‘Building relationships to strengthen networks –the evidence for moving away from a deficit-basedand problem-focused approach to child protection work with alcohol and drugs’ Wulf Livingston, Senior Lecturer in Social Work, Glyndwr UniversityConwy & Denbighshire LSCB Annual Conference - March 2013 - 9.00am till 4.00pmTheme : The interface between safeguarding children, alcohol and substance misuse
Harm is not up for debate (huge evidence trail) –(we know this and this is not the focus of this presentation)but….
How many more – Inquiries?• Fisher (Colwell) 1974• Butler-Sloss (Cleveland) 1998• Laming (Climbie) 2003 (Baby P) 2009• Francis (Mid-Staffs) 2012• Hughes 2006 –Canada• Woods Commission 2008 -Australia
More CommunicationMore Information SharingMore TrainingMore ProcedureMore MonitoringMore Support
More CommunicationMore Information SharingMore TrainingMore ProcedureMore MonitoringMore Support Why does it keep happening? What can be done differently? Perspectives on Risk Perspectives of Interventions
Risk HierarchiesOrientation affects perspectives/approaches• Organisation• Managers• Employees• Service Users• Carers• Public
Risky Business• A Control Management (with) Professional Judgment-There are increasing (evidence-based) calls for front-line professionals to be supported in and empowered to take informed risks – risk taking is necessary in the promotion of growth (for service users and professionals) •EVIDENCE - Barry, Bonat, Bytheway, Littlechild, Monroe, Stanford,
The rhetoric of risk is used within neo-liberal risk societyto mobilise fear as an emotive, defensive and strategicmedium for advancing the values of safety and security.In this context it is argued that risk, driven by the politicsof fear, has re-oriented (social work) practice towardsmanaging and securing against risk as opposed togenuine attempts to respond meaningfully to need.According to this discourse (social) workers are fearful -we fear for our physical and mental well-being; we fearthat we will be blamed when things go wrong; and wefear the loss of the integrity of our profession. Stanford, S -British Journal of Social Work (2010) 40, 1065–1080
Risky Business• A Control and Management• B Deficits and Strengths• -From Paternalism to PARTNERSHIP• -Department for Healths 1995 "Child Protection; Messages for Research“• -Honest Use of Power
Signs of SAFETY(Yes) – Identify the harms but also consider•Positions towards abuse (these aremultiple)•Exceptions (when it does not happen)•Family strengths and resources•Willingness, Capacity and Confidence (inchange) Evidence - Turnell l
Why has Mickey not been to school this Friday?How have you succeeded in getting Mickey toschool four days this week?
both HARM and SAFETY in our considerations• Factors which make the child or young person more vulnerable to harm or safer from harm• Pattern and history of harm and safety - for the child or young person; in the parents’ care of children• Factors in the beliefs and relationship between the child/young person and parents/ carers which may increase the likelihood of harm or of safety• Characteristics of the parents/carers and their lifestyle which effect their capacity to protect and care for their children• Family and community supports and services which assist in protection and care - isolation to engagement• Factors which increase the opportunity for harm or of safety for the child or young person
Local Family Knowledge ComprehensiveDanger Assessment Safety of Risk Professional Knowledge Network and Authority Partnership and Strengths based approaches at heart of evidence-based interventions
Interventions – Key evidence for 3 levels/areas•Service user/s and worker relationship•Families and not individuals•Peer and community support•Apply – Alcohol, Drugs, Mental Health and in some contextsDomestic Abuse
Common Qualities• An emphasis on relationship building• Empathy• Excellent communication skills, including active listening and reflection• An empowering attitude and approach• Non-judgemental attitudes EVIDENCE – Livingston and Galvani
Relationships supported by• Advice and Brief Interventions• Motivational Interviewing-Providing information-Helping folk to consider change-Identifying choices and supporting decision making Evidence –Alcohol Learning Centre, Lundhal et al, Miller and Rollnick
Family InterventionsHow much more evidence do we need?beforewe truly implement The Childrens Act 1989?
Interventions that seek to work inpartnership with families, using the criticalmoment of their children’s referral to socialcare as an opportunity to support parents in accentuating the positive reasons for changing their behaviours (includingalcohol and other drugs) and, at the same time, highlighting the existing strengths they have.
Family Interventions•Home Builders (strengths)•Option 2 (critical and crisis)•IFSS•SBNT (extending support for users)•‘5 Step Model’ (supporting other familymembers)•CRAFT•DARRT EVIDENCE - Copello, Orford, Templeton, Velleman
Family Interventions• They help not only the user (problem) but the other family members who are the strength (safeguard)• Impact is beyond just substance use or mental health – into family functioning• Use in conjunction with ‘signs of safety’ approaches• The impossibility of assessment
For Families, Peers and Communities we need to think beyond……
Peers and Community• Self-Help• AA and NA• SMART, INTUITIVE• Recovery• COSA Support and/or Service Provision EVIDENCE –Humphries, Moos, Wardle, White
Peers and Community• Self-Help• Recovery •Role Models •24/7 •Peer Challenge •Filling the voids •Safer socialisation EVIDENCE –Humphries, Moos, Wardle, White
Peers and Community• Self-Help• Recovery •Role Models •24/7 •Peer Challenge •Filling the voids •Safer socialisation Your role •Knowledge of •Support to participate •Facilitate EVIDENCE –Humphries, Moos, Wardle, White
Concluding Thoughts• Alcohol, Drugs, Mental Health and Violence – does harm children• Safeguarding – needs to be protection plus prevention , if not prevention plus protection• New frameworks of risk – trusting you• There are effective interventions and change is very much possible (knowledge and belief)• Relationships and Families (communities) are the solution• Who is missing –here in the room if these conversations are to meet these aspirations?