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Introduction to grammar & Approaches in teaching grammar


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  • 1. WEEK 1 TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR TESL 2 / GROUP 6 Pavitthra a/p Arulchelvan Mohitraa Shakti a/p Sundrarajan Khairunajwa Binti Kasnan Beatrice Justina Teo Constance Chee TSL 3108
  • 2. Grammar may be defined as the rules of a language, governing the way in which words are put together to convey meaning in different contexts. (Nesamalar Chitravelu; Sararatha Sithamparam & The Soo Choon, 2005)
  • 3. Grammar is generally a thought to be set of rules specifying the correct ordering of words at the sentence level (Nunan, 2003) Grammar is a description of the rules that govern how a language’s sentences are formed (Thornbury, 2008)
  • 4. Accuracy • Accuracy is the ability to produce correct sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary. Fluency • Fluency is the ability to read, speak, or write easily, smoothly, and expressively. • In other words, the speaker can read, understand and respond in a language clearly and concisely while relating meaning and context. Source; or-accuracy-speaking
  • 5. Comparisons of Accuracy-oriented activities & Fluency-oriented activities Accuracy acitivities Fluency activities Purposes to help students achieve accurate perception and production of a target item which can be a sound, a word, or a sentence structure. to help students practice language in listening, speaking, reading, and/or writing activities to so develop fluency in using the language in spontaneous communication. Material the texts are usually composed of separate items: the target items are usually practiced out of context or situation; the texts are usually whole pieces of discourses: conversation, stories, etc.; texts are usually authentic and used as they would be in real life.
  • 6. Activities students' attention is focused on a particular target item; their output is usually predictable; their performance is assessed on how few language mistakes are made; students' errors are corrected; tasks do not usually simulate real-life situations. students' attention is focused on communicating information and expressing ideas; their output may not always be predictable; their performance is assessed on how well ideas are expressed or understood; students' errors are not corrected unless it interferes with communication; tasks often simulate real-life situations. Source;
  • 7. Accuracy : grammar presentations, gap-fill exercises, frame dialogues. Fluency : role plays, speeches, communicative activities, games.
  • 9. Young Learners….. Different kinds of grammatical knowledge at different learning stages. Only understand rules to use them. Do not need to have conscious grammar knowledge.
  • 10. Kinds of grammar knowledge required for young learners
  • 11. 1) Knowledge of Word Order • Basic sentence patterns. • Position of word classes. (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions & words like only, please and just. • Declarative – Abu is playing • Interrogative – Is Abu playing? • Imperative – Abu, play. • Exclamatory – Abu is playing! • Positive & Negative versions – Abu is not playing. Isn’t Abu playing? Abu, don’t play!
  • 12. 2) Knowledge of Grammatical Facts & Rules • Accepted and learnt as a whole collocation. • Articles ( a, an, the ) • Inflection of verbs ( eat, eats, has eaten, ate ) • Pluralization of nouns ( box-boxes, boy-boys ) • Word derivation ( adjective- happy; adverb- happily; noun-happiness )
  • 13. 3) Knowledge of Form & Function • Functions of language – to communicate to persuade, to express agreement, thanks, appreciation & to ask for and give information. • Forms – Words, phrases and sentences that are used to express those functions of language.
  • 14. Knowledge of Form & Function Language function Language form To introduce 1) Jenny, meet my friend, Lim. 2) Jenny, this is Lim. 3) I would like you to meet my sister, Amy. To ask for directions 1) How do I get to the police station? 2) Can you show me the way to the police station? 3) Do you mind telling me how to get to the police station?
  • 15. Knowledge of Form & Function Form Function It is warm in here. 1) Expressing pleasure at being out of cold. 2) Indicating that someone should do something. Example : switch on the fan or open the windows. 3) Just making a remark about the place as a means of starting up a conversation.
  • 16. 4) Knowledge of How to Link Ideas in Different Sentences – (Sentence combining) • Linking ideas to make coherent and cohesive text. • Compound sentence – He is handsome but his brother is not. • Complex sentence – The match went on although it was raining. • Conjunctions – and, or, but • Logical connectors – so, unless, therefore • Pronouns – I, they, him, my, its
  • 17. 5) Knowledge of the Grammar of Spoken & Written Sentences • Abbreviations in spoken language, but not allowed in formal writing – (I’m,that’ll,she’s) • Forms within the same medium that are appropriate to some contexts and not in others. - Hi! ( when greeting a friend ) - How do you do? ( when greeting a stranger)
  • 18. 6) Knowledge of the meaning of different grammatical options • Sentences formed to express the same content contain different forms which have different meanings. • Example of same basic idea : someone (Mary) bought someone else (Peter) a something (a pen) - 1) Mary bought a pen for Peter. 2) It was Mary who bought Peter a pen. 3) A pen is what Mary bought for Peter. 4) It was Peter for whom Mary bought the pen.
  • 19. The Place of Grammar in the Primary ESL Classroom
  • 20. KBSR SUKATAN PELAJARAN KURIKULUM BERSEPADU SEKOLAH RENDAH – BAHASA INGGERIS, 2001 Grammar also forms part of the language contents of the syllabus. These grammar items need to be taught in context and in a meaningful way so that they can be used both in speech and in writing. The grammar items can be reinforced and consolidated if learners are encounter the items often enough through the various tasks set. The grammar items should not be taught in isolation but rather in the context of a topic. SOURCE : ( bsr.pdf)
  • 21. KSSR DOKUMEN STANDARD KURIKULUM SEKOLAH RENDAH – BAHASA INGGERIS TAHUN 1 & 2 Grammar Modular - The inclusion of the module on Grammar emphasizes the importance of having pupils develop a sound grasp of the language structures and grammar of Standard British English. KSSR Syllabus - Grammar is no longer part of the modules in KSSR syllabus for Year 1 and 2. The reason for this is because English is regarded as the second language of most pupils in schools. Therefore, the teaching of grammar can be delayed to the later stage, which is from Year 3 to Year 6. SOURCE : DSK%20English%20Y1-%20SK.pdf
  • 22. Why grammar is introduced from Year 3 onwards ? English is the second language for pupils in schools. It is believed prudent and pedagogically sound to defer the learning of grammar to a later stage. Pupils should be given the opportunity to develop an awareness of grammar in their first language and this awareness may then be exploited when English grammar is introduced in Year 3. This approach will reduce the load and stress of learning in the early years where the emphasis is on learning through fun and play. Source : (
  • 23. The Place of Grammar in the Primary ESL Classroom COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
  • 24. Use language to communicate efficiently. • Develop both fluency and accuracy. • Include activities that combines both the accuracy first model and communication first model. • Accuracy first model – mastery of grammatical patterns, forms and functions. • Communication first model – fluency in communication.
  • 27. TYPES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR Prescriptive grammar is what speakers should or shouldn't say. Descriptive grammar is what speakers say, and when, why and how they say it. Example: The subject of a sentence must agree with the verb (subject- verb agreement) The instructions are clear not the instructions is clear. Example: Some English speakers use double negatives for negation I don’t have nothing.
  • 28. Prescribes a strict set of rules for language. Ex: when to use their/they’re/ther e and how to name parts of speech. Describes spoken language used by native speakers. Linguists build a set of rule to model the same behavior. Prescriptivegrammar Descriptivegrammar
  • 30. COVERT VS OVERT COVERT GRAMMAR TEACHING OVERT GRAMMAR TEACHING The teacher gets the pupils involved in using the structure without drawing their attention to grammatical rules (grammatical facts hidden from the pupils) The teacher explicitly explains the rules when presenting the new language (grammar rules provided and explained) Pupils’ attention is focused on the activity and not grammar rules but they have ample opportunity to practice the question form (learn grammar rules through the activity) APPROACHES: i. Deductive approach (rule-driven learning) ii. Inductive approach (discovery learning) Activities: information gap activity or reading a text where new grammar is practiced or introduced. Activities: get pupils to work with the language (rational cloze, objective questions, etc)
  • 31. DEDUCTIVE APPROACH (RULE-DRIVEN LEARNING) Starts with the presentation of a rule and is followed by examples in which the rule is applied.
  • 32. EXAMPLE OF DEDUCTIVE APPROACH SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS The subject is the person or thing doing the action: I left early She went home We said goodbye The object is the person or thing receiving the action: She telephoned me I hit him We saw her Examples of rule Examples of rule
  • 33. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES It gets straight to the point and can therefore be time saving. Allow more time on practices and application. Starting the lesson with a grammar presentation may be off putting for some students. (do not have sufficient metalanguage- language used to talk about grammar terminology) Acknowledges the role of cognitive processes in language acquisition. Students do not have much opportunity to get involve (teacher- centered) Confirms students’ expectations about classroom learning particularly for students with analytical learning style. Explanation is seldom memorable. Allows teacher to deal with language points as they come up, rather than having to prepare for them in advance. Encourages belief that learning a language is simply a case of knowing the rules.
  • 34. INDUCTIVE APPROACH (DISCOVERY LEARNING) Starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred. Students are given a sample and the teacher guides them in discovering the grammar rules used in the sample.
  • 35. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Make the rules more meaningful, memorable and serviceable. May mislead students that the rule is the objective instead of the meaning. Mental effort involved ensures a greater degree of cognitive depth (greater memorability) Time consuming Students are actively involved. Students may hypothesise wrong rule An approach which favours pattern recognition and problem solving abilities. Place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson. Extra language practice (if problem solving is done collaboratively) Frustrates students who prefer simply to be told the rules. Self reliance.
  • 37. Grammar in isolation Grammar is taught as separate topic to make sure the pupils recognize the rules and regulations of grammar. E.g. : past tense Present tense Irregular verbs
  • 38. Grammar in context Integrate grammar in everyday teaching Also applicable while teaching other skills. E.g. : listening Writing Speaking And language arts
  • 39. Grammar in context Focus on form, meaning and usage. Language learning Requires a commitment to teach Grammar in in Isolation Focus on form and meaning only. Language acquisition Exercise involving repetition, manipulation, And grammatical transformation.
  • 41. MEANING • For the first step, teachers introduce a new language to children in MEANINGFUL CONTEXT to help the children understand the meaning of the language that they are learning. • Meaning can be created through situations that are related to children’s life.
  • 42. WAYS TO CREATE MEANING • Set situations or dialogues that are fun for children using dolls or other media. (puppet show). • Using stories. • Playing dramas. • Using Total Physical Response (TPR) • Using pictures. • Using children’s experiences as learning materials.
  • 43. USE • After children are exposed to English language through the situations manipulated by teachers, they also need opportunities to use English to communicate with others. They may use the language to play or to act in plays.
  • 44. SAMPLE OF ACTIVITIES • Games • Information gap • Quiz • Plays • Giving and following instructions to do or making something. • Creating funny rhythms or songs.
  • 45. FORM • Children are subconsciously notice form of language (grammar) and tend to use language naturally in accordance with their need. • Thus, teachers have the responsibility to attract children’s attention to language forms during English lesson, which means that the teachers are making the children aware of accurate language use both orally and written.
  • 46. • Children need certain conditions to make them understand meanings of English vocabularies and to use the language in natural context. • This means that the teachers have to introduce the language form with meaningful context, which to make the children feel motivated to use English as well.
  • 47. SOME STRATEGIES • Games—children raise their right hands if teacher says singular animals, and their left hands if teacher says plural animals. • Writing—completing sentences, arranging words into good sentences, or completing dialogues. • Activities that increase students’ awareness on grammar—teacher asks “What is similar about these sentences? ●He is talking ●She is listening ●They are eating at the restaurant
  • 49. READING Teacher assigns a reading text, The students read the assigned text that their teacher has chosen, The students answer the comprehension or true/false questions which are already given below the text, The teacher checks if the students have answered the questions correctly,
  • 50. LISTENING Review new vocabulary. Read the story one time and ask students to raise their hands when they hear nouns. Read the story 2 or 3 times. Students answer Listening Comprehension Questions. Review answers to Listening Comprehension Questions. Read story one more time. Students listen and write down all of the proper nouns they hear. Review answers
  • 51. VOCABULARY  scared – scare  quietly  excited  introduced– introduce  dream  discuss  entered - enter  asked – ask
  • 52. SPEAKING Activity: Describe a Picture Bring pictures of different people or animals to the classroom. Students describe the picture using possessive nouns. For example, they might say: The man’s blue shirt. The women’s green dress.
  • 53. WRITING Activities: Grammar in Action
  • 54. ISSUES IN TEACHING GRAMMAR • Focus on discourse • Adapting the textbook Focus On Discourse a. To be aware of discourse features of the text and make student aware of them b. Discourse features • The way text is organized • Layout • Style of language
  • 55. ADAPTING TEXTBOOKS Omission Addition Reduction Extension Rewriting Replacement Reordering branching
  • 56. References • Nesamalar Chitravelu; Sararatha Sithamparam & The Soo Choon. (2005). ELT Methodology Principles & Practice. Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.: Selangor. • sr.pdf • %20Inggeris/01%20DSK%20English%20Y1-%20SK.pdf • html • 5/fluency-or-accuracy-speaking • n-4-8/