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Women in peace making an AU-IGAD Strategy
 

Women in peace making an AU-IGAD Strategy

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"I don’t know when I began to clearly see the evidence of another crime besides murder among the bodies in the ditches and the mass graves. I know that for a long time I sealed away from my mind all ...

"I don’t know when I began to clearly see the evidence of another crime besides murder among the bodies in the ditches and the mass graves. I know that for a long time I sealed away from my mind all the signs of this crime, instructing myself not to recognise what was there in front of me. The crime was rape, on a scale that deeply affected me…. Nevertheless, if you looked, you could see the evidence, even in the whitened skeletons. The legs bent and apart -- A broken bottle, a rough branch, even a knife between them. Where the bodies were fresh, one saw what must have been semen pooled on and near the dead women and girls. There was always a lot of blood. Some male corpses had their genitals cut off, but many women and young girls had their breasts chopped off and their genitals crudely cut apart. They died in a position of total vulnerability, flat on their backs, with their legs bent and knees wide apart. It was the expressions on their dead faces that assaulted me the most, a frieze of shock, pain, and humiliation"
Romeo Dallaire on the Genocide in Rwanda

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    Women in peace making an AU-IGAD Strategy Women in peace making an AU-IGAD Strategy Presentation Transcript

    • AU-IGAD sub-regionWomen in Peace Making Lessons learned and Good practices
      AU-IGAD Women and Peace Conference,
      Launch of the Africa UNiTE Campaign and the Launch African Women’s Decade,
      April 26, 2011, African union, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      BT Costantinos, PhD
      Professor of Public Policy, School of Graduate Studies, Department of Public Management and Policy, College of Management, Information and Economic Sciences, AAU
    • Women and Complex emergencies –
      analytical limitations
      a naive realism
      inattention to the articulation of problems of women’s rights as formal or abstract possibilities
      neglect of analysis of specific strategies and performances of organisations;
      inadequate treatment of the role of donors
      • Genocide and VAW: impact on women’s security
      The AU defines VAW as ‘all acts carried out against women that cause or can cause harm to them or bring them physical, sexual, psychological or economic suffering, including threatening them with such acts, restricting them or arbitrarily curtailing their fundamental freedom be it in private or in public, in times of war or in conflict or war situations’. It is further defined as violence carried out against a person on the bases of his/her sex or gender. (Article 1(k) of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights relative to women’s rights)
    • Good practices on global policy
      UN Security Council resolution 1325 calls upon all parties to armed conflict to respect fully international law applicable to the rights and protection of women and girls, especially as civilians, in particular the obligations applicable to them under the
      Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto of 1977,
      the Refugee Convention of 1951 and the Protocol thereto of 1967,
      the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women of 1979 and the Optional Protocol thereto of 1999
      United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 and the two Optional Protocols thereto of 25 May 2000, and to bear in mind the relevant provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
    • Beijing Declaration
      Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (PFA), resolved, inter alia, to promote non-violent forms of conflict resolution and reduce the overall incidence of human rights abuse on women in conflict situations.
      Specifically, the PFA, recognizing that the elimination of all forms of violence against women is central to equality, development and peace, calls upon Governments and other agencies to
      Increase the participation of women in conflict resolution at decision- making levels and protect women living in situations of armed and other conflicts or under foreign occupation.
    • Beijing Declaration
      Reduce excessive military expenditures and control the availability of armaments.
      Promote non- violent forms of conflict resolution and reduce the incidence of human rights abuse in conflict situations.
      Promote women s contribution to fostering a culture of peace.
      Provide protection, assistance and training to refugee women and other displaced women in need of international protection and internally displaced women.
      Provide protection to women of the colonies and non- self governing territories. 
    • Justice
      The rule of law can only offer a guarantee of stability, sustainable peace, development and actual participative democracy if it opens up to the concept of legal pluralism.
      The reflection on plural state and legal pluralism defends the existence and circulation, within the society, of an order and various normative systems within the same polity.
      The state legal system is the most important of the various normative systems, but it is not the only one.
      The legitimacy of post-conflict rule of law in the region will depend on its capacity to integrate popular/customary practices into modern justice mechanisms.
      It took the Asian ‘comfort women’ fifty years to finally come out, tell their stories as sex slaves of the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second World War and demand for justice, compensation and reparations from the government of Japan.
      The survivors continue to fight the crime of sexual slavery. Sexual violence should not be repeated again and that justice be given to all women who suffered from such heinous crimes.
    • Women in Peace making in the IGAD Region
      Governments and CSOs in the IGAD region have
      borne the primary responsibility to resolve the unprecedented human impasse
      organising gender sensitive post-conflict recovery packages
      are committed to unconditionally putting a halt to the heinous crimes committed on women by armed militia; allegedly with the support of police and military forces
      The IGAD regional strategy on Higher Representation of Women’s in Decision Making: We, the IGAD Women Parliamentarians, are committed to the attainment of the 50/50 Target by 2015 (MDG 3):
      Utilizing Constitutional Provisions,
      Tapping on the Quota System and through Political Parties
      Appointment of Women in the Executive and the Judiciary,
      Ensuring Greater Women Representation at all levels,
      The IGAD Secretariat works with the MS and partners to develop and implement a regional strategy, establish an M&E mechanisms, create a regional women parliamentary caucus, and harmonize laws on VAW
    • Women in Peace making in the IGAD Region
      The Zanzibar Declaration (1999) emphasized the importance of women s participation in peace promotion, demilitarization and disarmament, networking between African and international movements, communication, information and dissemination and resource mobilization
      Somalia
      Over 1,000 youth aged between 18-25 years have been salvaged from the notorious Al Shabbab militia by SWA members after they expressed their interest in leaving the group.
      In the Somali civil war women find themselves at the centre of conflicts fought between their sons, husbands and relatives.
    • Peacebuilding conferences in Somaliland, in Borama and Sanaag (1993) and Hargeisa (1996), would not have taken place without the collective lobbying of women pressurizing the elders to intervene to end the conflicts.
      IsmailJumale Centre for Human Rights
      The IIDA Women Development Organization of MercaIn 2007 IIDA initiated the Somali Women’s Agenda (SWA), linking Somali women in the diaspora with those in the country
      The network Women Pioneers for Peace and Life, known as HINNA became ‘peace pioneers’, organizing peace campaigns and using the respect they earned as fighters to intervene with militia and warlords to diffuse tensions at critical times in Mogadishu
      In the Arta conference in Djibouti and the Mbgathi conference in Kenya, women made inroads with their participation and representation
    • UNIFEM provided a Gender Adviser to the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy to LRA-Affected Areas. This has resulted in a more inclusive national ownership processes, building trust between capital-based organizations and those based in conflict-affected areas in the North
      The Ugandan Government included women in its post- conflict reconstruction programme. Women peacemakers in Gulu, the PVP, formed a counselling group of war survivors, especially the rape cases, have used the same victims to advocate for peace building in the district
      Sudan CPA
      the Machakos and Naivashanegotiations between the Government of Sudan and the (SPLM/A) it was assumed that resolving the Sudanese conflict meant sharing power and resources between political forces along regional or geographical divides.
      This approach neglected other constituencies and the fact that a just and sustainable peace, based on good governance, equity, justice and democracy, requires an environment where every citizen has the opportunity to contribute to decision-making.
    • Women were never simply guests at the negotiating table. The roles they play as combatants, supporters of fighting forces and peacemakers qualify them to sit at the NEGOTIATING TABLE AND TO ASSUME AN ACTIVE ROLE IN IMPLEMENTATION.
    • Darfur
      UNIFEM supported a Gender Expert and Support Team (GEST) to participate in the Abuja Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks in 2006, and seconded a Gender Expert to the Mediation Team. The GEST together with women delegates to the negotiating parties developed “Women’s Priorities for Peace and Reconstruction in Darfur”, a common gender platform.
      The most disappointing aspect of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) was that negotiations for an equitable share of power and resources were premised around political forces and regional interests
      Darfur - GFACM
      Africa Humanitarian Action introduced GFACM in Darfur where it has 650,000 beneficiary populations. GFACM is a multi-disciplinary field of research and action that portends and seeks to address the question of how women and men can make better decisions together, particularly on difficult, contentious issues.
    • AHA Best practices in GFACM
      While very destructive, ironically, conflict often serves as an important impetus for positive change in women’s decision-making status ;
      Successful alternative conflict management relies on the participation of all legitimate parties or stakeholders in a dispute;
      Power imbalances are virtually always an issue in a negotiation;
      However intransigent a more powerful party might appear, it is useful for weaker parties to realise that opposing stakeholders are neither monolithic nor uniformly adversarial
    • Good practices on actions and commitments in the IGAD sub-region
      Several countries took unprecedented initiatives to promote peace and the participation of women in the peace process.
      In recent years, women’s CSOs and a number of humanitarian agencies have developed targeted responses to sexual violence in conflict.
      Governments surrounding the sub-region
      The Rwandan Government is committed to the integration of women in the reconstruction of its society, captured in its support and hosting of the 1997 Regional Conference on Peace, Gender and Development;
    • The Angolan Government has supported the active participation of civil society organizations in the post-conflict reconstruction process.
      The Government of Chad established a National Institution to mediate conflicts. This institution includes women.
      In Burundi, pressure from women s organizations contributed to the negotiations for national peace.
      Women influenced their participation in the Arusha Peace Negotiations and were officially accredited to the talks.
      Chad, Uganda, and Tanzania have adopted peace education and addressed needs of refugee women.
    • The UN and African Union peace keeping
      Peacekeepers play a very important role in protection, prevention, and response to Violence against Women in conflicts
      Lack of implementation plans, government political will and limited funding for peace and security matters
      The documentation of sexual violence in armed conflict is important for not only what it can deliver in terms of gender justice and accountability.
      UN has launched collective Action against VAW in Conflict.
      There is also a serious lack of practical understanding as to how police, courts, and traditional benches can integrate measures to prevent and respond to sexual violence in armed conflict into their operations
      The AU Firewood Patrols in Darfur is a classic example on how the AU forces tried to protect displaced women and girls
    • Tools
      Good Practices on tools used in fighting VAW
      The PFA:
      The PFA calls for closer cooperation between Governments and NGO s in the implementation of the Platform. This approach has been successfully used by some African Governments and NGOs.
      The Rights Based Approach:
      The challenge is to move the discussion from the realm of traditional advocacy that has a narrow legalistic approach and is removed from the communities, to a people centred kind of advocacy that focuses on the issues on the ground, and only uses the legal provision for persuasive purposes
      UN SG continue to monitor the human condition in the sub-region and provide recommendations for actions on human security and human development to binding in its resolution both to the Sudanese government and the combatants
      • Gender mainstreaming in peace negotiations
      • Developing a clearly defined and focused entry point or theme, advocacy, sensitisation and capacity building
      • National gender strategic frameworks are used as the frame of reference and existing institutional structures
      • Of particular significance is the need to mainstream gender in peace keeping forces to women and girls in the IDP camps and villages
      • Citizenship Sensitisation and Education
      • Women’s participation in peace and conceptions of citizenship in the 21 Century
      • Women’s citizenship education
      • The IGAD Peace and Security Strategy:
      The current draft IGAD Peace and Security Strategy, while delving into the arena of human security deeply, it has no reference to women or the rampant violence
    • Ensure the primacy and enforcement of laws that honour, protect women’s rights over customary law and traditional practices;
      Consult with local women to design, implement and monitor budgets, policies and programs to enhance the effectiveness of state spending to promote women’s rights and make education, leadership and peace and security training accessible to women and girls.
      End impunity for sexual violence and establish special police and prosecutor units that include women, and implement laws to punish perpetrators and facilitating survivors’ access to timely and appropriate judicial support and redress,
      Ensure that DDR programmes take into account the different needs of female and male ex-combatants and dependents and support health institutions to provide healthcare for women in conflict and high-violence zones
    • Conclusion
      Advances have been made in understanding the links between gender, human rights, peace, security and justice. While endemic sexual violence are significant barriers to achieving the UNSCR 1325, it has reaffirmed the role of women in resolving conflicts.
      Governments are rethinking their justice systems to improve the collapse of the governments’ police and justice system.
      Women’s participation in peace and conceptions of citizenship in the 21st Century as citizens of a political society is an important concept in the late twentieth century
      It is the fundamental recommendation that citizenship education - learning about and appreciating one's rights, duties, obligations and responsibilities as a citizen and the immediate rules, laws and governance structures within which women exercise citizenship is the fundamental step in peace building.
      It flourishes in a supportive environment of freedom of press, information, freedom of conscience and belief and freedom to organise, democratic elections and policies of inclusion.
    • Resolution draft - Preamble
      The IGAD Women and Peace Conference, Launch of the Africa UNiTE Campaign and the Launch African Women’s Decade, called for the establishment of the IGAD Women and Peace Forum to follow up on the implementation of the Peace and Secueity Strategy of IGAD, the African Union and the United Nations including the milestone UN Security Council resolution 1325.
      Bearing in mind the recommendation of the IGAD Women and Peace Conference, Launch of the Africa UNiTE Campaign and the Launch African Women’s Decade,called for the establishment of the IGAD Women and Peace Forum to follow up on the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 for the creation of a mechanism to follow up its conclusions and recommendations with an emphasis on practical actions, hereby decided to set up an IGAD Women and Peace Forum with the following Terms of Reference
    • Nature
      The Forum is a sub-regional partnership of member states of IGAD, CSOs in the sub-region, invited delegations of South Sudan and Somaliland , African Union and UN Women and other concerned United Nations agencies and civil society organizations.
      Mission
      The Forum explores practical measures, utilizing dialogue and cooperation, to advance understanding between diverse peoples, their cultures and religions, in order to foster mutual respect, tolerance and friendship.
    • Goal
      The sub-regional partners deliberate, on an open-ended basis, how dialogue and cooperation can contribute to effectively address opportunities and challenges to peaceful co-existence.  To play a critical role in the advocacy for and coordination of the IGAD systems joint response to women, peace and security, in partnership with Member States and non-governmental organizations, based on the Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security and in line with the critical area of concern for the Beijing Platform for Action - women and armed conflict.
    • Achieving Peace,
      Stability and Development: The Virtuous Triangle
      Communities
      Government
      Business and trade associations
      Cooperatives
      Worker associations
      Civil society
      – women’s and youth groups
      Women
      Local government
      Local leadership
      Social Dialogue
    • Functions
      The Forum, in cooperation with the IGAD Secretariat, The AU Commission and United Nations wherever practicable, does the following:
      Tap available resources and abilities, and develop ways and means to affirm the role of intercultural cooperation in attaining a just and sustainable peace through the mechanisms already available in the United Nations, such as the efforts to promote a Culture of Peace and a Dialogue among Civilizations.
      Identify new ways to address intercultural and inter-civilizational issues and concerns, including the opportunity and mechanism for women leaders to speak, interact and respond more clearly and quickly in times of violence, crises and conflict.
      Encourage governments, in partnership with the African Union and the United Nations system and civil society, to undertake practical actions in the fields of education, humanitarian assistance and the media, to foster understanding, tolerance and cooperation between peoples of different religions and beliefs so as to overcome intolerance and combat stereotypes and misperceptions, with particular reference to UNSC 1325.
    • Advocacy and Partnership
      To strengthen and further explore innovative approaches to ensure that issues related to women, peace and security and the full implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 are fully incorporated into the policy and operational working agenda of IGAD headquarters and field-based actors including the senior-level management committees.
      Appoint IGAD ambassadors (women celebrities from the region) who can articulate the necessity to fight VAW and promote UNSCR 1325
      To strengthen existing partnerships and seek out new partners so as to build closer linkages to achieve enhanced coordination and collaboration on women, peace and security
    • Monitoring:
      Improve the reporting on and monitoring of the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) women, peace and security issues and make this information widely available to all actors.
      Ensure close links with and contribute to the review and appraisal of the Beijing Platform for Action (March 2005)
      Review the Expert Group Meeting reports on women's participation in peace agreements (Ottawa meeting - EGM/PEACE/2003/REPORT) and electoral processes in post-conflict countries (Glen Cove meeting-EGM/ELEC/2004/REPORT) and select recommendations on which the Forum could work.
      Review and discuss with members their needs for gender expertise in gender and women, peace and security issues. Following this discussion review the mechanisms for quick retrieval of names of experts for possible short and long term assignments.
      NGO fact sheets to collect information on women's groups in key priority countries where UN has peacekeeping or peace building missions.
    • Guiding Principles 
       More deliberate and strategic efforts in dialogue and cooperation are needed to foster relationships and interdependencies and advance understanding between diverse peoples, cultures and religions.
      Issues of peace and justice, human rights, religious freedom, poverty, education, sustainable development, the rights and well being of children, the equal dignity of men and women, indigenous peoples and the protection of the environment are our common concerns.  The partnership of governments, AU, the UN and CSO is of crucial significance in the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including the millennium development goals. 
      Inter-regional dialogue and cooperation are essential and can facilitate the work of enhancing human welfare, freedom and progress everywhere.
      Dialogue and understanding, including the awareness of differences and commonalities among peoples and civilizations contribute to the peaceful resolution of conflicts and disputes, and reduce the potential for animosity, clash and even violence.
      NGOs representing different coalitions are an important part of civil society and have long supported the goals of the UN since its inception.
    • Decision-Making: Decisions will be arrived at by consensus of the Forum Partners. Participation in the implementation of a decision will be voluntary on the part of each Partner.
      Troika: The Forum will be steered by a Troika composed of a representative each from governments, IGAD Secretariat and civil society that includes the private sector.TheChair of the Troika manages the Forum’s secretariat, website and database. 
      Finance: Partnership in the Forum does not require prior financial commitment. The Forum Partners may seek the assistance of donors, if necessary, in the implementation of agreed projects and activities on a case-by-case basis. 
      Work plan
    • Thank You
      BT Costantinos, PhD
      Professor of Public Policy, Department of Management and Policy, College of Management, Information and Economic Sciences, Addis Ababa University
      costy@costantinos.net, www.costantinos.net
      https://sites.google.com/site/doncosty/home