The role of institutional structure for disseminating EE and RES: a comparative analysis between Brazil and Germany
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The role of institutional structure for disseminating EE and RES: a comparative analysis between Brazil and Germany

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The role of institutional structure
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comparative analysis between
Brazil and Germany

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  • 1. The role of institutional structure for disseminating EE and RES: a comparative analysis between Brazil and Germany Dr. Conrado A. Melo 15/10/2013
  • 2. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 3. Background Criticism to the Brazilian EE/RES governance ◦ Weak institutional support and capacity to manage EE and NC RES activities Empirical studies have shown that there is a high correlation between institutional quality and environmental quality ◦ spillover effects of institutions are determinants for a more sustainable development
  • 4. Why to study the German case? RES: 12% (32 GW) of global wind energy installed capacity and 26% (33GW) of global PV installed capacity EE: one of the most energy efficient industrialized countries Strong institutional structure devoted to the development of EE and RES activities
  • 5. Objective Evaluate the German institutional structure related to the promotion of EE and RES with focus on the identification of necessary elements for improving the EE and RES governance in Brazil
  • 6. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 7. Energy indicators... indicators... Figure 1 - Brazil and Germany: annual historical series (1971-2010) of population and primary energy per capita Source: own elaboration based on IEA, 2012 Figure 2 - Brazil and Germany: annual historical series (19712010) of primary energy supply and energy intensity Source: own elaboration based on IEA, 2012
  • 8. Table 1 - Energy reserves and consumption Brazil and Germany: 2002 x 2012
  • 9. Carbon dioxide emissions
  • 10. Electricity production and consumption by sector Figure 3 - Source of power electricity supply in the year 2011 Figure 4 - Brazil and Germany: % sectorial energy consumption in the year 2012
  • 11. Global horizontal solar radiation Brazil Area 8.514.877 km² (23 times larger) 1640 – 2380 (KWh/m2/year) Germany Area 357.021 km² 1100 -1350(KWh/m2/year)
  • 12. Presentation content Introduction Energy contexts RES/EE governance 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. 5. 6. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews Conclusions Recommendations
  • 13. Germany: Germany: Legal frameworks - RES 1991 - Electricity Feed-in Act (StrEG) 2000 - Renewbles energy source Act (EEG) Revisions (2004, 2009 and 2012) 2008 - Act on the Promotion of Combined Heat & Power 2009 - Act on the Promotion of RES in the Heating Sector 2011 - Grid Expansion Acceleration Act for Transmission Networks (NABEG)
  • 14. Brazil: Brazil: Legal frameworks - RES 2002: Law 10.438 -PROINFA (Program for Alternative Electric Generation Sources (wind, small-scale hydro (PCHs) and biomass energy) 2007: Law 11.488 – discount in transmissions and distribution tariffs for solar, wind, biomass and cogeneration (heat and power) 2012: Normative resolution 482/ANEEL Establishes the conditions for access to distribution systems by distributed microgeneration and minigeneration and the compensation rules (it is a kind of net metering model)
  • 15. Germany: Germany: Legal frameworks - EE 1976: Energy Saving Act (EnEG) – Followed by many ordinances, examples: ◦ 1981: Heating Costs Ordinance (Amendments: 1984, 1989 and 2008) ◦ 2002: Energy Saving Ordinance (Revisions 2007 and 2009) 2010 - Law on energy services and other energy efficiency measures (EDL-G)
  • 16. Brazil: Brazil: Legal frameworks - EE 2000: Law 9,991 - Established that the electricity utilities must apply a minimum percentage of revenues in R&D and energy efficiency 2001: Law 10,295 - Energy Efficiency Act Mandatory Standards for Appliances
  • 17. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 18. Policy instruments Brazil Germany
  • 19. Policy instruments Brazil Germany
  • 20. Policy instruments Brazil Germany
  • 21. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 22. Germany: strategies and action plans 2007 and 2011: National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) 2009: National Biomass Action Plan 2010: National Action Plan for Renewable Energy 2010: Energy Concept 2050 2011: Adaptation Action Plan of the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change
  • 23. Germany: targets Ambitious targets: RES, EE, transportation sector and GHG emissions reduction Table 3 - Targets according to the German Energy Concept Year Renewable Energies Target Share electricity Share total 2020 35% 18% 2030 50% Energy efficiency Target Primary energy (versus 2008) -20% Electricity consumption (versus 2008) 30% 2040 65% 45% 2050 80% 60% -50% Source: OECD, 2012 based on BMU, 2011 Energy productivity -10% Increase by 2.1% per year -25% Transportation sector Energy consumption reduction Climate target 10% 6 million electric vehicles -40% 40% GHG (versus 1990) -55% -70% -80-95%
  • 24. NEEAP 2011: Summary Provide a statutory basis for strategy development Provide for results monitoring, updating and revisions Identify actions and assign responsibility
  • 25. Brazil: strategies and action plans 2008: National Climate Change Plan (PNMC) 2011: National Energy Efficiency Plan (PNEE) 2012: National Transportation and Logistics Plan (PNLT) 2012: Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2021
  • 26. Brazil: Plans shortcomings Identify actions and assign responsibility Link EE/RES strategies to the broader policy context Reinforce strategy through action and economic planning Establish accountability and evaluation
  • 27. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 28. Germany: Germany: RES/EE Institutions National level • One directorate specific to deal with “Energiewende” • Policy implementation monitoring • EE • Energy technologies
  • 29. dena – German Energy Agency dena’s aims ◦ Improvement in the rational use of energy ◦ Development of renewable energy sources ◦ Increase in innovative technologies for the rational conversion of energy ◦ Creation EE/RES markets ◦ Optimization of energy systems dena’s customers ◦ Specialists (e.g. commerce, industry and trade) ◦ Politicians ◦ The end consumer
  • 30. dena – German Energy Agency
  • 31. Germany: Germany: Energy and Climate Protection Agencies Regional level Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Energy agency Baltic Energy Forum eV Energieagentur Regio Freiburg GmbH Energieagentur Oberfranken Energieagentur im Landkreis Kassel hessenENERGIE - Gesellschaft für rationelle Energienutzung mbH Klimaschutz- und Energieagentur Baden-Württemberg GmbH Klimaschutz- und Energie-Beratungsagentur Heidelberg-Nachbargemeinden gGmbH ZukunftsAgentur Brandenburg GmbH Berliner Energieagentur GmbH EnergieAgentur Nordrhein-Westfalen Klimaschutzagentur Wiesbaden e.V. Windenergie-Agentur Bremerhaven/Bremen e.V. Energie- & Umweltzentrum Allgäu Klimaschutz- und Energieagentur Mittelhessen Klimaschutzagentur Region Hannover gGmbH Energieagentur Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH 17 Transferstelle für Rationelle und Regenerative Energienutzung Bingen 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Thüringer EnergieAgentur e.V. Energieagentur Unterfranken e.V. Sächsische Energieagentur GmbH Ortenauer Energieagentur GmbH Regionale Energieagentur Ulm gGmbH REAR - Energieagentur Regensburg Bremer Energie-Konsens GmbH EnergieEffizienzAgentur Rhein-Neckar gGmbH Energieagentur Rheinland-Pfalz GmbH Energieagentur Bergstraße Kompetenzzentrum Erneuerbare Energien Rheingau-Taunus e. V. Energieagentur Hohenlohekreis GmbH Gemeinschaft der Energieberater im Landkreis Calw e.V. Energieagentur Kreis Konstanz GmbH Energieagentur in Horb Energieagentur Schwarzwald-Hochrhein Energieagentur Mittelbaden gGmbH Local level Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Energy agency Energieagentur Zollernalb gGmbH Energieagentur Ravensburg gGmbH Umwelt- und Energieagentur Kreis Karlsruhe Energieagentur Main-Tauber-Kreis GmbH Energieagentur des Neckar-Odenwald-Kreises GmbH Energieagentur Landkreis Tuttlingen gGmbH Leipzig Energy Agency - Stadtwerke Leipzig GmbH Stadtwerke Greifswald GmbH Energie-Beratungs-Zentrum Stuttgart e.V. Energiemanagement-Agentur Elbtalaue-Prignitz-Wendland Klimaschutzagentur Mannheim gGmbH Energieagentur Kreis Böblingen gGmbH Energieagentur Rems-Murr gGmbH Ludwigsburger Energieagentur e.V. Agentur für Klimaschutz Kreis Tübingen gGmbH Energieagentur Sigmaringen – Niederlassung der EA Ravensburg gGmbH Energieagentur Landkreis Esslingen gGmbH KlimaschutzAgentur Reutlingen gGmbH Energieagentur Landkreis Göppingen gGmbH Energiekompetenz Ostalb e.V. Energieagentur Landkreis Schwäbisch Hall Energie- und Bauberatungszentrum Pforzheim / Enzkreis gemeinnützige GmbH Karlsruher Energie- und Klimaschutzagentur gGmbH Energieagentur Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis GbR – Niederlassung der EA Tuttlingen Energieagentur Landkreis Rottweil GbR Energieagentur Bodenseekreis - Niederlassung der EA Ravensburg gGmbH Energieagentur Biberach - Niederlassung der EA Ravensburg gGmbH Energieagentur Region Trier Energiereferat Stadt Frankfurt am Main Stadtwerke Unna GmbH Agentur für Klimaschutz Kreis Tübingen gemeinnützige GmbH Beratungs- und Service-Gesellschaft Umwelt mbH Forseo GmbH Stadtwerke Leipzig GmbH Bonner Energie Agentur e.V.
  • 32. Germany: Germany: EAs types and activities Information oriented agencies(IEAs) ◦ Information and motivation services for municipalities, governments and enterprises on EE/RES ◦ Public awareness and image campaigns ◦ Initial and branch consultations by way of rough and detailed analyses, ◦ Networking and support for promoting energy technologies and promotion of innovative technologies ◦ Conception and processing of subsidy and support programmes ◦ Consulting and support for regional or federal energy governments, ◦ Evaluation of energy policy measures
  • 33. Germany: Germany: EAs types and activities Entrepreneurial oriented agencies (EEAs) ◦ sell consulting services ◦ ESCO activities, including development, planning, realization, financing and operation of decentralized heating and power units for building supply ◦ development of energy service products
  • 34. Germany: Germany: other related institutions Additionally, Germany has: - about 500 ESCOs - more than 800 energy retail companies (multinational and their subsidiaries, regional and cooperative energy companies) that offer different kinds EE services - about 3,200 energy consultant offices organized in associations - several manufacturers of EE and RES technologies - close to 1,000,000 installers of different crafts offering different kinds of EE and RES services - architects and planners who deliver partial services connected to EE and RES (Wuppertal Institute, 2006)
  • 35. Brazil: Brazil: Institutions •Strong influence of energy companies in the process of decision making • EE programs performed by energy companies that not necessarily have interest in EE • Positive appraisals of many projects evaporate after completion due the lack of continuity and changes in energy policies • Lack institutional capacity to deal with EE and NC RES issues
  • 36. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 37. Interviews Energy Distribution Utilitiy - AVU network GMbH ◦ Thorsten Coß, CEO Energy Agency - EnergieAgentur - NRW ◦ Ignacio Bedoya, Energy Engineers GmbH University ◦ Prof. Dr.-Ing. H.-J. Wagner - Energy Systems and Energy Industry Ruhr Bochum University ◦ Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sourkounis Constantinos - Power Systems Technology And Power Mechatronics - Ruhr Bochum University Regulatory Agency - Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) ◦ Dr. Annegret Groebel - Head of Department International Relations / Postal Regulation ◦ Daniel Muether - International Coordination Energy Regulation
  • 38. Interviews: highlights Reasons for German EE/RES success: ◦ “Feed-in tariff” ◦ “Local banks - focus on promoting local business including EE and RES projects” ◦ “High investments in R,D&I – public research money and the creation of energy institutes” ◦ Utilities - “legal requirement topromote EE/RES” ◦ “the profit of energy sales gets smaller and it induces the development of new business models energy consultancy, contracting etc– utilities are acting as ESCOs”
  • 39. Interviews: highlights EE -challenges ◦ Industry - “forget energy, lets save materials - other investments are more attractive than EE due the low electricity costs” ◦ Buildings - “cost to retrofit old buildings is too high with the payback is around 20 years” - “energy and gas are too cheap” ◦ Human behavior “German people prefer to invest in a new big car than in insulation, house retrofits, etc.”
  • 40. Interviews: highlights Photovoltaic energy challenges ◦ “small is beautiful, sometimes big is better” – large solar power plants produce cheaper electricity than solar panels in roofs ◦ “PV still a expensive source of energy” – “most part of charges in tariffs to support RES is driven to PV” – “poor people can’t afford these tariff increases” ◦ “energy storage is too expensive” Wind energy challenges ◦ Cheaper production of equipments, reduce costs of maintenance, improve the quality of components ◦ Large-scale grid reinforcement and expansion necessary to transport electricity to load centers in the South ◦ “not in my backyard” and “environmental issues, etc.”
  • 41. Interviews: highlights Institutions ◦ How is the interplay between EAs and utilities/industries? “Wonderful – they are supported by government, then they provide low cost consulting services, technical solutions and indicates the better way to get subsidies and money for investments” ◦ Bring people together (industry, energy experts and researchers) ◦ “Advantages: Neutrality, independence from market influences, no need to generate own income. ◦ “Disadvantages: Dependence on political decision. Government changes every 5 years and order of the priorities can also change.” ◦ “The aim is to accelerate the innovation processes and optimize the introduction of innovative products and services into the market.”
  • 42. Presentation content Introduction 2. Energy contexts 3. RES/EE governance 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Legal framework Policy instruments Strategies and action plans Institutions Interviews 5. Conclusions 4.
  • 43. Conclusions: Germany Decentralization of energy production with application of RES is one of keys elements of the German “Energiewende”. A combination of a strong legal framework, funding mechanisms and other policy instruments, which have included the people in the “energy game”, has shown a successful strategy for the development of RES markets and for the creation of “green jobs” However, the “power from the people” means new challenges: mainly issues related to the design of a new market model for a highly distributed power generation and capacity markets
  • 44. Conclusions: Germany Germany has a dynamic system of governance and seems to be prepared to answer and give solutions for the new environmental, economic and energy issues. Devoted EE/RES institutions have certainly had a fundamental role in the German success: ◦ They increase the awareness of the potential benefits of EE and RES solutions ◦ They accelerate the diffusion of EE/RES solutions and the creation of new markets ◦ They have contributed to the development of German policies and its evaluation,
  • 45. Conclusions: Brazil Brazil has a passive policy related to development of NC RES. In the case of wind energy, due the reduction of the technology prices, the market is increasing, despite the lack of planning. For instance, at this moment Brazil has 19 wind power plants not operating due the lack of grid In the case of photovoltaic energy, due the natural advantage of solar radiation the country certainly will see an increase of PV power generation. However, probably it will happen just in the case of large power PV plants. The absence of additional support (funding, information, training, consulting services) make it difficult for the development of the “power from the people in Brazil”
  • 46. Conclusions: Brazil Brazil certainly need to improve its capacity of governance related to EE and NC RES. Its old governance structure has not been enough to learn, to adapt and to provide solutions for capturing benefits related to EE and NC RES developments. Additionally, Brazil need to create more Know how around these new energy markets and increase the transparence in the process of taking decisions.
  • 47. Conclusions: Brazil An devoted institution, for instance, an EE/RES Energy Agency in Brazil would be fundamental for: ◦ Create a database about Brazilian stakeholders and EE and RES projects and other information. ◦ Bring people together (researches, industry, ESCOs, customers, utilities) and accelerate the dissemination of EE and NC RES ◦ Support the design, the implementation and evaluation EE and NC RES policy instruments
  • 48. Conclusions: Brazil ◦ Increase the awareness about distributed solar photovoltaic energy, once the country has adopted just a kind of compensation system without any other mechanism to support a more distributed energy supply ◦ Manage government programs such as PROCEL and CONPET ◦ Provide information, education and training about EE and RES solutions for Industry, buildings, etc..
  • 49. Acknowledgments Thank you for your First I would like to thank professor Pieolow and mention that was a very intersting attention….