Critical Power: Standby Power for Mission Critical Facilities


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Mission critical standby systems provide power to critical operations power systems (COPS) for public safety, national security, or business continuity reasons. Electrical equipment and wiring that serve these designated critical operation areas must remain operational during a natural or man-made disaster. The National Electrical Code (NEC) describes the engineering practices for mission critical facilities, which go beyond the requirements for emergency and legally required standby systems. In addition to specific code requirements, design engineers as well as authorities having jurisdiction must know the requirements for the installation, operation, control, and maintenance of standby power for mission critical facilities.

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Critical Power: Standby Power for Mission Critical Facilities

  1. 1. Critical Power: StandbyPower for MissionCritical FacilitiesSponsored by:
  2. 2. Related information regarding the webcast:• Presentation:• CEU Exam:• Learn more about Schneider Electric:• Learn more about Eaton:• Learn more about Russelectric:• For more information on another Consulting-Specifying Engineerwebcast visit
  3. 3. AIA CES learning units (LU)To obtain AIA CES learning units:• Go to the “Links” tab and click on the exam link• Take a 10-question exam for 1 LU (learning unit)• Get 8 answers correct to pass• Certificate available to download once you pass• You must be registered for the Webcast to take the examand qualify for continuing education credits• If attending as a guest of a registrant:• Access the archive at• Complete the registration form• View the archive and download slides• Take the exam to obtain learning units (LU)
  4. 4. Quality AssuranceConsulting-Specifying Engineer, as a publication of CFE Media,is registered provider J619 with The American Institute ofArchitects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned oncompletion of this program will be reported to CES Records forAIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA membersare available on request.This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuingprofessional education. As such, it does not include content thatmay be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsementby the AIA of any material of construction or any method ormanner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any materialor product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and serviceswill be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  5. 5. Speakers:• Kenneth Kutsmeda, PE, LEED AP,Jacobs KlingStubbins, Philadelphia• Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C,ccrd, Dallas• Jack Smith, Consulting- SpecifyingEngineer, Pure Power and CFEMedia LLC
  6. 6. Critical Power: StandbyPower for MissionCritical Facilities
  7. 7. Mission Critical SystemsUnderstanding Mission Critical and the Criteria forDesignating a Facility as Mission CriticalKenneth Kutsmeda, PE, LEED APJacobs KlingStubbinsPhiladelphia
  8. 8. Take a closer look at what it means for afacility to be mission critical and thecriteria for designating a facility asmission critical Types of Mission Critical Facilities Standards and Codes Utilized forDesigning Mission Critical Facilities Reliability requirements of missioncritical facility standby power systems
  9. 9. Definition of Mission Critical“A mission critical system is a system that is essentialto the survival of a business or organization. When amission critical system fails or is interrupted,operations are significantly impacted.”• Availability – System must function when required (24x7)• Reliability – System must not fail. If a failure occurs the systemmust respond and recover quickly.• Security – System must provide protection against an attack,either human or naturally caused
  10. 10. Private - Business Continuity• Business Enterprise Data Centers• Financial Data Centers and Trading• Internet CompaniesPublic Safety• Emergency Call Centers• Police & Fire Stations• Hospitals• National SecurityTypes of Mission Critical Facilities
  11. 11. Facilities where the levels ofavailability and reliability aredictated by the business case• Acceptable Level of Risk• Downtime for Maintenance• Required Degree Redundancy• Protection Against FailuresPrivate – Business Continuity
  12. 12. - ANSI TIA-942 Standard- Uptime Institute GuidelinesPrivate – Business ContinuityTier classifications have been establishedas a guide to assist in designing a topologythat will delivery the required level ofavailability and reliability• Tier 1 - Basic• Tier 2 - Redundant Components• Tier 3 – Concurrently Maintainable• Tier 4 - Fault Tolerant
  13. 13. Tier 1 – Basic• Susceptible to disruptions fromplanned and unplanned activity• Capacity design is “Need” (N) only,no redundant components• Infrastructure shut down requiredfor preventive maintenance andrepair work.• Annual downtime 28.8 hoursUPTIME INSTITUTE
  14. 14. Tier 2 – Redundant Components• Less susceptible to disruptionsfrom planned and unplannedactivity• Capacity design is “Need plusOne” (N+1)• Single-threaded distribution path• Maintenance of critical power pathand other parts of siteinfrastructure require a processingshutdown• Annual downtime 22.0 hoursUPTIME INSTITUTE
  15. 15. Tier 3 – Concurrent Maintenance• Allows for planned infrastructureactivity (maintenance, repair,expansion) without disrupting• Capacity design is “Need plusOne” (N+1)• Dual -threaded distribution path• Can carry the load on one pathwhile performing maintenance ortesting on the other path.• Errors in operation or failures offacility infrastructure componentscan still cause a disruption.• Annual downtime 1.6 hours UPTIME INSTITUTE
  16. 16. Tier 4 – Fault Tolerant• High reliability, availability andserviceability.• Allows for planned activity withoutdisruption to the critical load• Capacity design is “System +System” (2N)• Dual -threaded distribution path• System can sustain one worst-case unplanned failure with noimpact on the critical load.UPTIME INSTITUTE
  17. 17. Facilities where the levels of availability and reliability arerequired to protect the public safety, public health andnational security.Public Safety Facility
  18. 18. Article 708: Critical Operations Power System (COPS)Addressed homeland security issues formission critical facilities.Provides requirements for the installation,operation, control and maintenance ofelectrical equipment and wiring servingdesignated critical operation areas thatmust remain operational during a natural orhuman caused disaster.Critical Operations Power Systems areinstalled in vital facilities that ifincapacitated would disrupt nationalsecurity, public health and public safety.
  19. 19. Examples of facilities that would usecritical operations power systems• Police & Fire Stations• Emergency Management Centers• Emergency Call Centers• Government Facilities involved withNational Security• Hospitals• Financial Facilities involved withNational Economic SecurityCritical Operations Power System (COPS) Facilities
  20. 20. Critical Operations Power System (COPS)Power systems for facilities or parts of facilities that requirecontinuous operations for the reasons of public safety,emergency management, national security or businesscontinuity.Designated Critical Operations Areas (DCOA)Areas within a facility or site designated as requiring criticaloperations powerDefinitions
  21. 21. 1. Identify a specific area withinthe facility as the DesignatedCritical Operations Area(DCOA).Only the power system serving theDCOA must meet requirements ofArticle 708.2. Designate the complete facilityas critical operations.Entire electrical infrastructure mustmeet the requirements of Article708.Design Approach Options
  22. 22. • Risk Assessment• Physical Security• Testing And Maintenance• Commissioning• Feeder and Branch Wiring• Distribution Equipment• HVAC, Signal & CommunicationWiring• Power Sources• Overcurrent Protection• System Performance and AnalysisNEC Article 708 Scope
  23. 23. COPS system must continue to operate duringthe full duration of a natural or human causeddisaster and beyond• Physical Separation & Location• 2 Hour Fire Rating• Alternate power supplies with capacity tooperate for 72 hours• Generator can not be dependant on publicutility gas for fuel• Redundant equipment or means for a roll upequipment• All COPS overcurrent devices shall beselectively coordinated• Testing & CommissioningNEC Article 708 Reliability Criteria
  24. 24. Mission Critical SystemsEssential to the survival of a businessor organization. When a missioncritical system fails or is interrupted,operations are significantly impacted.Main Attributes• Availability• Reliability• Security
  25. 25. Mission Critical SystemsPrivate - Business Continuity• Attributes defined by the Businessbased on their Business CasePublic Safety• Attributes defined by the NEC(Article 708)• Classed by municipal, state andfederal agencies• Governed by the agency havingjurisdiction (AHJ)
  26. 26. Critical Power: StandbyPower for MissionCritical Facilities
  27. 27. COPS – NEC Article 708Understanding the Design and CommissioningRequirements for Critical Operations Power SystemsDanna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+CccrdDallas
  28. 28. Topics• Where to apply article 708• Conducting the Risk Assessment• Design Requirements• Criteria for Commissioning
  29. 29. NEC Article 708Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)Addresses homeland security issuesfor “Mission Critical” facilitiesThe systems must continue tooperate during the full duration of anemergency and beyond.
  30. 30. Where does this apply?• NEC 708.1 Scope– Where classed to comply by governmentalagency having jurisdiction (AHJ)– Who else plays a role• State Health Department?• EPA?• Facility Engineering?
  31. 31. Where does this apply? (cont.)• Examples include*:– Police Stations– Fire Stations– Hospitals– 911 Call Centers– Water Treatment Plant• Ensures uniform enforcement for critical facilities*Not all of these facilities require compliance. Only those designated by AHJ as critical.
  32. 32. Definitions• Critical Operations Power System (COPS)– Power systems for facilities or parts of facilities thatrequire continuous operation for the reasons of publicsafety, emergency management, national security, orbusiness continuity.• Designated Critical Operations Area (DCOA)– Areas within a facility or site designated as requiringcritical operations power.
  33. 33. Conduct Risk AssessmentThe opportunity for reliability is greatest when designing a new facilityIdentifyHazardsDevelopMitigationStrategyDocumentFindingsImplementPlanCommissionthe System• Jointly participate with Client• Apply effective reliabilitystrategy in design• Design for maintainability• Develop commissioning plan• Develop maintenance programRiskAssessment
  34. 34. Source of Power Location• Storage Battery• Generator• UPS• Fuel CellDesign RequirementsEquipment Location• Physical security• Restricted access• Automatic firesuppression• 2-hour rated space• Above the 100-yearfloodplain• Branch equipmentlocated within DCOA• Emergency equipment inseparate room fromnormal power serviceequipment (NFPA 110)
  35. 35. Design RequirementsWiring• Protection againstdamage• RMC• IMC• MI Cable• 2” Concrete• Floodplain protectionwhere installed below the100-year flood plain• Protected from Fire• Listed 2-hr circuitprotective system• Protected by 2-hrassembly• Encased in 2-inches ofconcrete• Same rules apply tobranch circuits whenlocated outside the DCOA
  36. 36. Wiring Requirements (cont.)Special Note: UL Public Notice Sept. 12, 2012UL and ULC announced important changes to certification programs (release12PN-51). As a result, manufacturers are no longer authorized to place the ULor ULC mark on these fire rated cables.A interim certification program was re-established in December 2012 to allowmanufacturers to achieve certification under an interim program. So far, onlytwo manufacturers have obtained listing. UL reports that more are expected inthe near future.View UL Website for additional information
  37. 37. Wiring Requirements (cont.)• Low voltage wiring for critical systems tofollow same rules for physical protection• 2-hr fire protection or riser rated cable alsorequired for the following:– Fire Alarm– Security– Signaling– Riser Communications– HVAC Controls
  38. 38. Additional Design Requirements• On-site fuel to operateminimum of 72-hrs under fullload*• Surge protection• Two levels of ground faultprotection• Bypass/Isolation type switches(electrically operated,mechanically held)• Capacity to operate“Unlimited” number of hoursexcept for maintenance• Receptacle identification• OCPD selectivelycoordinated• Allowed to use the COPSfor other emergencysystems as long as theycan be shed.*See NFPA 110-5.1.2 for additional fuel storage requirements when in seismic zones
  39. 39. Commissioning the COPS• NEC 708 requires a working system– Witness testing by LAHJ– Regular testing with written record– Testing under load– A commissioning plan– Documented emergency operations plan• Commissioning (Cx)– The acceptance testing, integrated system testing, operational tune-up, and start-up testing is the process by which baseline test resultsverify the proper operation and sequence of operation of electricalequipment, in addition to developing baseline criteria by whichfuture trend analysis can identify equipment deterioration. (NEC708)
  40. 40. Commissioning the COPS (cont.)Pre-functional Check List (PFC)• Pre-Start Up Checklist – List of items to inspect and verify proper installation• Start Up Documentation – Includes check lists and “run logs”Functional Performance Test (FPT)• Dynamic Function Test – testing of systems in operating modes• Documents System Performance – Testing of sequences of operation andfailure modes• Observation Period – Systems are shown without malfunction over a certainperiod of timeIntegrated System Test (IST)• Demonstrates operational performance of the system integration with othersystems.• Includes all modes of operation, anticipated failure modes, and recovery.• Verification of alarm events at the monitoring location
  41. 41. Cx Process – Construction & Acceptance PhaseDirect & VerifyTestsVerify SubmittalsDevelop TestProceduresDocument Pass/FailUpdate Issues LogSchedule ProjectDeliverablesAcceptanceVerify SystemsManualVerify ConstructionChecklistCompletenessManage ProjectDelivery SystemResolve IssueTraining Develop & Utilize Construction Checklists Oversee & Documents Pre-FunctionalPerformance Testing Oversee & Documents FunctionalPerformance Testing Coordinate & Approve Owner Training Provide Commissioning Record forOwner Approval System Performance Documented &Accepted Complete Final Commissioning Report Compile Data for Systems Manual
  42. 42. Example FPT• Test Prerequisites• Start up Generators• Transfer to Emergency• Simulate overload• Load Shed• Restore Power System toNormal Operation
  43. 43. Successful COPS Design and Cx• Upfront discussions and mutualunderstanding with the LAHJ• Be involved in the risk assessment• Careful planning for equipment locationand routing of feeders• Development and documentation of FPTsand ISTs• Development of proper maintenance plan
  44. 44. Related Requirements• NFPA 70 Article 708 Critical Operations Power Systems• NFPA 70 Annex F & G• NFPA 1600 Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management andBusiness Continuity Programs• NFPA 110 Standard for Emergency Standby Power Systems• NFPA 99 Standard for Health Care Facilities• NFPA 101 Life Safety Code• NFPA 730 Guide for Premises Security• NFPA 72 Chapter 24 Emergency Communication Systems
  45. 45. Submitting Questions, Exit Survey and ArchiveQuestion?Type your question in the “Questions & Answers” box on theWebcast console and click “Send.” We will get to as manyquestions as we have time for.Exit Survey:Please take a moment to answer a few questions on our exitsurvey that should pop up on your screen. We use the answersto help make improvements to our webcast program.Archive:• Within 7 days, an archive with Q&A will be posted• We will send an email to registered attendees withhyperlink• Can also access from home page
  46. 46. Speakers:• Kenneth Kutsmeda, PE, LEED AP,Jacobs KlingStubbins, Philadelphia• Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C,ccrd, Dallas• Jack Smith, Consulting- SpecifyingEngineer, Pure Power and CFEMedia LLC
  47. 47. Today’s Webcast Sponsors
  48. 48. Critical Power: StandbyPower for MissionCritical FacilitiesSponsored by: