Onaral IITL_Brainstorm25feb10v4


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'The Learning Brain: is there a role for neuroimaging?'

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Onaral IITL_Brainstorm25feb10v4

  1. 1. The Learning Brain:<br />Is there a role for Neuroimaging ?<br />
  2. 2. Question posed by<br />Faculty fromCollege of Media Arts and Design<br />Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences<br />College of Nursing and Health Professions<br />Computer Science, College of Engineering<br />Neurology, Psychiatry, College of Medicine<br />School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems<br />Cognitive Neuroengineering & Quantitative Experimental Research<br />Collaborative<br />
  3. 3. Institute for Innovation in Teaching and Learning<br /><ul><li>Another “Drexel First” ?
  4. 4. What makes Drexel unique?</li></ul>... faculty from diverse disciplines pondering <br />the future of learning<br /><ul><li>Will it position Drexel for leadership in innovation in learning?</li></ul>… assessment of learning?<br />The New Era<br /><ul><li>Customized and individualized Learning,
  5. 5. Learning Partners, Mentors, Coaches,
  6. 6. Virtual Environments, Networked Communities
  7. 7. New Rules of Engagement… </li></li></ul><li>Neuroimaging Proposition?<br /><ul><li>Vast neuroimaging literature on learning and memory </li></ul>… paradigms from cognitive psychology<br />… lack of educational context<br /><ul><li>Brain areas associated with learning and memory</li></ul>… fMRI, PET not amenable to natural environments, <br />… EEG not localized<br />Functional Optical Brain Imaging<br /><ul><li>Safe, Affordable
  8. 8. Portable, Wireless, Wearable
  9. 9. Deployable in learning environments</li></li></ul><li>CONQUERCollabOrativeCognitive Neuroengineering & Quantitative Experimental Research Collaborative<br />a unique brain function research facility that houses <br />human experiment rooms equipped with <br /><ul><li>comprehensive suite of human brain activity monitoring modalities, such as </li></ul>near-infrared (NIR) based functional optical brain imaging [fNIR] <br />electroencephalogram [EEG]<br /><ul><li>experimental protocol design tools and simulation technologies </li></ul>sensor and device test & development labs<br />
  10. 10. CONQUER CollabOrative(Cont’s)Cognitive Neuroengineering & Quantitative Experimental Research Collaborative Laboratory<br />emphasis on collaborative interdisciplinary international research<br />Brain in Learning<br />Learning in virtual reality<br />Problem solving<br />Acquisition and learning of motor skills <br />Human Performance and Training<br />Cognitive workload assessment<br />Transition from novice to expert…<br />Brain Computer Interface (BCI)<br />Neurorehabilitation in Traumatic Brain injury… cognitive development… aging<br />Depth of Anesthesia Pediatric monitoring…<br />
  11. 11. PEOPLE<br />Adrian Curtin<br />
  12. 12. … enables the study of cortical activation-related to hemodynamic changes in natural environments and diverse field conditions <br />Functional Near-Infrared [fNIR] Spectroscopy<br />
  13. 13. Source<br />Detector<br />Physical Principles of fNIR<br />Photon Migration in Tissue<br />Photons that enter the tissue undergoes two types of interaction:<br /><ul><li> Scattering</li></ul>(cell membranes)<br /><ul><li> Absorption</li></ul>(Hb,HbO2water)<br />H Obrig  , R Wenzel, M Kohl, S Horst, P Wobst, J Steinbrink, F Thomas, A Villringer. Near-infrared spectroscopy: does it function in functional activation studies of the adult brain? International Journal of Psychophysiology 35(2-3):125-142, 2000 <br />
  14. 14. Physiological Principles of fNIR Neural Activity & Hemodynamic Response<br />Neurons consume energy (glucose) when activated<br />Oxygen is required to metabolize the glucose<br />As clusters of neurons are activated, there is an increased need for oxygen in that area<br />Oxygen is transported to neural tissue via oxy-hemoglobin in the blood<br />The oxygen exchange occurs in the capillary beds<br />As oxy-hemoglobin gives up oxygen to the neural tissue, it is transformed into deoxygenated hemoglobin<br />Oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb are correlates of brain activity through oxygen consumption by neurons<br />David J. Heeger & David Ress. (2002)What does fMRI tell us about neuronal activity? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, 142-151<br />
  15. 15. Near IR<br />Stimuli <br />Presentation<br />Peak<br />Oxygenation<br />Initial Dip<br />Post stimulus<br />undershoot<br />Principles of fNIR III<br />Optical Window in Tissue<br />.G<br />Io<br />I<br />.G<br />Modified<br />Beer-Lambert <br />Law<br />
  16. 16. Drexel fNIR Instrumentation<br />fNIR Technology Evolution<br />Wireless system<br />Fiber-Based Full Head Research System<br />Continuous Wave<br />Portable system<br />2001-08<br />2008-<br />
  17. 17. Assessment of Cognitive Function<br />Target Categorization<br />Target<br />fMRI Results<br />Infrequent Events Transiently Activate Human Prefrontal and Parietal Cortex as Measured by Functional MRI<br />Gregory Mccarthy, Marie Luby, John Gore, And Patricia Goldman-Rakic. J. Neurophysiol. 77: 1630–1634, 1997.<br />Courtesy of Dr. Scott Bunce<br />
  18. 18. Assessment of Cognitive Function<br />Target Categorization (Cont’d)<br />fNIR Results<br />fNIR Data<br />Right<br />Left<br />Izzetoglu M, Izzetoglu K, Bunce S, Ayaz, H, Devaraj A, Onaral B, Pourrezaei K “Functional Near Infrared Neuroimaging”, Accepted to IEEE Transaction on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering – Special Issue on Neural Engineering<br />
  19. 19. Assessment of Cognitive Function<br />Working Memory (n-back Task)<br />
  20. 20. Assessment of Cognitive Function<br />Working Memory (n-back Task)<br />n-back results performance>90%<br />Results agree with fMRI results from Smith & Jonides, 1997.<br />Izzetoglu M, Bunce S, Onaral B, “Single Trial Hemodynamic Response Estimation in Event Related fNIR Spectroscopy”, Proc. of Optical Society of America Conference, 2003<br />
  21. 21. Application Areas<br />fNIR Applications<br />Trainingand LearningApplications<br />Training and Workload Assessment of Soldiers and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Ground Controllers <br />Assessment of Cognitive Workload of Air Traffic Controllers<br />Problem Solving by Learners <br />Simulation and Multimedia Applications<br />Brain Computer Interface(BCI)<br />Computer Gaming<br />Clinical Applications<br />Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring<br />Traumatic Brain Injury and Neurorehabilitation… Cognitive Aging<br />Pediatric Applications…. Mental Health…<br />BCI in Neurodegenerative Diseases (i.e., ALS)<br />
  22. 22. Optimized Learning via Closed-Loop System(Brain in the Loop of Learning)<br />
  23. 23. A Real-Time Application to TrainingNovice to Expert Transitioning<br />UAV Ground Controllers<br />
  24. 24. Assessment of Cognitive Workload of Air Traffic Controllers<br />© FAA.gov http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/controller_staffing/video_plan/<br />Controller Workforce – A Plan for the Future<br /> Workload manipulated by number of planes: <br /> n= 6,12,18<br /> fNIR measures analyzed to perform comparison study between data & voice communications <br />
  25. 25. Human Performance Assessment<br />Solution for <br />natural environments<br />Cognitive Baselining & Performance Indices<br />
  26. 26. BIS Monitoring<br />fNIR Monitoring<br />Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring<br />Goal:To translate the existing laboratory fNIR system, into a first generation clinical prototype for a depth of anesthesia monitor to prevent awareness during surgery. <br />
  27. 27. Problem Solving & Math Learning<br />Tangrams<br />Arithmetic operations<br />
  28. 28. Multimedia Application<br />Brain Activity Monitoring in VR Environment<br />
  29. 29. PEOPLE<br />Adrian Curtin<br />