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CC110 Investigating Ancient Greece Myth and the Fighting Male (Clarke)  Lecture 5: Odysseus among the dead
Tomorrow’s Circus lecture <ul><li>Dr Mark Stansbury on “How to write an essay” </li></ul>
1.Nostos  – the journey home
1. Nestor and Mentor <ul><li>* men-  “mind, advice”  </li></ul><ul><li>Men-tor  “the one who gives advice, advisor” </li><...
2. Cunning in the house of Kirke
3. Gilgamesh, the hero of Mesopotamian epic
3. What Gilgamesh learns <ul><li>“ But you, you toiled away, and what did you achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>You exhaust yours...
4. What Odysseus must do <ul><li>- Kirke, fulfil the promise you made me, to give me passage home. </li></ul><ul><li>First...
5. What is this land of Hades?
6. Two story-patterns combined <ul><li>(a) calling up the dead from the grave (necromancy) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) going dow...
8. From Aeschylus’ play  Persians <ul><li>My lady queen, revered by the Persians, </li></ul><ul><li>You send libations to ...
9. The  katabasis  of Heracles <ul><li>Once, they say, the gate-wrecking, unconquerable son of thunder-flashing Zeus went ...
10. Journey through darkness <ul><li>Now the ship came to the furthest extent of Ocean’s deep stream. There is the land an...
11. Why does Elpenor die? <ul><li>There was one called Elpenor, the youngest of them, not over-brave in battle nor well eq...
12. The mystical journey of the shaman
13. Blood for the ghosts <ul><li>I cut the throats of the sheep at the trench, and the black-clouding blood flowed. And th...
14-15. What is revealed? <ul><li>Teiresias: “ “You ask about your joyful return (nostos), glorious Odysseus: but a god wil...
16. Family and loved ones <ul><li>“… it was longing for you, glorious Odysseus, for your wisdom and your gentle-hearted wa...
17. Agamemnon’s  nostos : a warning
18. Wisdom from Agamemnon <ul><li>“ So for sure there is nothing worse or more shameless than a woman who can cast around ...
19. The heroic triangle
20.  Kleos aphthiton : imperishable fame <ul><li>“ Speak not to me of death, glorious Odysseus! I had rather live on earth...
21. The quarrel over the armour
21…And what it led to
21. Was it all worth it? <ul><li>“ Aias, son of blameless Telamon, even after death could you not forget about me for your...
22. The  nostos  fulfilled (bks 13-24)
Floating images <ul><li>“ You must then set off, taking with you a well-balanced oar, and travel until you reach a people ...
Next lecture: rebirth and renewal (books 5-12 as a metaphor)
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2010 10 cc108_presentationsixhades

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Transcript of "2010 10 cc108_presentationsixhades"

  1. 1. CC110 Investigating Ancient Greece Myth and the Fighting Male (Clarke) Lecture 5: Odysseus among the dead
  2. 2. Tomorrow’s Circus lecture <ul><li>Dr Mark Stansbury on “How to write an essay” </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1.Nostos – the journey home
  4. 4. 1. Nestor and Mentor <ul><li>* men- “mind, advice” </li></ul><ul><li>Men-tor “the one who gives advice, advisor” </li></ul><ul><li>* nos-, nes- “wisdom, journey home” </li></ul><ul><li>Nes-tor “the wise one who gets home” </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Cunning in the house of Kirke
  6. 6. 3. Gilgamesh, the hero of Mesopotamian epic
  7. 7. 3. What Gilgamesh learns <ul><li>“ But you, you toiled away, and what did you achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>You exhaust yourself with endless toil, </li></ul><ul><li>You fill your sinews with sorrow, </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing forward the end of your days. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is snapped off like a reed in a canebrake! </li></ul><ul><li>The handsome young man, the pretty young woman – </li></ul><ul><li>All too soon death abducts them! </li></ul><ul><li>No-one at all sees death, </li></ul><ul><li>No-one at all sees the face of death, </li></ul><ul><li>No-one at all hears the voice of death, </li></ul><ul><li>Death so savage, who hacks man down. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever do we build our households, </li></ul><ul><li>Ever do we make our nests, </li></ul><ul><li>Ever do brothers divide their inheritance, </li></ul><ul><li>Ever do quarrels arise in the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever the river has risen and brought us the flood, </li></ul><ul><li>The mayfly floating on the water. </li></ul><ul><li>On the face of the sun its countenance gazes, </li></ul><ul><li>Then all of a sudden nothing is there!” </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4. What Odysseus must do <ul><li>- Kirke, fulfil the promise you made me, to give me passage home. </li></ul><ul><li>First you must complete another journey, and go to the house of </li></ul><ul><li>Hades and awesome Persephone, to consult the ghost of Teiresias, the blind prophet, whose thoughts are still undamaged; though he is dead, Persesphone has granted him the ability to breathe in thought, though the others are mere shadows that flit around. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5. What is this land of Hades?
  10. 10. 6. Two story-patterns combined <ul><li>(a) calling up the dead from the grave (necromancy) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) going down to the Underworld </li></ul><ul><li>( katabasis ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 8. From Aeschylus’ play Persians <ul><li>My lady queen, revered by the Persians, </li></ul><ul><li>You send libations to the chambers below the earth, </li></ul><ul><li>And we with hymns will ask </li></ul><ul><li>The escorts of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>To be benevolent beneath the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>You, pure gods of the underworld, </li></ul><ul><li>Earth and Hermes and the king of those below, </li></ul><ul><li>Send up the shade from below into the light. </li></ul><ul><li>For if he knows any further cure for our problems, </li></ul><ul><li>He alone of men could tell how to bring it to pass. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 9. The katabasis of Heracles <ul><li>Once, they say, the gate-wrecking, unconquerable son of thunder-flashing Zeus went down to the house of slender-ankled Persephone to fetch up to the light from Hades the jagged-toothed dog, son of unapproachable Echidna. There he perceived the shades of wretched mortals by the waters of Kokytos [‘Lamentation’, a river], like the leaves buffeted by the wind over the bright sheep-grazed headlands of Ida. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 10. Journey through darkness <ul><li>Now the ship came to the furthest extent of Ocean’s deep stream. There is the land and city of the Kimmerian people, covered in mist and cloud. The shining sun never looks down on these men with his rays, neither when he turns up to the starry sky nor when he turns again from sky to earth, but grim night stretches always over these poor mortals. When we arrived there we beached the ship… </li></ul>
  14. 14. 11. Why does Elpenor die? <ul><li>There was one called Elpenor, the youngest of them, not over-brave in battle nor well equipped with brains. He had drunk too much, and, looking for fresh air, had left the rest of my companions and gone to lie down on top of Kirke’s great house. When he heard the hum and clatter of the men stirring, he leapt up suddenly and it quite escaped his mind to go back down by the long ladder. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 12. The mystical journey of the shaman
  16. 16. 13. Blood for the ghosts <ul><li>I cut the throats of the sheep at the trench, and the black-clouding blood flowed. And the ghosts of the dead corpses gathered out of the gloom, young women and young men and exhausted elders, and soft young girls with hearts full of new pain; and many men pierced with bronze-tipped spears, men famed in war with their bloody armour on them; in a crowd they flitted back and forth around the trench, with appalling shrieking: and pale fear seized me . </li></ul>
  17. 17. 14-15. What is revealed? <ul><li>Teiresias: “ “You ask about your joyful return (nostos), glorious Odysseus: but a god will make it difficult for you. For I do not think that the Earthshaker [Poseidon] will stop, since he has put resentment in his heard, enraged because you blinded his dear son…Even if you yourself escape [from the island of the Sun-god], you will come home late and luckless, all companions lost, and on an alien ship; and you will find troubles in your house – overweening men consuming your livelihood and wooing your godlike wife and giving her gifts. But you will take vengeance on them for their violence when you come …” </li></ul>
  18. 18. 16. Family and loved ones <ul><li>“… it was longing for you, glorious Odysseus, for your wisdom and your gentle-hearted ways, which took sweet life from me” </li></ul>
  19. 19. 17. Agamemnon’s nostos : a warning
  20. 20. 18. Wisdom from Agamemnon <ul><li>“ So for sure there is nothing worse or more shameless than a woman who can cast around such deeds in her thoughts – the way she plotted an outrageous act, contriving the killing of her own wedded husband.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ But for you, Odysseus, there will be no murder from a woman: for the daughter of Ikarios, sound-minded Penelope, is too wise for that…But I will tell you another thing, and cast it around in your thoughts: when you bring your ship in to your dear native land, do it in secret, not openly: for women should never be trusted.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. 19. The heroic triangle
  22. 22. 20. Kleos aphthiton : imperishable fame <ul><li>“ Speak not to me of death, glorious Odysseus! I had rather live on earth and be a hired labourer for another man, for a small farmer without much livelihood, than be lord over all these dead corpses.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. 21. The quarrel over the armour
  24. 24. 21…And what it led to
  25. 25. 21. Was it all worth it? <ul><li>“ Aias, son of blameless Telamon, even after death could you not forget about me for your anger over that accursed armour? The gods set this as a punishment upon the Argives – such a tower of strength you were, and you were lost to us…” </li></ul><ul><li>So I spoke, but he answered nothing, and went away into the darkness with the other ghosts of the dead corpses. </li></ul>
  26. 26. 22. The nostos fulfilled (bks 13-24)
  27. 27. Floating images <ul><li>“ You must then set off, taking with you a well-balanced oar, and travel until you reach a people who do not know the sea…When another traveler meets you and speaks of the winnowing-fan held on your noble shoulders, then you should fix your well-balanced oar in the ground and make an offering to lord Poseidon…” (11.120ff.) </li></ul><ul><li>“ When this hooker gets to port I’m goin’ to put an oar on my shoulder and I’m goin’ to start walkin’ away from saltwater. I’m goin’ to keep right on walkin’ till some hairylegger says to me, ‘What’s that funny stick you have on your shoulder, matey?’ an’ right there I’m goin’ to settle down and dig potaters.” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Next lecture: rebirth and renewal (books 5-12 as a metaphor)
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