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Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
Metre and rhythm 1
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Metre and rhythm 1

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  • 1. Rhythm and Metre Dr Frances McCormack
  • 2. Scanning a poem:
    • Look, listen or feel for patterns of stress
    • Read the poems aloud
    • Tap out the rhythm as you read
    • Mark the stresses as you go along
  • 3. Stress
    • Refers to the emphasis given to one syllable over the others
    • The ‘push’
    • Try to say each syllable with a push and see which is correct
    • Write out your own name. Underline the stressed syllables…
    • Like this: Fran ces Mc Cor mack
    • Where does the stress fall on the following words?
    • Zebra, antelope, chimpanzee, bonobo, baboon
  • 4. Metrical feet
    • A foot is an arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables.
  • 5. Iamb
    • - /
    • (be hold , de light , a bout )
    • Two syllables, with the stress on the second
    • The most common type of foot in English verse: natural to spoken English
    • Is there an iamb in your name?
    • Raquel, Patrice, Ramón, Chantelle, O’ Shea, O’ Brien, McGlynn, Ahern
  • 6. Trochee
    • / -
    • ( ap ple, ga ther, feel ing)
    • Two syllables, with a stress on the first
    • Is there a trochee in your name?
    • Frances, Brendan, Carla, Cathy, Mary, Brian, Peter, Harney, Brennan, Jenkins
  • 7. Anapaest
    • - - /
    • (Tennes see , inter rupt , disap pear )
    • Three syllables, with a stress on the last
    • Is there an anapaest in your name?
    • Dominique, Lafayette, De La Salle, Marie-Claire
  • 8. Dactyl
    • / - -
    • ( scor pion, hap piness, sen timent)
    • Three syllables, with a stress on the first
    • Is there a dactyl in your name?
    • Jacqueline, Agatha, Millicent, Tabitha, Sullivan, Richardson
  • 9. Spondee
    • //
    • ( football , heartbreak )
    • Two syllables, both stressed
    • Anne Glynn, John Walsh, Pat Leigh, Phil Smith
  • 10. Amphibrach
    • - / -
    • (ba na na)
    • Three syllables, with a stress on the second
    • Lucretia, Patricia, Ricardo, McCormack, Kineavey
  • 11. Measure your name
    • Can you underline the stresses in your name and then determine which feet are used?
    • Fran ces Mc Cor mack: Trochee and amphibrach
    • What about those words from earlier?
    • Ze bra (trochee), an telope (dactyl), chimpan zee (anapaest), bo no bo (amphibrach), bab oon (iamb)
  • 12. NB
    • You don’t need to mark out every foot in a poem. You merely need to be able to point out the general rhythmic pattern of the poem, as well as points at which the pattern varies.
  • 13. Scanning lines of poetry
    • Divide the line into syllables
    • Hick|o|ry|-dick|o|ry| dock|,
    • the| mouse | ran | up |the | clock
    • Find polysyllabic words (words of more than one syllable) and mark the stressed syllables with a /
    • / /
    • Hick|o|ry|-dick|o|ry| dock|,
    • the| mouse | ran | up |the | clock
  • 14.
    • Mark the unstressed syllables in polysyllabic words with –
    • / - - / - -
    • Hick|o|ry|-dick|o|ry| dock|,
    • the| mouse | ran | up |the | clock
    • Figure out which monosyllabic words are stressed and unstressed:
    • / - - / - - /
    • Hick|o|ry|-dick|o|ry| dock|,
    • - / - / - /
    • the| mouse | ran | up |the | clock
  • 15. You can do this for the whole poem:
    • / - - / - - /
    • Hickory-dickory dock,
    • - / - / - /
    • the mouse ran up the clock.
    • - / - /
    • The clock struck one,
    • - / - /
    • The mouse ran down.
    • / - - / - - /
    • Hickory-dickory dock.
  • 16. Once you see a pattern, mark between each unit with |
    • / - - / - - / …two dactyls and a monosyllabic foot
    • Hickory|-dickory | dock,
    • - / - / - / …three iambs
    • the mouse | ran up | the clock.
    • - / - / …two iambs
    • The clock | struck one,
    • - / - / …two iambs
    • The mouse | ran down.
    • / - - / - - / …two dactyls and a monosyllabic foot
    • Hickory|-dickory | dock.
  • 17. We can describe the metrical lines as follows:
    • / - - / - - / …two dactyls and a monosyllabic foot = three feet
    • Hickory|-dickory | dock,
    • - / - / - / …three iambs = three feet
    • the mouse | ran up | the clock.
    • - / - / …two iambs = two feet
    • The clock | struck one,
    • - / - / …two iambs = two feet
    • The mouse | ran down.
    • / - - / - - / …two dactyls and a monosyllabic foot = three feet
    • Hickory|-dickory | dock.
  • 18. There is a shorthand:
    • Monometer: one-foot line
    • Dimeter: two-foot line
    • Trimeter: three-foot line
    • Tetrameter: four-foot line
    • Pentameter: five-foot line
    • Hexameter: six-foot line
    • Heptameter: seven-foot line
    • Octameter: eight-foot line
  • 19. Iambic Pentameter
    • Most common type of metre in English poetry
    • Iambic: made up of iambs
    • Pentameter: five feet to a line
    • Iambic pentameter: five iambs to a line
    • - / - / - / - / - / (da-DUM, da-DUM, da-DUM, da-DUM, da-DUM)
  • 20. Sonnet 73, William Shakespeare
    • That time of year thou mayst in me behold
    • When yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang
    • Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
    • Bare ruin’d choirs, where late the sweet birds sang…

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