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STATE COUNTER-INSURGENCY STATE COUNTER-TERROR
DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>United Irishmen and Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Organised over wide area </li></ul><...
 
DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>United Irishmen and Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Organised over wide area </li></ul><...
DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>French invasion - Bantry Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Response i...
DILEMNA <ul><li>Internal threat </li></ul><ul><li>forces should be spread out </li></ul><ul><li>External threat </li></ul>...
STATE FORCES <ul><li>Militia - not dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Sorted out by courts martial, executions </li></ul>
STATE FORCES <ul><li>Regular army - depleted </li></ul><ul><li>Fencibles - too young, old, unfit for regular army </li></ul>
STATE FORCES <ul><li>Need for a new loyal force </li></ul><ul><li>Yeomanry - Autumn 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally organis...
 
STATE FORCES <ul><li>Need for a new loyal force </li></ul><ul><li>Yeomanry - Autumn 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally organis...
 
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Insurrection Act in Antrim and Down - curfew, no habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>March 1797 - ‘disa...
 
 
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Insurrection Act in Antrim and Down - curfew, no habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>March 1797 - ‘disa...
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Took United Irishmen by surprise </li></ul><ul><li>000s of guns seized </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed ...
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul>
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul><ul><li>William Orr, Presbyt...
 
COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul><ul><li>William Orr, Presbyt...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>State had spy network </li></ul><ul><li>Well informed on all proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Letters re...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Informers </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard McNally - barrister, playwright </li></ul><ul><li>In Dublin Socie...
 
FRANCIS HIGGINS Editor of  Freeman’s Journal Ran a spy ring for government
 
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised in 19th-century histories </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fenian p...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Money for information - unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal observers...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Some failures </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t know Tone was in Paris </li><...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>No information on Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Less structured organi...
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Informers would not testify </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of high-profi...
 
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9) counter terror

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Transcript of "9) counter terror"

  1. 2. STATE COUNTER-INSURGENCY STATE COUNTER-TERROR
  2. 3. DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>United Irishmen and Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Organised over wide area </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed 150,000 members </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrating militia </li></ul>
  3. 5. DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>United Irishmen and Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Organised over wide area </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed 150,000 members </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrating militia </li></ul>
  4. 6. DOUBLE THREAT TO STATE 1796-7 <ul><li>French invasion - Bantry Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Response inefficient, chaotic </li></ul>
  5. 7. DILEMNA <ul><li>Internal threat </li></ul><ul><li>forces should be spread out </li></ul><ul><li>External threat </li></ul><ul><li>forces should be concentrated </li></ul>
  6. 8. STATE FORCES <ul><li>Militia - not dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Sorted out by courts martial, executions </li></ul>
  7. 9. STATE FORCES <ul><li>Regular army - depleted </li></ul><ul><li>Fencibles - too young, old, unfit for regular army </li></ul>
  8. 10. STATE FORCES <ul><li>Need for a new loyal force </li></ul><ul><li>Yeomanry - Autumn 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally organised, volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>End 1796 20,000 members </li></ul>
  9. 12. STATE FORCES <ul><li>Need for a new loyal force </li></ul><ul><li>Yeomanry - Autumn 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally organised, volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>End 1796 20,000 members </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal, Protestant, often Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Allied state with Orange Order </li></ul>
  10. 14. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Insurrection Act in Antrim and Down - curfew, no habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>March 1797 - ‘disarming of Ulster’ by General Lake </li></ul><ul><li>Houseburning, torture, execution - state terrorism </li></ul>
  11. 17. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Insurrection Act in Antrim and Down - curfew, no habeas corpus </li></ul><ul><li>March 1797 - ‘disarming of Ulster’ by General Lake </li></ul><ul><li>Houseburning, torture, execution - state terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Spring, summer 1797 </li></ul>
  12. 18. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Took United Irishmen by surprise </li></ul><ul><li>000s of guns seized </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed organisation </li></ul>
  13. 19. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul>
  14. 20. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul><ul><li>William Orr, Presbyterian farmer executed - ballads - martyr </li></ul>
  15. 22. COUNTER-TERROR <ul><li>Partly counter-productive - alienated as well as intimidated </li></ul><ul><li>William Orr, Presbyterian farmer executed - ballads - martyr </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees - spread fear </li></ul>
  16. 23. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>State had spy network </li></ul><ul><li>Well informed on all proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Letters read </li></ul>
  17. 24. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Informers </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard McNally - barrister, playwright </li></ul><ul><li>In Dublin Society from beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Charged 1794 - released </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied information 1794-1820 </li></ul><ul><li>Defended United Irishmen in court - gave info to prosecution </li></ul>
  18. 26. FRANCIS HIGGINS Editor of Freeman’s Journal Ran a spy ring for government
  19. 28. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised in 19th-century histories </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Fenian propaganda </li></ul>
  20. 29. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Money for information - unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal observers - magistrates - in panic </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult for Dublin Castle to evaluate </li></ul>
  21. 30. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Some failures </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t know Tone was in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised by Bantry Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised by Wexford rebellion </li></ul>
  22. 31. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>No information on Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Less structured organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful attempts at infiltration </li></ul>
  23. 32. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>How effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Informers would not testify </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of high-profile cases </li></ul>
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