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Grammar may be defined as the rules of a
language, governing the way in which words
are put together to convey meaning in
different contexts. (Nesamalar Chitravelu;
Sararatha Sithamparam & The Soo Choon,
Grammar is generally a thought to be set of
rules specifying the correct ordering of words
at the sentence level (Nunan, 2003)
Grammar is a description of the rules that
govern how a language’s sentences are formed
• Accuracy is the ability to produce correct
sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary.
• Fluency is the ability to read, speak, or write
easily, smoothly, and expressively.
• In other words, the speaker can read, understand
and respond in a language clearly and concisely
while relating meaning and context.
Comparisons of Accuracy-oriented
activities & Fluency-oriented activities
Accuracy acitivities Fluency activities
Purposes to help students achieve
accurate perception and
production of a target item
which can be a sound, a
word, or a sentence
to help students practice
language in listening,
speaking, reading, and/or
writing activities to so
develop fluency in using
the language in
Material the texts are usually
composed of separate
items: the target items are
usually practiced out of
context or situation;
the texts are usually whole
pieces of discourses:
conversation, stories, etc.;
texts are usually authentic
and used as they would be
in real life.
Activities students' attention is
focused on a particular
target item; their output
is usually predictable;
their performance is
assessed on how few
language mistakes are
made; students' errors
are corrected; tasks do
not usually simulate
students' attention is
expressing ideas; their
output may not always
be predictable; their
performance is assessed
on how well ideas are
errors are not corrected
unless it interferes with
often simulate real-life
Different kinds of grammatical knowledge at
different learning stages.
Only understand rules to use them.
Do not need to have conscious grammar
Kinds of grammar
knowledge required for
1) Knowledge of Word Order
• Basic sentence patterns.
• Position of word classes. (adjectives, adverbs,
prepositions & words like only, please and just.
• Declarative – Abu is playing
• Interrogative – Is Abu playing?
• Imperative – Abu, play.
• Exclamatory – Abu is playing!
• Positive & Negative versions – Abu is not
playing. Isn’t Abu playing? Abu, don’t play!
2) Knowledge of
Grammatical Facts & Rules
• Accepted and learnt as a whole collocation.
• Articles ( a, an, the )
• Inflection of verbs ( eat, eats, has eaten, ate )
• Pluralization of nouns ( box-boxes, boy-boys )
• Word derivation ( adjective- happy; adverb-
happily; noun-happiness )
3) Knowledge of Form & Function
• Functions of language – to communicate to
persuade, to express agreement, thanks,
appreciation & to ask for and give information.
• Forms – Words, phrases and sentences that
are used to express those functions of
Knowledge of Form & Function
Language function Language form
1) Jenny, meet my friend, Lim.
2) Jenny, this is Lim.
3) I would like you to meet my sister,
To ask for
1) How do I get to the police station?
2) Can you show me the way to the
3) Do you mind telling me how to get
to the police station?
Knowledge of Form & Function
It is warm in here.
1) Expressing pleasure at being
out of cold.
2) Indicating that someone
should do something.
Example : switch on the fan
or open the windows.
3) Just making a remark about
the place as a means of
starting up a conversation.
4) Knowledge of How to Link Ideas in
Different Sentences – (Sentence
• Linking ideas to make coherent and cohesive text.
• Compound sentence – He is handsome but his
brother is not.
• Complex sentence – The match went on although
it was raining.
• Conjunctions – and, or, but
• Logical connectors – so, unless, therefore
• Pronouns – I, they, him, my, its
5) Knowledge of the Grammar of
Spoken & Written Sentences
• Abbreviations in spoken language, but not
allowed in formal writing – (I’m,that’ll,she’s)
• Forms within the same medium that are
appropriate to some contexts and not in
others. - Hi! ( when greeting a friend )
- How do you do? ( when greeting a
6) Knowledge of the meaning of
different grammatical options
• Sentences formed to express the same content
contain different forms which have different
• Example of same basic idea : someone (Mary)
bought someone else (Peter) a something (a pen) -
1) Mary bought a pen for Peter.
2) It was Mary who bought Peter a pen.
3) A pen is what Mary bought for Peter.
4) It was Peter for whom Mary bought the pen.
The Place of Grammar
Primary ESL Classroom
SUKATAN PELAJARAN KURIKULUM BERSEPADU
SEKOLAH RENDAH – BAHASA INGGERIS, 2001
Grammar also forms part of the language contents of
the syllabus. These grammar items need to be taught
in context and in a meaningful way so that they can be
used both in speech and in writing. The grammar items
can be reinforced and consolidated if learners are
encounter the items often enough through the various
tasks set. The grammar items should not be taught in
isolation but rather in the context of a topic.
KURIKULUM SEKOLAH RENDAH – BAHASA INGGERIS
TAHUN 1 & 2
Grammar Modular - The inclusion of the module on Grammar emphasizes the
importance of having pupils develop a sound grasp of
the language structures and grammar of Standard British
KSSR Syllabus - Grammar is no longer part of the modules in KSSR syllabus
for Year 1 and 2. The reason for this is because English is
regarded as the second language of most pupils in schools.
Therefore, the teaching of grammar can be delayed to the
later stage, which is from Year 3 to Year 6.
Why grammar is introduced from Year
3 onwards ?
English is the second language for pupils in schools.
It is believed prudent and pedagogically sound to
defer the learning of grammar to a later stage.
Pupils should be given the opportunity to develop
an awareness of grammar in their first language
and this awareness may then be exploited when
English grammar is introduced in Year 3. This
approach will reduce the load and stress of
learning in the early years where the emphasis is
on learning through fun and play.
Source : (http://pbey4101.wordpress.com/2012/04/10/discussion-4-8/)
The Place of Grammar
Primary ESL Classroom
Use language to communicate
• Develop both fluency and accuracy.
• Include activities that combines both the
accuracy first model and communication first
• Accuracy first model – mastery of grammatical
patterns, forms and functions.
• Communication first model – fluency in
P A VI TTH RA A /P A RULCH ELVAN
K H A I RUNAJWA BT K ASNAN
CON STA NCE CH EE
B E A TRICE JUSTIN A TEO
MOH I TR A A S H A K TI A /P SUN DRA RAJA N
TOPIC 2 : APPROACHES
Prescriptive grammar is
what speakers should or
Descriptive grammar is
what speakers say, and
when, why and how they
The subject of a sentence must
agree with the verb (subject-
The instructions are clear not
the instructions is clear.
Some English speakers use
double negatives for
I don’t have nothing.
Prescribes a strict
set of rules for
Ex: when to use
e and how to
name parts of
build a set of rule
to model the
COVERT VS OVERT
COVERT GRAMMAR TEACHING OVERT GRAMMAR TEACHING
The teacher gets the pupils involved
in using the structure without drawing
their attention to grammatical rules
(grammatical facts hidden from the
The teacher explicitly explains the
rules when presenting the new
language (grammar rules provided
Pupils’ attention is focused on the
activity and not grammar rules but
they have ample opportunity to
practice the question form
(learn grammar rules through the
i. Deductive approach (rule-driven
ii. Inductive approach (discovery
Activities: information gap activity or
reading a text where new grammar
is practiced or introduced.
Activities: get pupils to work with the
language (rational cloze, objective
Starts with the
presentation of a rule
and is followed by
examples in which
the rule is applied.
EXAMPLE OF DEDUCTIVE APPROACH
SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS
The subject is the person or thing doing the action:
I left early
She went home
We said goodbye
The object is the person or thing receiving the action:
She telephoned me
I hit him
We saw her
Examples of rule
Examples of rule
It gets straight to the point and can
therefore be time saving. Allow more
time on practices and application.
Starting the lesson with a grammar
presentation may be off putting for
some students. (do not have
sufficient metalanguage- language
used to talk about grammar
Acknowledges the role of cognitive
processes in language acquisition.
Students do not have much
opportunity to get involve (teacher-
Confirms students’ expectations
about classroom learning particularly
for students with analytical learning
Explanation is seldom memorable.
Allows teacher to deal with language
points as they come up, rather than
having to prepare for them in
Encourages belief that learning a
language is simply a case of knowing
Starts with some
which a rule is
Students are given
a sample and the
used in the sample.
Make the rules more meaningful,
memorable and serviceable.
May mislead students that the rule is
the objective instead of the meaning.
Mental effort involved ensures a
greater degree of cognitive depth
Students are actively involved. Students may hypothesise wrong rule
An approach which favours pattern
recognition and problem solving
Place heavy demands on teachers in
planning a lesson.
Extra language practice (if problem
solving is done collaboratively)
Frustrates students who prefer simply
to be told the rules.
Grammar in isolation
Grammar is taught as
separate topic to make
sure the pupils
recognize the rules and
regulations of grammar.
E.g. : past tense
Grammar in context
Integrate grammar in
Also applicable while
teaching other skills.
E.g. : listening
And language arts
Focus on form,
Focus on form
• For the first step, teachers introduce a new
language to children in MEANINGFUL CONTEXT to
help the children understand the meaning of the
language that they are learning.
• Meaning can be created through situations that
are related to children’s life.
WAYS TO CREATE MEANING
• Set situations or dialogues that are fun for children
using dolls or other media. (puppet show).
• Using stories.
• Playing dramas.
• Using Total Physical Response (TPR)
• Using pictures.
• Using children’s experiences as learning materials.
• After children are exposed to English language
through the situations manipulated by teachers,
they also need opportunities to use English to
communicate with others. They may use the
language to play or to act in plays.
SAMPLE OF ACTIVITIES
• Information gap
• Giving and following instructions to do or making
• Creating funny rhythms or songs.
• Children are subconsciously notice form of
language (grammar) and tend to use language
naturally in accordance with their need.
• Thus, teachers have the responsibility to attract
children’s attention to language forms during English
lesson, which means that the teachers are making
the children aware of accurate language use both
orally and written.
• Children need certain conditions to make them
understand meanings of English vocabularies and
to use the language in natural context.
• This means that the teachers have to introduce the
language form with meaningful context, which to
make the children feel motivated to use English as
• Games—children raise their right hands if teacher says
singular animals, and their left hands if teacher says
• Writing—completing sentences, arranging words into
good sentences, or completing dialogues.
• Activities that increase students’ awareness on
grammar—teacher asks “What is similar about these
●He is talking
●She is listening
●They are eating at the restaurant
INTEGRATION WITH TEACHING
OF LISTENING, SPEAKING,
READING AND WRITING SKILLS.
Teacher assigns a reading text,
The students read the assigned text that their
teacher has chosen,
The students answer the comprehension or
true/false questions which are already given below
The teacher checks if the students have answered
the questions correctly,
Review new vocabulary.
Read the story one time and
ask students to raise their
hands when they hear nouns.
Read the story 2 or 3 times.
Students answer Listening
Review answers to Listening
Read story one more time.
Students listen and write
down all of the proper nouns
Activity: Describe a Picture
Bring pictures of different people or animals to the
Students describe the picture using possessive nouns. For
example, they might say: The man’s blue shirt. The women’s
ISSUES IN TEACHING GRAMMAR
• Focus on discourse
• Adapting the textbook
Focus On Discourse
a. To be aware of discourse features of the text and
make student aware of them
b. Discourse features
• The way text is organized
• Style of language