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Soldering Techniques


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This file helps to learn how to soldering

This file helps to learn how to soldering

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  • 1. How to Practice Good Soldering Method? Soldering Soldering is done in electronics constructions to join the components with the tracks of the PCB. The working performance of the circuit depends on the accuracy and perfection in the soldering. Actually it is an art to make a good circuit. Soldering requires skill and practicing the good soldering methods will help you to make a good working circuit. Here explains the methods of good soldering. Soldering requires Soldering Iron, Soldering Lead and Flux along with a PCB and component layout diagram. Selection of Good Soldering Iron Solder iron Selection of the Soldering Iron is very important. Soldering Iron is the electric device that heat up the solder lead and makes the joint. Many types of soldering irons are available, so select one with 15-25 watts. If the wattage of the Iron is too high, it may destroy the heat sensitive components or causes detachment of PCB tracks. Choose the Iron with a 3 pin cord. Earth connection is important to remove the stray current that accumulates in the iron tip. This is very important while soldering static sensitive components like CMOS ICs and MOSFETs. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 1
  • 2. Use the Better Soldering Wire Soldering Lead Solder lead joins the component leads with the PCB contacts firmly. The quality of the solder lead should be good enough to, make the soldering process perfect. Rosin core solder is a good choice. Do not use the Acid core solder used to solder electrical contacts and plumbing metal joints since the acid content will corrode the copper tracks of the PCB. Good solder contains 60% Tin and 40% Lead. Solder with 0.75 to 1mm diameter is good. Some makes of solder contains a core of flux inside. Use Little Soldering Flux Soldering Flux Soldering flux is usually applied to the solder joints before soldering. The flux reduces the melting point of the lead so that the solder lead will melt easily and spread uniformly on the solder joint. Liquid type flux is better since it will not leave dirt after soldering. Fumes from the flux is toxic so do the soldering work in a well ventilated place and use an exhaust fan in the room. A well maintained Tip can make the soldering easy Dry Joint Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 2
  • 3. Colder Joint Good-Solder-Joint Good soldering requires clean soldering iron tip. If the soldering Iron is a newly purchased one, first apply a layer of lead before starting the soldering. This is called Tinning which will helps to transfer heat easily. After prolonged use, the tip will become dirty which will make the soldering process difficult. So before starting the soldering, clean the tip using a File or Sand paper and make it glowing. After cleaning, wipe the tip with moist cotton or sponge. Since the soldering process is intermittent, keep the soldering iron tip on a heat sink. An old porcelain fuse carrier can be used for this or purchase one soldering iron stand with heat sink. Top Tips in Soldering Process The following tips will help you to practice good soldering methods: 1. First clean the PCB joints well using a blade or knife to remove dirt and corroded materials. If the joint is dirty, the solder joints will be loose. 2. Clean the leads of components before placing on the PCB. 3. The leads will project out from the copper track side of PCB. Place resistors slightly projecting from the surface of PCB to dissipate heat. 4. First solder resistors, then capacitors, diodes etc and finally transistors and ICs. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 3
  • 4. 5. Apply very little flux in the solder joints and make the soldering. The soldering lead and the iron tip should be at an angle of 45 degree so as the make the solder flow easily. 6. Do not keep the soldering iron tip more than 3 seconds on the soldering joint when soldering CMOS components. 7. After soldering, check the solder joints carefully. Use a hand lens if needed. The joints should be conical, uniform and shiny. 8. If the solder joint is Dry, that will considerably affects the working of circuit. So double check all the joints and re-solder if necessary. 9. Cold solder is the term used to describe the solder joints without firm connection. The cold solder will appear as a ball over the solder joint. So if it appears remove the excess solder with the hot iron tip. 10. Trim the excess leads of the components with a Trimmer. 11. If static sensitive components are used, touch the soldering iron tip to a metal object before soldering to remove the static charge accumulated at the tip. 12. Wires should be soldered firmly to prevent loose contact. Before soldering the wires, clean the bare wire with a blade to remove rust or dirt. Apply some solder to the wire tip and make the soldering. 13. After completing the soldering, double check the joints for any shorting of leads. This is essential for the transistors and ICs. 14. Clean the solder side of PCB using Spirit or PCB cleaning solution. 15. After connecting the power supply, just touch on the components. If heat develops, disconnect the power supply immediately and check for any shorting. 16. If AC is used in the PCB, do not touch any points when connected to mains. 17. As a safety measure, wear a rubble foot wear during soldering. It is better to use a plastic sheet on the floor so that the foot will rest on the insulated sheet while soldering. Soldering - Process, Tools and Techniques A procedure in which two or more metal products are fixed as one by liquefying and running a space filler metal (solder) in the joint is known as Soldering. The space filler metal has lower liquefying or melting temperature than the work piece. Soldering is applied in electronics, plumbing and meta-work from flashing to ornaments. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 4
  • 5. Forms of Soldering Soldering is alienated into two forms 1. Soft Soldering: It is a procedure for fixing minute complex parts having low melting temperature which was damaged when soldering procedure was done at high heat. In soft soldering tin-lead alloy is used as space filler metal. The liquefying temperature of the space filler alloy has to be less than 400oC or 752oF. As the heat source in the process gas torch is used.Few Illustrations of soft-soldering are tin-lead for common usage, cadmium-silver for strength at higher temperature, tin-zinc for bonding aluminum, lead-silver for strength at more than room temperature, zinc-aluminum for aluminum and deterioration confrontation& tin-silver and tinbismuth for electrical products. 2. Hard Soldering: Under this procedure, hard solder unites two parts of metals by spreading out into the holes of the work-piece opened due to higher temperature. The space filler metal holds higher temperature more than 450oC or 840oF. It consists of two elements specifically brazing & silver soldering. o Silver Soldering: It is an unsoiled procedure helpful to fabricate tiny equipments, carrying out odd maintenance and manufacturing tools. It makes use of an alloy including silver as space filler metal. Silver gives free running distinctiveness but silver soldering is not recommended for space filling therefore, different flux is suggested for precise silver soldering. o Brazing: Brazing is a procedure of uniting two parts of base metals by making liquefied metallic space filler that runs by vessel attraction through the joints and cold down to give a hard union via atomic magnetism and diffusion. It generates a very sturdy joint. It makes use of brass metal as space filler stuff. Soldering Tools 1. The Soldering Iron or Gun: The primary thing you’ll require is a soldering iron, which will be used as a heat source for melting solder. Soldering guns of 15W to 30W series are fine for the majority of electronics or printed circuit board job. If you have it in mind soldering heavy pieces and thick cable, then you’ll desire to spend in an iron of upper wattage approx 40W & above or a large solder gun. The major distinction amid an iron & a gun is that an iron is in a shape of a pencil and comprises a pin-point heat supply for exact job, whereas a gun is in a common gun figure with higher wattage point heated by running electrical current straightforwardly through it. For hobby electrical usage, a soldering iron is commonly the device of choice as its pointed tip and low temperature facility is best suitable for printed circuit board job (like putting together kits). A solder gun is normally applied in hardwear soldering like fixing heavy measure cables, soldering band to a chassis or stain glass job. 2. Solders: Solder space filling materials are obtainable in several different alloys for various applications. In electrical gathering, the eutectic alloy of 37% lead & 63% tin or 60 by 40, which is nearly alike in liquefying temperature has been the filling materials of choice. Other filling material alloys are applied while mechanical assembly, plumbing and many more applications. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 5
  • 6. Regular soldering formulations are based on tin and lead, they are mentioned below. The division symbolizes fraction of tin initially then lead, adding up to 100%: • 63/37: dissolves at 183 °C or 361 °F (eutectic: the mere mix that dissolves at a point, instead of over a range) 60/40: dissolves amid 183–190 °C or 361–374 °F • 50/50: dissolves amid 185–215 °C or 365–419 °F • Other ordinary solders comprise low temperature formulations (habitually including bismuth), which are regularly applied to join prior soldered joints without unsoldering former links, and high temperature formulations (habitually contain silver) which is applied while high temperature process or for initial fixing of pieces which may not turn into unsoldered while further process. Alloying silver together with new metals alters the liquefying temperature, bond, wet characteristics, and tensile potency. Of the entire brazing alloys, silver solder alloys have the maximum strength and the widest usage. Special alloys are existing with characteristics like- high strength, improved electrical conductivity & higher deterioration confrontation. Other soldering associated objects are as below • Solder Iron: A solder iron is a device used for soldering by hands. It delivers heat to soften the solder so that it can run into the gaps amid two work pieces. Solder irons are frequently brought into play for setting up, maintenance, and limited fabrication work in electrical assembly. • Solder Flux: A flux is a chemical clean-up material, pouring agent, or distilling agent. In soldering metals, flux serve in three-fold function: it eradicates rust from the objects to be soldered; it shuts air out as a result stopping extra rust, and by facilitating mix improves dripping uniqueness of the fluid solder. • Soldering Paste: Soldering cream or solder paste is employed to join the leads of incorporated chip packages to connection ends (lands) in the circuit blueprint on a printed circuit panel. Entire Soldering course of action The fundamental soldering process is executed in the following steps 1. Tinning the Soldering Tip: prior to bringing into play a fresh solder tip or the previous grimy tip, we should tin that tip. The procedure of covering a soldering tip in the midst of a thin cover of solder is known as tinning. This helps in transferring heat amid the tip and the part you’re soldering, it also provides the solder a foundation from which it will flow from. 2. Heat up the Iron: heat up the solder iron or gun carefully. Make certain that it has completely reached to a temperature as you are about to liquefy loads of solder on it. This is particularly vital because if the solder iron is new it possibly will be enclosed within some sort of covering to put off rust. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 6
  • 7. 3. Set up A Little Space: as the soldering gun is heating up, set up a small space to toil. Get a small piece of wet sponge and put it in the bottom of your soldering gun stand or in a bowl close at hand. Put down a portion of cardboard in situation you drop solder iron (you possibly can) and make certain you have space to toil at ease. 4. Coat the Tip of the Solder gun thoroughly: Thoroughly cover the tip of the soldering gun in soldering cream. It is extremely vital to coat the complete tip. You will make use of a significant amount of solder cream throughout this procedure and it will ooze, so be prepared. If you leave any point of the tip exposed it will have a tendency to gather flux remainders and will not conduct temperature splendidly, so coat the solder gun tip up and down, entirely around it to completely wrap it in liquefied solder. 5. Clean the Soldering Gun Tip: As you are sure that the solder tip is completely covered in solder, clean up the tip on the damp piece of sponge to get rid of the entire flux remainder. Carry out this activity without delay so there is no instance for the flux to dry off and go hard. You are done! You just have tinned your soldering iron tip. This ought to be done anytime you substitute the tip or wipe it so that the soldering iron retains first-class heat transferring. Steps to keep in mind on doing soldering safety As soldering in general is not a dangerous activity, still there are one & more points to bear in mind. The primary and most evident is that it engages high temperatures. Soldering guns have a temperature of approx 350F or more, and can cause serious burns very rapidly. Make certain to make use of a stand to hold the solder iron and keep the wire away from highly crowded areas. Solder iron itself can drop, so it makes logic to evade soldering above uncovered parts of body. Make sure to work in a properly lit room or region where you have ample of space to spread out different parts all around. Make certain that your face is never directly above the soldering joints because smokes from the flux and other coverings will bother your respiratory system and eyes. Most soldering comprise of lead, so you must evade touching your face while operational with solder iron and at all times rinse your hands prior to eating anything. What is Solder ability? The solder ability of a substrate is an evaluation of the easiness with which a solder assembly can be crafted to that bits and pieces. Techniques of Soldering Soldering is somewhat that requires practicing. These tips must assist you to become successful so you can bring to a halt practicing and get ready to do some serious tasks. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 7
  • 8. • • Use heat sinks: Heat sinks are a necessity for the wires of sensitive gears like transistors & ICs. If you do not contain a clip on heat sink, then a couple of pliers are an excellent alternative. Keep the solder iron tip neat: A neat iron tip signifies improved heat conductivity and an improved joint. Make use of a damp piece of sponge to wipe off the tip amid joints. Maintain the tip of solder well tinned. • Double check joints: When complicated circuits are getting assembled, it is a fine practice to verify joints past soldering them. Bring into play a magnifying glass to visually scrutinize the joint and a measuring device to test resistance. • Solder minute parts initially: Solder jumper leads, resistors, diodes and all other minute parts prior to moving ahead in soldering bigger parts such as transistors & capacitors. This formulates assembling much effortless. • Fit sensitive parts at end: Put in MOSFETs, CMOS ICs and other stagnant sensitive parts at the end to evade damaging them while assembling of other components. • Use sufficient aeration: the majority soldering fluxes must not suck in air. Evade breathing the fumes formed and make certain that the region you are functioning in has sufficient aeration to put a stop to buildup of toxic smoke • Home » Soldering Safety Tips Soldering Safety Tips Soldering Iron Soldering is the essential part of circuit construction. Soldering is the process by which two metal parts are joined together using a metal alloy. The metal alloy used in soldering is the mixture of lead and tin. To make the solder evenly spread over the joints, soldering flux is applied which removes the oxidation remnants in the metal joints and makes the contact firm. The flux also reduces the melting point of lead for easy melting. Soldering process requires proper care to avoid hazardous situations. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 8
  • 9. The following some possible hazards during soldering and the tips to avoid them. Shock hazard: Soldering iron is an AC device used for heating the iron tip. There is a heating element in the iron which heat up when current passes. To connect the soldering iron, a three pin socket with proper earth connection is a must. Check the metal part of the iron using an AC tester for any leakage before using. Also periodically check, the plug, cord etc for any insulation break. Always wear a rubber foot wear during the soldering work. It is better to place a rubber sheet on the floor of the work room so that the feet will rest on it during the work. Skin Burning: Soldering iron becomes too hot when it is connected to mains. Avoid touching it with the body parts to prevent burning. The molten lead also causes burning injury. It is better to wear a spectacle during soldering to protect the eyes because sometimes the solder bubble may explode and there is chance for falling into the eyes. Health Hazards: The lead and the flux used for soldering contain toxic materials which will come out in the form of fumes and gases. When heated, the soldering lead will emit lead oxide which is highly toxic if inhaled in excess. Once entered into the body, it will be absorbed through the mucous membrane of lungs, stomach and then enters into the blood stream. Symptoms of lead poisoning include loss of appetite, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, abdominal cramps, nervousness, insomnia etc. Soldering Lead Flux is the cleaning agent used in conjunction with solder to remove the oxidation from the metal joints. It improves the overall flow and effectiveness of the solder. The commonly used flux is the Rosin based flux. It is made from the extracts of pine tree sap. Colophony is the base product of flux. It is translucent amber colored rosin obtained when turpentine is distilled from pine trees. It is composed of 90% resin acid and 10% neutral material. When flux is heated, the colophony generates fumes that contain aliphatic aldehydes like Formaldehyde. It also emits gases containing benzene, toluene, phenol, isopropyl alcohol etc. Inhalation of flux fumes causes short term problems like nose, sinus, eyes and throat irritation, skin rashes and long term problems like asthma and dermatitis. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 9
  • 10. Soldering Flux To avoid the health hazards from the toxic fumes, it is advisable to do the soldering work in a well ventilated area preferably with a fan. It is also better to install an exhaust fan in the room. If a local exhaust system (a small exhaust fan fitted in the work table) is properly designed, it will capture and control lead particles at or near the source of generation. Speak to: +91-9940798943 Write to:, 10