What Is Communication The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.
Importance of Good Communication Improved quality of products and services• Subordinates communicate problems and solutions for increasing quality to superiors Increased responsiveness to customers• Empowered workers lower response time to satisfy customer wants and needs+ More innovation through communication• Cross-functional teams communicating effectively produce higher quality products more efficiently
Communication Functions Control – Informal and formal control of behavior of members in a group Motivation – job clarity, expectations, feedback Emotional expression – groups a source for social interaction and therefore communication plays a role for release of emotions Information – facilitating decision making by providing information by transmitting data to identify and evaluate alternative choices
Communication Process Sender, encoding - The sender has a thought which he/she wants to let someone else know. This thought is encoded in the form of a message. Message - The thought thus acquires a body, a shape and a structure. Channel - The message is transmitted using some channel to reach the receiver; could be formal and informal channels Receiver, Decoding - The receiver ‘decodes’ the message to understand its meaning. Noise - The process of decoding may not generate the same ‘thought’ that the sender wanted to transmit. The distortions are the ‘noise’. Feedback – Check on how successfully the original intended message has reached the receiver.
Communication Types Oral– speed and feedback; opportunities for messages to become distorted Written – Usually more carefully done, therefore more likely to be well thought out, logical and clear Non-verbal – body movements, tone and emphasis given to words, facial expressions, distance between sender and receiver
Communication Channels Used in Organizations Formal Communication Channels Downward – Communication that flows from one level of a group to a lower level • Managers to employees Upward – Communication that flows to a higher level of a group • Employees to manager Lateral – Communication among members of the same work group, or individuals at the same level
Communication Channels Used in Organizations Informal Communication Channels Small Group Networks• The wheel relies on the leader to act as the central conduit for all the group’s communication• The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command• The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. Grapevine• 75% of employees hear of matters first through rumors• Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important, when there is ambiguity, under conditions that arouse anxiety
Barriers To Effective Communication Filtering – purposefully manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver Selective perception – Receiver projecting their interests and expectations into the communication while decoding messages Information overload – Individuals having more information than they can sort out and use Emotions – how receiver is ‘feeling’ impacts interpretation of message Language – Same words mean different things to different people
CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Language Differences Nonverbal Communication Across Cultures Etiquette and Politeness Across Cultures Social Conventions Across Cultures