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From "Stand by Your Man" to "Stand by Your Suntan:" Women in boardsports from a surfing perspective.
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From "Stand by Your Man" to "Stand by Your Suntan:" Women in boardsports from a surfing perspective.

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Takes a closer look at the mythology of female surfing as represented by the surf industry (e.g. surf brands/companies; surf media). The key is not to deny forthright the sexuality of women, but to …

Takes a closer look at the mythology of female surfing as represented by the surf industry (e.g. surf brands/companies; surf media). The key is not to deny forthright the sexuality of women, but to ensure that women are not simply narrowly defined as passive objects for another's sexual pleasure. This is especially important in sports where we find a powerful paradigm of health and mitigating the negative social influences of the media and peers.

IDENTIFIES the opportunity of Sports, specifically boardsports, as a social institution that mitigates the influence of media and peers in the sexualization of girls and women; DEFINES the problem of how women and girls (and female athletes) are represented by the majority of surf companies through their websites and advertising and how the surf media narrowly portrays and marginalizes female surfers using sociological concepts; EXPLORES the sponsorship dynamic and how it creates and maintains the internalization of the sexualization, learned helplessness and negative body image of young girls in surfing despite the rhetoric of surf brands claiming to be "authentic" depictions of the life of sponsored athletes; TARGETS three areas which require attention to FIX the problems illustrated, with an added emphasis on the need for the visibility of positive role models who are not narrowly defined by their sexuality.

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Transcript

  • 1. photo: Chris Grant/jettygirl.comCori Schumacher
  • 2. From “Stand by your Man” to “Stand by your Suntan” Women in Boardsports from a surfing perspective -Cori Schumacher, 2011
  • 3. Identifying the OpportunitySports as powerful tool of empowerment and successHealthy lifestyleSports as an influential social institutionBoardsports are a new haven for girls and women; a “pop” sport
  • 4. Sports: Tool of Empowerment and Success82% of executive businesswomen played organized sports afterelementary school vs. 61% of general population14% higher wages among working women who were high schoolathletes10% point increase in girls’ sports participation generates anincrease of 1.9% in probability of being employed http://bpp.wharton.upenn.edu/betseys/papers/TitleIX.pdf http://www.active.com/fitness/Articles/Many_successful_women_say_sports_teaches_valuable_lessons.htm
  • 5. Sports: Healthy LifestyleHealth: not simply the absence of disease, but the presence ofphysical, social, emotional and mental well being.Control over one’s own body/body image.Combatting obesity; increasing self-esteem, self-efficacy andenabling social interaction.
  • 6. Sports: Social Institution of the Third WaveMitigates the impact of other social institutions (e.g. media -including video games, internet and social networking sites-,peers)Teaches and rewards: perseverance, persistence, goal-setting,dealing with failureSocial interaction and negotiationEarly exposure/impact
  • 7. Boardsports as New HavenNew evolution of sportIndividualist (knowing oneself, relying on oneself)Movement into OlympicsNon-endemics movement into boardsports
  • 8. Defining the Problem
  • 9. The Mythology of Female Surfing as Created by Surf BrandsViewing with naivete; what is attractive?Who is the consumer (male or female; possession oridentification)?What images, ideas or feelings are being sold?What can we learn about female surfers from these websites andadvertisements?
  • 10. girlswomen
  • 11. “...research on both the prevalence and the effects of the sexualization of women is highly relevant to understanding the sexualization of girls...” *Modeling (developmental) * Media exposure (socialization) pg.3, http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
  • 12. Quik Women “Ambassadors”Surfer, Musician, Singer Songwriter Photographer Philanthropist, TV Host Online Fashion Editor, Stylist Philanthropist, Musician Actress, Musician http://quiksilver.eu/en-gb/women/featured_women
  • 13. Roxy “Surf Team”Longboard,15* shortboard, 15* shorboard, 16* shortboard, 14* longboard, 18*longboard, 13* shortboard, 23* shortboard, ? longboard, 20* longboard, ? (first Roxy team rider)shortboard, ? ... (*age rider was initially sponsored by Roxy) http://www.roxy.com/shop/index.jsp?categoryId=2890067
  • 14. Marked Rise in Intensely Sexualized Images of Women, Not MenScienceDaily (Aug. 10, 2011) — A study by University at Buffalo "What we conclude from this is that popular media outlets such associologists has found that the portrayal of women in the popular Rolling Stone are not depicting women as sexy musicians or actors;media over the last several decades has become increasingly they are depicting women musicians and actors as ready andsexualized, even "pornified." The same is not true of the available for sex. This is problematic," Hatton says, "because itportrayal of men. indicates a decisive narrowing of media representations of women.In order to measure the intensity of sexualized representations men "We dont necessarily think its problematic for women to beand women, the authors developed a "scale of sexualization." An portrayed as sexy. But we do think it is problematic when nearlyimage was given "points" for being sexualized if, for example, the all images of women depict them not simply as sexy women but assubjects lips were parted or his/her tongue was showing, the passive objects for someone elses sexual pleasure."subject was only partially clad or naked, or the text describing thesubject used explicitly sexual language. "Sexualized portrayals of women have been found to legitimize orIn the 1960s they found that 11 percent of men and 44 percent of exacerbate violence against women and girls, as well as sexualwomen on the covers of Rolling Stone were sexualized. In the 2000s, harassment and anti-women attitudes among men and boys,"17 percent of men were sexualized (an increase of 55 percent from the Hatton says. "Such images also have been shown to increase rates1960s), and 83 percent of women were sexualized (an increase of 89 of body dissatisfaction and/or eating disorders among men,percent). Among those images that were sexualized, 2 percent of men women and girls; and they have even been shown to decreaseand 61 percent of women were hypersexualized. "In the 2000s," sexual satisfaction among both men and women."Hatton says, "there were 10 times more hypersexualized images of "For these reasons," says Hatton, "we find the frequency ofwomen than men, and 11 times more non-sexualized images of men sexualized images of women in popular media, combined with thethan of women." extreme intensity of their sexualization, to be cause for concern." http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110810133015.htm
  • 15. Ads and Ad Campaigns Roxy California, 2011: Urban Outfitters, 2011 Erin Heatherton Desire is created by cultural Hailey Clauson; (parents sued photographer and context... UO for $28 million for “salacious and provocative” pose; 15 yrs old.)http://sassisamblog.com/2010/09/13/erin-heatherton-roxy-california-springsummer-campaign/
  • 16. Erin Heatherton, 2010, June issue of Marie Claire Italia http://skinnyvscurvy.com/hot-models/victorias-secret-model-erin-heatherton-looks-ultra-thin-marie-clair-italia.html
  • 17. trivialization “Eat Your Heart Out”“Stand by your Suntan” 2010
  • 18. passivity availabilityhttp://www.fashionreview.com.au/billabong-women-bikini-swimwear/
  • 19. objectification and text (color transference) http://www.futuresfins.com/ilt-box-technology.php , 2011
  • 20. p.o.v.objectification color and transference http://cooperfishcalendar.com/ccboards.html
  • 21. nostalgiaphallicimagery text (“Beat[h]er”; masturbatory)
  • 22. Volcom Girls Spring 2009: “We are also proud to present our Featured ArtSeries - an important part of our Spring 2009 collection. This collectionincorporates female (and a couple of male) artists from around the worldcreating featured art designs using their creative freedom to develop a uniqueVolcom piece.” http://www.myspace.com/thevolcomgirls/blog
  • 23. artisticpossibility
  • 24. thoughtful independent
  • 25. self-assured
  • 26. Consumer reposted online, noting cute hairstyle... Volcom Girls, Teen Vogue, 2007
  • 27. Scope of This Report: *The contribution by society- that is, the cultural norms, expectations, and values that are communicated in myriad ways, including through the media. A culture can be infused with sexualized representations of girls and women, suggesting that such sexualization is good and normal. *An interpersonal contribution- Girls can be treated as, and encouraged to be, sexual objects by family, peers, and others. *Self-sexualization- girls may treat and experience themselves as sexual objects. If girls learn that sexualized behavior and appearance are approved of and rewarded by society and by the people )e.g. peers) whose opinions matter most to them, they are likely to internalize these standards, thus engaging This report was originally printed in 2007 andreprinted in 2008. The current edition contains some in self-sexualization. updated references. Copyright ©2010 by the American Psychological Association pg. 2, http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
  • 28. Patterns of sexualizing female athletes*Subtle sexualization occurs through passive objectification-for example, photographsthat favor an athlete’s face rather than athletic performance.*Less subtle sexualization shown in remarks of journalists/commentators*”Vigilant heterosexuality” commentary, questions and context to suggest femaleathletes are not lesbians. This form of sexualization marginalizes the athleticism of femaleathletes in the sense that female strength is redefined as male pleasure... to counteractaggression and passion in competition. pg. 9, http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf
  • 29. Female Surfers in the Media “Gender barriers? We believe that was the name of an old, old wooden ship that was used during the Civil War era” -Carissa Moore // Lower Trestles // 3:08 posted by SURFING Magazine / Video / September 19, 2011“I’m a huge fan of girls surfing. They mix it up. Ride cool pinkboards and are wetsuited and booted and make waves look crazy-big against their slight figures.”-Meet That Big-Wave Chick: Savannah Shaughnessyposted by Taylor Paul / Blogs, Editorial / SURFING Magazine/ January 18, 2011
  • 30. “Forget I said that...” “Girls Open Billabong Pro Junior Coffs Harbor With A Bang”“Call me a sexist pig-I’ve beencalled worse-but this titlebelongs on another Web site!Forget I said that, and read upabout some of Oz’s bestjunior girls ripping Coff’sHarbor...(Diggers Beach, NSW-Wednesday, 11 February2009): The hottest femalesurfing commodities’[sic] onthe globe openedproceedings...” http://surf.transworld.net/1000078177/news/girls-open-billabong-pro-junior-coffs-harbor-with-a-bang/
  • 31. Women’s “rights” “ ‘Are you girls going to have pillow fights in your underwear?’Obviously. Because that’s what girls do when theyget together. And that’s what comes to mind whenguys hear the words ‘all-girls surf trip.’ Most will seethe yearly obligatory girls’ trip, give it a quick flipthrough, scanning for the inevitable bottom-turn shotor gratuitously sexy bikini photo, which deserves afew more lustful moments of meditation, maybe asecond look or two, before moving on to other, moreinteresting subject matters. Most men will accept, oreven invite, the inclusion of a few girls’ features ayear, especially now that the young wave ofprofessional surfers are openly hyped for their goodlooks, and ‘overtly sexy’ seems to be the acceptedmarketing shtick associated with them.” http://www.surfermag.com/features/womens-rights/
  • 32. “best day ever” in women’s surfing...Carissa Moore Wins The Roxy Pro Gold CoastMarch 17, 2011 “ ‘Wow I’m just had a really, really good time out there. I think if I didn’t drop in on her in that barrel I wouldn’t have won!’ said the teenager from the winner’s podium. She then turned to Tyler Wright and said, ‘Sorry I had to do that.’ Tyler was a good sport and congratulated Carissa. Beneath that cute smile lies a merciless competitor—just like Kelly Slater. That said, it wasn’t only Carissa and Tyler doing the shredding. Girls like Laura Enever and Sally Fitzgibbons showed they are more than pretty faces as they took down women’s tour veterans like Stephanie Gilmore and Chelsea Hedges.” http://surf.transworld.net/1000126201/features/carissa-moore-wins-the-roxy-pro-gold-coast/
  • 33. Trivialization of Female Surfers in Media TransWorld SURF: Is it hard to surf with boobs? TWS: What’s the funniest or worst swimsuit malfunction you’ve ever had? TWS: Do you think the top woman could win a Lakey Peterson: up and coming surf Men’s WQS 4-star? Lisa Andersen: 4x ASP Worldstar; 2nd pl finish at US Open at 16yrs. Champion TWS: How do You Tube videos of the top girls dancing TWS: Do you ever worry about surfing sharky around pillow fighting and stuff affect the sport? areas while you’re on your period? Keala Kennelly: first woman to tow- in at Teahupo’o; XXL award winner http://surf.transworld.net/1000134128/features/3-voices-from-3- different-generations-of-women’s-surfing/
  • 34. The Sponsorship Dynamic learned helplessness “My recommendation to young female surfers with dreams of making it as a pro surfer: Accept that the surf industry is driven by profits and that surfing has far more men in it that women. Accept that there will always be more men in the water, more men making decisions, and more men with the power to ultimately decide what is hot.”http://spiderbytes.hubpages.com/hub/Beautiful-Sexy-Hottest-Surfer-Girls
  • 35. Sponsorship Dynamic: Gatekeepers Girls’ surfing is suddenly and exclusively and fabulously young “Why is this happening now? Don’t know. Perhaps physiology. Perhaps women’s bodies peak earlier in ways that affect performance. Perhaps it helps that no rude fetus ever takes root in a man’s midsection. Or perhaps this generation is an anomaly, and the age ceiling is imagined — just a demographic/cultural cocktail shaken and poured all at once.” -The New Woman Surfer: Through at 21? posted by Stuart Cornuelle / Blogs, Editorial / June 30, 2011http://www.roxy.com/shop/index.jsp?categoryId=3449997 http://www.surfingmagazine.com/blogs/the-new-woman-surfer-through-at-21/
  • 36. The Sponsorship Dynamic: Body Image -Height: 5 6 1/2"“Surf brands enlist surfers on their -”Her solid talent and character, both in and out of the water, have beenteam as marketing tools, and those tools hugely influential to the sport. _ has been a major face for the _ brandmust attract people to the brand. It’s that since joining the team back in 1997.”simple.” -“...embodies grace, balance, style and beauty all in a petite 105-pound frame.”
  • 37. About VolcomAthletes“The Volcom Girls teamis made up of unique,edgy, dynamic, andtalented girls. They arebold, stylish and notafraid to take risks.They are athletes. Theyare surfers, skaters,snowboarders,Olympians, rolemodels, gold medalistsand they are on top oftheir game in theirsports. They live a life ofthe road.” http://volcomunity.com/2011/09/volcom-gals-pals-nails-nails-nails/
  • 38. “I always think that these marketing guys at these big surf brands know what they’re doing, but maybe they don’t. Maybe that’s why women’s surfing hasn’t taken off really, because guys don’t know what young girls want.” -Stephanie Gilmore, 4x World Champion; Surfer Magazine, September 2011 “[T]he media is negatively influencing still another generation because so few women are in positions of power. We are not tapping into the full potential of humanity. It’s time to bring new ideas and perspectives to the table.” -Jennifer Siebel Newsom (“Miss Representation” filmmaker) http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/money/52630806-79/women-newsom-media-film.html.csp
  • 39. Get educated...http://www.thegeenadavisinstitute.org/resources/healthymedia.php http://www.girlscouts.org/who_we_are/advocacy/watchwhatyouwatch/healthymedia.asp
  • 40. Impact http://www.wavesofchangeteen.com/
  • 41. Visibilityhttp://www.starkravingmadeleine.com/
  • 42. role models identificationemphasis on action