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8) france

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  • 1.  
  • 2. UNITED IRISHMEN AND FRANCE
    • Final way of mobilising challenge to the state - military assistance
  • 3.
    • Revolutionary regime initially pacifist
    • 1792 - at war with Austria
    • 1793 - at war with Britain
    • Exporting revolution - republics in Netherlands, Italy
  • 4.
    • Revolutionary regime initially pacifist
    • 1792 - at war with Austria
    • 1793 - at war with Britain
    • Exporting revolution - republics in Netherlands, Italy
    • Civil war in Vendée - royalist Catholic opposition - with British aid
  • 5. FRENCH INVASION?
    • Not a new consideration
    • 1760 - French land in Carrickfergus
    • 1788 - French fleet off Cork
  • 6. UNITED IRISH EMISSARIES TO FRANCE
    • Continuous presence
    • Wolfe Tone in Paris from April 1796
  • 7. UNITED IRISH EMISSARIES TO FRANCE
    • Disadvantages
    • Different priorities - French want Irish to rise first, Irish want French landing first
  • 8. UNITED IRISH EMISSARIES TO FRANCE
    • Disadvantages
    • Different priorities - French want Irish to rise first, Irish want French landing first
    • Other competing countries - Poland, Netherlands
  • 9. UNITED IRISH EMISSARIES TO FRANCE
    • Advantages
    • Support of 2 figures
    • Lazare Carnot - member of Directory
    • Lazare Hoche - most prominent soldier
    • Both had fought in Vendée - wanted attack on Britain
  • 10. HOCHE’S EXPEDITION, DECEMBER 1796
    • sailed from Brest
    • 15,000 men – another 15,000 in reserve
    • Tone on board
    • Escaped British blockade
  • 11. HOCHE’S EXPEDITION, DECEMBER 1796
    • Scattered by storms
    • Part of fleet reached Bantry Bay
  • 12.  
  • 13. HOCHE’S EXPEDITION, DECEMBER 1796
    • Scattered by storms
    • Part of fleet reached Bantry Bay
    • No Hoche, no landing
    • Fleet returned to France, 1/3 sunk, 5,000 soldiers drowned
  • 14. CONSTERNATION IN IRELAND NO DEFENCES IN CORK MAJOR RECRUITMENT TO UNITED IRISHMEN STATE MOVES INTO FULL COUNTER-INSURGENCY MODE
  • 15. FRANCE AFTER 1796
    • Hoche fighting in Germany
    • Prepare fleet in Netherlands summer 1797 - invasion of Ulster
    • Blockade successful
    • Death of Hoche
    • Removal of Carnot in coup, Sept. 1797
  • 16.
    • Rebellion in Ireland, summer 1798
    • Took French by surprise
    • Prepared fleets - Brest 4,000 soldiers, Rochefort 1,000 soldiers
    • Rochefort force lands in Mayo August 1798 - General Humbert
  • 17.
    • Humbert expedition
    • Local recruits armed
    • Castlebar taken
    • ‘ Republic of Connaught’
    • Waited a week - set off for Ulster
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • Humbert expedition
    • Local recruits armed
    • Castlebar taken
    • ‘ Republic of Connaught’
    • Waited a week - set off for Ulster
    • Met larger army in Ballinamuck - surrendered
    • French force repatriated - Irish volunteers killed
  • 20.
    • Force from Brest sails Sept. 1798
    • Intercepted by British navy off Donegal
    • Tone captured
    • Death of Tone
  • 21. REASONS FOR FAILURE
    • Ireland low in French priorities - fighting on multiple fronts - Germany, Italy, Egypt
    • Possibility of invading Britain directly
    • Superiority of British navy
    • Warships 120/55, Other craft 400/65
  • 22. REASONS FOR FAILURE
    • Dilemna of United Irishmen
    • Exaggerated numbers - French commit proportionately less
  • 23. IF FRENCH INVASION HAD SUCCEEDED?
    • Short term
    • Instructions to Humbert: establish governmental structures, appoint Irish men
    • Independent Irish republic?
    • Not the experience elsewhere - Frenchmen in charge of continental republics
  • 24. IF FRENCH INVASION HAD SUCCEEDED?
    • Longer term:
    • End of war with Britain
    • Probably returned to Britain
    • Repression, Act of Union
  • 25.  

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