Memory & Learning


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Powerpoint for EDCI 500

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Memory & Learning

  1. 1. M e m o r y & L e a r n i n g Corbin Thompson EDCI 500
  2. 2. Types of Memory <ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul><ul><li>Short term or working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sensory Memory <ul><li>Sensory memory is the initial </li></ul><ul><li>processing that transforms incoming </li></ul><ul><li>stimuli into information so </li></ul><ul><li>the brain can make sense </li></ul><ul><li>of the information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile in short duration </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Short Term or Working Memory <ul><li>Short term or working memory is the </li></ul><ul><li>information you are focusing on at the </li></ul><ul><li>given moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile and easily lost </li></ul><ul><li>Must be kept activated </li></ul><ul><li>to be retained longer </li></ul><ul><li>than 20 seconds </li></ul>
  5. 5. Long Term Memory <ul><li>Long term memory is the permanent </li></ul><ul><li>storage of memory in the brain. The </li></ul><ul><li>capabilities of long term memory seem </li></ul><ul><li>unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>Once information is </li></ul><ul><li>securely stored in long </li></ul><ul><li>term memory it can remain </li></ul><ul><li>permanently. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Long Term Memory <ul><li>Declarative- knowing verbal information, facts, “knowing something is the case” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Braille, sign language, ballet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural- knowledge that is demonstrated when we perform a task, “knowing how” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: driving a car, using a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional- knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: reading vs. skimming a textbook </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Remembering <ul><li>Mnemonics- the procedure for improving memory technique, the “art of memory” </li></ul><ul><li>Loci method- technique </li></ul><ul><li>of associating items and </li></ul><ul><li>specific places </li></ul><ul><li>Peg-type mnemonics- system of associating items with cue words </li></ul><ul><li>Acronym- technique for remembering names, phrases, and steps by using the 1 st letter of each word to form a new, memorable word </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of Memory Techniques <ul><li>A common mnemonic acronym is ROY G. BIV which helps science students remember the colors of the visible spectrum—Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet. </li></ul><ul><li>IPMAT helps Biology students remember the stages of cell division—Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 30 days has September” rhyme to remember the days in each month </li></ul>
  9. 9. Forgetting <ul><li>Forgetting, or decay, is the weakening </li></ul><ul><li>and fading of memories over </li></ul><ul><li>time. </li></ul><ul><li>As new thoughts accumulate, </li></ul><ul><li>old information is lost from </li></ul><ul><li>working memory </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t continue to pay </li></ul><ul><li>attention to information, the </li></ul><ul><li>activation level decays </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning <ul><li>Allan Paivio suggested that information is stored in long term memory as visual images, verbal units, or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Information coded </li></ul><ul><li>both visually and verbally </li></ul><ul><li>is easiest to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining ideas with </li></ul><ul><li>text and visual images is </li></ul><ul><li>the most helpful in teaching students. </li></ul>