks up and accepts corresponding item (engages with for at least 15 seconds)
    Trial is incorrect if the student does not give icon to tutor or does not pick up or accept (engage in item for at least 15 seconds) corresponding item
  • Question 8:
    True or False: You have to run 10 trials for every PECS session
    Question 9:
    How often should you do correspondence checks in phase 3B ? __ How about in 3C? __
    A: 20% of the trials
    B: 40% of the trials
    C: 60% of the trials
    D: never
  • 4-Step Error Correction
    Chooses correct item
    Chooses incorrect item
    Child chooses item
    TAKE DATA HERE
    Correct on data sheet
    Incorrect on data sheet
    Go onto next trial
    Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon
    Practice
    -Child exchanges preferred icon
    -Label, but do not give item
    Distract
    -Turn book over
    -Do ELO
    Repeat
    -Turn book back over
    -Child independently chooses icon
    -Correspondence check
    1
    4
    3
    2
    Correct item
    Incorrect item
    Go onto next trial
    3
    2
    1
    Correct item
    4
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Incorrect item
    Go onto next trial
    Correct item
    1
    4
    3
    2
    ModelPracticeDistractRepeat
    Do preference assessment
    Go onto next trial
    Incorrect item
    Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps
    On repeat they get the treat!
  • Tips
    Remember we do not take data on the 4 step error correction, we only take data on the initial trial
    Note: If you get three consecutive incorrect responses on the initial trials, stop the procedure and get it coded by a supervisor
  • Still have questions?
    Contact the
    Icon Exchange Junior System Manager:
    Courtney June
    at
    Lea.c.june@wmich.edu
    or ask a supervisor.