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12) rebellion b   wexford, ulster
 

12) rebellion b wexford, ulster

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    12) rebellion b   wexford, ulster 12) rebellion b wexford, ulster Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • WEXFORD REBELLION
      • High point - capture of Wexford town 30 May
      • No news - communications disrupted
      • Expecting French landing
      • Boat captured 2 June - Dublin not taken - other counties failed
      • Decision - break out of county - New Ross, Newtownbarry (Bunclody), Arklow
    •  
    • REBELLION
      • Army divides
      • Half marches to New Ross
      • Town had been reinforced
      • Attacked on 5 June - took most of town - fierce street fighting, huge casualties - rebels run out of ammunition - counter attack, rebel retreat
    •  
    • NEW ROSS
      • Biggest battle of rebellion - 2,000 rebels dead
      • Rebel army disperses - 10,000 down to 2-3,000
      • Atrocity stories - Scullabogue - barn containing loyalist prisoners set on fire
    •  
    • ARKLOW
      • 9 June attack
      • As New Ross, fierce street fighting, rebels driven back
    •  
    • ARKLOW
      • 9 June attack
      • As New Ross, fierce street fighting, rebels driven back
      • Decision - continue field battles or guerilla?
      • Stay with field - camp near Enniscorthy
    • STATE CAMPAIGN
      • Lull of ten days after Arklow
      • Rebellion in Antrim and Down
      • Advance into Wexford from North and South-west
      • Vinegar Hill 21 June - victory for government - many rebels escape
    • FINAL EXPEDITIONS
      • To provoke rebellion elsewhere
      • Carlow, Kilkenny, Queen’s (Laois), return to Wexford, defeated 26 June
      • Wicklow, Kildare, Meath, defeated 14 July
    •  
    • SECTARIAN?
      • Presented as sectarian in much history writing
      • Not sectarian in origin - but sectarian incidents
      • Sectarian aftermath - burning of Catholic chapels - 27 in North Wexford, 15 in South Wicklow, 16 in rest of country
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • WHY SUCCESS AND DURATION?
      • Unique nature of society
      • Topography
      • Initial success
      • Slow government response - Rebellion in Antrim and Down
    • WHY SUCCESS AND DURATION?
      • Unique nature of society
      • Topography
      • Initial success
      • Slow government response - Rebellion in Antrim and Down
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM AND DOWN
      • No rebellion in May 1798
      • Rising in June
      • Short initial success, then rapid and total defeat
      • Nothing elsewhere in Ulster
    • UNITED IRISHMEN IN ULSTER
      • Founded in Belfast
      • Largest membership
      • State regarded Ulster as centre of sedition - focus of counter-terror campaign
    • WHY NOT A LARGER REBELLION?
      • Moderates left from 1793 on
      • Aims become more radical - others leave
      • Gradual disillusion with France, French Revolution - conquered territories, American shipping
    • STRENGTH IN ULSTER COUNTRYSIDE
      • Tenant farmers, weavers
      • Surge after Bantry Bay
      • Peak in summer 1797 - c.50,000
      • Destroyed by state campaign
      • Focus shifted to Leinster
      • May 1798 - nothing in Ulster
    • WHY EAST ULSTER?
      • Different to rest of Ulster
      • Majority Presbyterian - up to 90%
    •  
    • WHY EAST ULSTER?
      • Different to rest of Ulster
      • Majority Presbyterian - up to 90%
      • 20 ministers involved, 3 executed
      • Landed elite Anglican, political power Anglican
    • WHY EAST ULSTER?
      • Elsewhere in Ulster - more Anglican
    •  
    • WHY EAST ULSTER?
      • Elsewhere in Ulster - more Anglican
      • Popular loyalism Anglican - eg. Yeomanry corps
      • North Down - difficult to establish yeomanry
    • REBELLION
      • After arrest of leadership March 1798 - little communication with Dublin
      • No rebellion in May
      • Late May - Ulster leadership meets
      • Younger more radical members elect leader - Henry Joy McCracken - plan rebellion
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM
      • Belfast not a possible target
      • Antrim town - magistrates meeting 7 June - focus of attack
      • Elsewhere units take own town, march on Belfast
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM
      • Night of 6-7 June
      • Took Larne
      • Attacked Ballymena
      • Large force assembled near Glenarm
      • Attack on Coleraine
    •  
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM
      • Main attack - Antrim town
      • State decision - withdraw to Belfast or defend town
      • State troops were reinforced
      • Attack unsuccessful
      • Rebels disperse
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM
      • Ballymena held for 3 days
      • ‘ Committee of Public Safety’
      • State army arrives, offers amnesty
      • Most take
      • Similar in Glenarm
    • REBELLION IN DOWN
      • Newtownards captured
      • Bangor captured - cannon taken from ships
      • Attack on Portaferry
      • 9 June - ambush of state force at Saintfield - heavy losses
    •  
    • REBELLION IN DOWN
      • Early victory in Saintfield encourages turnout (like Wexford)
      • 5,000 join rebel army
      • Moves to Ballynahinch 11 June
      • State troops withdraw to fortified towns
    • REBELLION IN DOWN
      • 12 June - state army leaves Belfast
      • Bombards rebel camp
      • 13 June Battle of Ballynahinch
      • Total defeat of rebels
      • Severe reprisals - dozens hanged, houses burned
    • REBELLION IN ANTRIM AND DOWN
      • Like Kildare and Carlow - brief, easily defeated
      • Fought over wide area
      • Perhaps 20,000 ‘turned out’
    •  
    • 1798 & PRESBYTERIANISM
      • A Presbyterian rebellion
      • Most rebels + involvement of clergy
      • Overall, a minority of Presbyterians - the radical republican element
      • 1798 marked end of influence of this element
    • 1798 & PRESBYTERIANISM
      • Alliance with Catholics in 1790s
      • Tone’s Argument
      • Failure of rebellion - two groups moved apart again
      • Presbyterians gradually become anti-Catholic, conservative
    • 1798 & PRESBYTERIANISM
      • Alienation also from France
      • Initially welcomed revolution
      • French regime seen as more aggressive during 1790s
      • Process continued after 1800 - no longer a republic, settled with papacy
    • PRESBYTERIANISM AFTER 1800
      • Settlement with state - payment of ministers
      • Evangelicalism after 1820 - missionary drives - alienate Catholic church
      • Ultimately sided with Anglicans in ‘Ulster Protestantism’