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Missouri Compromise- sponsored by Henry Clay, allowed forMissouri to enter the inion as a slave state and Maine as a free state,this maintained the balance of the power in the senate.The compromise also stated that north of the 36-30’ line, all statesthat entered the Union would be Free states.Nullification Crisis- In 1828 the Tariff of Abominations was passedresulting in a higher tariff. In 1832, a lower tariff was passed but thisstill angered South Carolinians, led by Senator John C. Calhoun, SX.Declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders. Delegatesto a special convention urged the state legislature to take militaryaction and to secede from the union if the federal governmentdemanded the customs duties. To prevent a civil war, Henry Clayproposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Government lowers tariffsand backs down.North-High tariffs help the industrial North by making their pricesmore competitive against cheap imports; had most of the nation’smanufacturing. North liked the tariffs because it caused Americans tobuy more American-made products by increasing the cost ofEuropean imported manufactured goods.South- the south, which had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods, saw the high tariff as a burden imposed by themore industrialized and populated north. Sold most of their cotton toforeign buyers. Southern opposed tariffs because the South’s maintrade partners were European nations. High tariffs on raw materialsforced the south to sell their materials for low prices, while tariffs onmanufactured goods caused them to pay high price for the productsthey purcheased from their European partners.West- the West backed government spending on internalimprovements.States’ Rights- The political position advocating strict interpretation ofthe Constitution with regard to the limitation of federal powers andthe extension of the autonomy of the individual state to the greatestpossible degree. As the south recognized that control of thegovernment was slipping away, it turned to a state’s rights argumentto protect slavery. Southerners claimed that the federal governmentwas prohibited by the Tenth Amendment from impinging upon theright of slaveholders take their “property: into a new territory. Theyalso stated that the federal government was no permitted to interferewith slavery in those states where it already existed.Sectionalism- Loyalty to local interests instead of national concerns.In the United States, the differences between northern and southern,
and western areas increased throughout the early 1800s. Differentcultures and business practices existed in the three sections of thecountry and these concerns often conflicted. While farming wascentral to the livelihoods in all areas, northerner’s were moreinvolved in manufacturing and commerce; capital was invested infactories and transportation. Southerners were more dependent oncash-crop agriculture, growing tobacco, sugar or cotton; capital wasinvested in slaves and in overseas markets. Westerners dependedon cheap land for expansion and good transportation networks toremain in touch with eastern business.Slavery in the United States first began in Virginia during the Colonial thera. Throughout the first half of the 19 century, Southern politicianssought to defend slavery by retaining control of the federalgovernment. The widening of the gap between slave and Free stateswas symbolic of the changes occurring in each region. While theSouth was devoted to an agrarian plantation economy with a slowgrowth in population, the North had embraced industrialization, largeurban areas, infrastructure growth, as well as was experiencing highbirth rates and large influx of European immigrants. This boost inpopulation doomed Southern efforts to maintain balance in thegovernment as it meant the future addition of more free states andthe election of a Northern, potentially anti-slavery, president. Thepolitical issue regarding slavery was addressed in the MissouriCompromise in 1820, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansa-Nebraska Act in 1854.Compromise of 1850- sponsored by Henry Clay, allowed forCalifornia to enter the Union as a free state (pleased the North); therest of the Southwest was left to open to slavery, depending on avote of the people (popular sovereignty) who settled there (pleasethe south); ended the slave trade in Washington, D.C., put allowedthose owning slaves to keep them (please both sides); included theFugitive Slave Law- required the return of escaped slaves to theirowners (please the south, angered the North because the felt it wasimmortal).California admitted as a free state. Slave trade abolished inWashington D.C. Stronger slave laws would be passed to helpslaveholders recapture runaway slaves.Kansas- Nebraska Act- allowed for Kansas and Nebraska organizeson the basis of popular sovereignty (they would vote themselves todecide if they would be Free or Slave states).Dred Scott v. Sanford decision- was a landmark Supreme Court casein 1857 which confirmed the status of slaves as property rather thancitizens. Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote that a slave could not be
heard in federal courts because he was not a citizen and had no protection under the Constitution. Also congress had no authority over slavery in the territories, and upon statehood, each territory would determine whether it would be a slave or free state. The south favored the decision but the North did not, causing further tension between North and South.Leadership Qualities Honesty Courage Inspirational ThoughtfulAbraham Lincoln Led the United States as President during the American Civil War. Through his leadership the Union was preserved and slavery eventually abolishedafter his assassination in 1865.EventsFiring on Fort Sumter- Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor,was fired upon by rebel forces to begin the Civil War (April 1861)Battle of Antietam- 1862: Confederacy started a draft for trops and unionstarted in 1836. This is the bloodfest sinle-day battle of the war, inMaryland, September 17, 1862. Lincoln issued his EmancipationProclamation on September 23. Union wins.Lincolns First Inaugural Address Promised to not interfere with the rightsof states and the institution of slavery. He argued that the Union couldnot be dissolved and stated it was against the law to secede from theUnion. “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to inerfere with theinstitution of slavery in the States where it exists, I believe I have nolawful right to so and I have no inclination to do so.1863: From July 1 to 1, 1863, 92,000 Union troops fought 76,000Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The fate of the Confederacywas sealed on July 4 with Union victories at Gettysburg, turning back aConfederate invasion of the North, and Vicksburg.All men are created equal. Restore peace and keep nation united. “Thegovernment of the people, by the people and for the people shall notperish from earth.” Principles of liberty and equality based on theDeclaration of Independence
William Carney: Congressional Medal of Honor recipient, served with the th54 Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during Civil War. First black man thto receive the award. When the 54 ’s sergeant was shot down, thissoldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted thecolors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, underfierce fire in which he was shot twice.Phillip Bazaar- born in Chile, South America, was a Navy seaman in theUnion Navy, won the Medal of Honor for his distinguished service in theCivil War. On board of U.S.S Santiago de Cuba during the assault on thFort Fisher on January 15 1865. As one of a board crew detailed to oneof the generals on shore, Bazaar bravely entered the fort in assault andaccompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle.He was 1 of 6 men who entered the fort in assault from the fleet.Robert E. Lee- When the South seceded, Lincoln offered Lee thecommand of Union forces but Lee refused, resigned from the U.S Army,and returned to Virginia to serve with the Confederate forces. In 1862Lee was appointed to command the Army of the Northern Virginia. Hisbattle strategies are admired to this day but he was criticized for having anarrow strategy centered on his native Virginia. He surrendered toUlysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.Ulysses S. Grant- Commander of the Union army; By September 1861he was promoted to general. After a series of victories, including thecapture of Vicksburg, Lincoln gave him command of the Union army. Hecreated an overall plan concentrated on Sherman’s march throughGeorgia and his own assault on the Confederate army in Virginia. Grantaccepted Lee’s surrender in 1865, ending the war.Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Equality- Denounces slaver The Union- Restoration and peace for the nation The government- Lincoln stated that there were people trying to destroy the government with or without war Liberty- War will continue until slavery ceases to existThe announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation changes thenature of the war from that of preserving the Union to freeing the slaves.The proclamation freed only the slaves in the rebelling territories.(Announced in September 1862, signed the order in January 1863)William Tecumseh Sherman led the union troops from Atlanta toSavannah, laying a path of destruction. This was to get the South toSurrender unconditionally. Sherman quickly moved north to help grantdefeat Lee in Virginia.
Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Booth; a southern sympathizer at stFord’s Theatre in Washington D.C. Lincoln was the 1 president to beassassinated. Both was later captured and killed.April 9, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant. Confederatesoldiers were allowed to go home if they promised to stop fighting.Officers can keep their swords.