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African civil society forum - peace and security presentation
 

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    African civil society forum - peace and security presentation African civil society forum - peace and security presentation Presentation Transcript

    • GENDER CONSIDERATIONS TO STEM THE CHALLENGES TO PEACE AND SECURITY: A DARFUR CASE STUDY African Civil Society forum 2007 DEMOCRATISING GOVERNANCE AT REGIONAL AND GLOBAL LEVEL TO ACHIEVE THE MDGs March 22-24, 2007, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. BT Costantinos, PhD Africa Humanitarian Action africahumanitarian.org doncosty@gmail.com
    • Civic engagement in Peace and Security Civic engagement in Peace and Security is a multifaceted initiative with a complex web of public and private sector programmes and projects addressing human, social, physical, environmental, and political capital development in a sustainable form, pursuant to the RBA 1. African Union Declaration: From Solemn declaration to solemn action; The Maputo Protocol; UN Commission on Human Security; Fourth World Conference on Women; International Conference on Population and Development; Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women … 2. UN Security Council Resolution No. 1325 and paragraphs 6, 13 and 16 of Security Council resolution 1556 (2004) of 30 July 2004, paragraph 15 of Council resolution 1564 (2004) of 18 September 2004, paragraph 17 of Council 1574 (2004) of 19 November 2004 and paragraph 12 of Council resolution 1590 (2005) of 24 March 2005; the UN Security Council must continue to monitor the human condition in Darfur and provide recommendations for actions on human security and human development to binding in its resolution both to the Sudanese government and the combatants. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 2
    • Crises in Darfur and Somalia 1. Rape as a savage instrument of humiliation 2. The rise of vigilante gangs in the IDP camps 3. Death toll of non-combatants 4. The use of bigoted language 5. New cultural configurations and anthropological considerations 6. Systematic Destruction Villages 7. IDP camps turned into IDP Prisons 8. Blasphemy of spiritual and cultural idols January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 3
    • January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 4
    • January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 5
    • Agency for civic engagement : Agency refers to the full range of participants and their activities to P&S policy formulation and management. Participants include : state actors, non-state actors, the international community, businesses and individuals. Stakeholders in Government constantly create undercurrents that determine the scope and nature of agency with their specific needs, imperatives, and causes for interaction in a P&S exercise 1. Does the growing number and diversity of NGOs mean that they have very uneven political and professional capabilities, and differing levels of commitment to society. 2. Is the proliferation of NGOs today an outcome of funding by external donors or an indigenous "grassroots" phenomenon. 3. NGOs may be problematic in that far from contributing to the strengthening of civil society vis-à-vis the state, they can function as instruments of the technocratic elite People's organisations face many limitations. Various recommendations and declarations aimed at addressing institutional problems have been made in recent years. Mobilising the action required has, however, remained a daunting challenge, as many practical and structural constraints militate against it January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 6
    • Unanswered questions on Community Engagement in P&S 1. Does P&S process enter local processes as an external ideology, constructing and deploying its concepts in sterile abstraction from the immediacies of indigenous traditions, beliefs, and values? 2. Does the P&S construct add value to traditional “development” projects and programmes and how does the P&S construct base its assumptions on historically rooted P&S community knowledge and experience? More specifically, it has tools to record P&S community responses on what has been the impact of ecosystem, socio-economic and political changes on livelihoods? • Demographic, socio-economic, and political responses (adaptive strategies) • Differential responses between men and women - what informs these responses Have these responses led to lead to sustainable livelihoods. What kinds of interventions are needed to enhance P&S community responses so that they lead to sustainable outcomes? • Process by which communities and external change agents integrate knowledge • Economic, social, cultural, political indicators used to measure progress 3. Two intellectual traditions provide the theoretical framework within which the discussion is going on: Marxist perspective (class relations) and a political interactive framework (state society) January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 7
    • P&S Operative Ideology in civic engagement in P&S 1. Ideological elements and constructs might be seen as the very constitutive structure of process openness and closure 2. These are concepts and rules of governance, national and cultural values, traditions of political discourse and arguments, and modes of representation of specific interests and needs 3. These elements, or complexes of elements, will tend to assume varying forms and to enter into shifting relations of competition, co-operation, and hegemony during political reform to P&S. 4. A determinate order of institutions, powers, interests and activities operate through complexes of transition ideas and values, filling out, specifying, anchoring and, often shortcutting their formal content or meaning. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 8
    • Recommendations and Strategic Approaches to Civic Engagement in P&S 1. Developing mechanisms, institution building processes and support instruments for achieving peace and security via civic engagement 2. Improving capacity for, and coordination of, early action including the development of peace support operations capabilities for civic engagement; 3. Improving early warning capacity through strategic analysis and support; 4. Prioritising strategic security issues as follows: Promoting an African definition and action on DDRR efforts in post-conflict situations 5. Ensuring efficient and consolidated action for the prevention, combating and eradicating the problem of the illicit proliferation, circulation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons; 6. Improving the security sector and the capacity for good governance as related to peace and security; 7. Generating minimum standards for application in the exploitation and management of Africa's resources in areas affected by conflict January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 9
    • Strategic framework for civic engagement in P&S January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 10
    • A generalised rendition of the framework January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 11
    • Mainstreaming Gender in Civic Engagement through RBA and themes January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 12
    • Framework for gender equality 1.Gender equality in the capabilities domain, such as in health, education and nutrition and other basic human abilities 2.Gender equality in access to resources and opportunity domain refers to equality in opportunity to use or apply basic capabilities through control over economic assets (such as land and property) and resources (such as income, credit and employment) as well as participation in decision-making. 3.Gender equality in the security domain is defined as reduced vulnerability to violence and conflict. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 13
    • RECOMMENDATIONS I & II LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND MENTORING /APPRENTICESHIP IN DARFUR Leadership gives agency for women: the capacity to effect change. But leadership is constrained by structures, including the wider economic and political environment in which the leader operates, and the nature of his or her constituency and organisation. An understanding of both leader's agency and structure is necessary: each determines the other. Movement for social progress or emancipation. This concept encompasses Darfuri women grassroots organisations, CSOs, and other forms of social organisation that involve the voluntary association of individuals. This is, self-evidently, a movement to remedy the GBV and bring about social change for the better. It is the practical manifestation of the impulse for social change or emancipation, the popular counterpart man of leadership. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 14
    • RECOMMENDATIONS III HIV/AIDS and IDPs Sexual abuse and violence—much, but not all of it directed against females—are serious problems that transcend economic, social, ethnic and geographical lines in the IDP and refugee camps. Women IDPs and refugees – and in particular young women – are especially vulnerable to HIV infection; being unable to avoid coercive sexual relations. Darfuri communities in particular are also vulnerable because of lower levels of literacy and less access to information and services. Hence urgent social policy specifically tailored to Darfuris is essential to provide a framework for vulnerability reduction and to develop strategic responses: empowerment of women to negotiate safe sex, programmes for high risk and non-high risk youth care and support for PLWHA and PABA and treatment January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 15
    • RECOMMENDATIONS IV Women’s participation in peace and conceptions of citizenship in the 21 Century Women’s participation in peace making and peace building as citizens of a political society is an important concept in the late twentieth century. Hence we recommend that the GoS, AU, UN, bilaterals and multilaterals, NNGOS, INGOs and foundations and trusts to undertake women’s citizenship sensitisation, awareness and education: It is the fundamental recommendation of this report that CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION - learning about and appreciating one's rights, duties, obligations and responsibilities as a citizen and the immediate rules, laws and governance structures within which women exercise citizenship is the first and fundamental step in peace building. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 16
    • RECOMMENDATIONS V Recommendations on Gender Focussed Alternative Conflict Management (GFACM). GFACM is a multi-disciplinary field of research and action that portends and seeks to address the question of how women and men can make better decisions together, particularly on difficult, contentious issues. GFACM refers to a variety of collaborative approached that seek to reach a mutually acceptable resolution of issues in a conflict through a voluntary processes. Such approaches were developed as alternatives to adversarial or non-consensual strategies, such as judicial or legal recourse, unilaterally initiated public information campaigns, or partisan political action. A three day consultative workshop can be held with Darfuri IDP women, sheiks, GoS, CFC and the international community to enable the return of IDPs to their villages with all human security conditions fulfilled. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 17
    • Programme Objective I Enhance women's decision-making at the national level To enhance capacity for wise decision-making at the national level that responds to actual conditions throughout the country and the concerns expressed by the people through improved analysis, formulation and advocacy of policies and programmes in support of sustainable livelihoods. Output 1: Methods and indicators identified for policy analysis for sustainable livelihoods, which disaggregate policy effects on different stakeholder groups such as women, children, elderly, etc. Output 2: Homegrown policies for sustainable livelihoods leading to increased ownership of policies, enhanced self-confidence and commitment to implement the policies and increased independence from donor-driven policy initiatives. Output 3: Strengthened capacity for policy advocacy and communication (dialogue) Output 4: A curriculum for an issue-based modular training course developed on policy analysis for sustainable livelihoods for government officials focusing on key macro, sectoral and -sectoral issues identified in the Sustainable Livelihoods Policy Review. Output 5: Improved policy, strategy, process and structural environment for women to attain decision-making positions including possibilities for affirmative action January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 18
    • Outputs, activities & stakeholders January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 19
    • Documenting Good Practices    exchange of experience, including sharing between individual experts and technical networks pilot testing, operations research, and other projects and programmes documentation (however, it is important to remember that best practice is not limited to documentation) Identifying best practice that provides useful lessons learned means making judgements. To arrive at such judgements, two approaches may be used, each reflecting a different level of analysis.   One based on simple description of the practice's accomplishments. From this point of view, best practice can be anything that works, in full or in part, and that can be useful in providing lessons learned. to carry out a thorough analysis using specific, established criteria that look at strengths and weaknesses as well as successes and failures. We can use a set of five criteria as a guide: effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, ethical soundness, sustainability. January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 20
    • CIVIC ENGAGEMENT TO STEM THE TIDE OF DISTRESS IN POST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENT: PRIMING STRATEGIC APPROACHES Thank You BT Costantinos, PhD Africa Humanitarian Action africahumanitarian.org doncosty@gmail.com January 16, 2014 BT Costantinos, PhD - AHA Slide 21