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UNITED IRISHMEN <ul><li>1791-4 - open reformist organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressed 1794 - by 1795 a secret military...
UNITED IRISHMEN <ul><li>Strategies after 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrate state forces - militia </li></ul><ul><li>Ally w...
STATE RESPONSE <ul><li>Purge militia </li></ul><ul><li>New forces - Yeomanry 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence - surveil...
REBELLION OF 1798 <ul><li>2 issues </li></ul><ul><li>Timing - long after French expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Location - We...
TIMING <ul><li>After Bantry Bay, December 1796 - surge in recruitment in United Irishmen </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers doubled...
<ul><li>United Irish dilemna </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for French - but French less interested </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed with...
<ul><li>1797 - mainly state counter-terror </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted United Irish organisation in east Ulster - then mov...
LOCATION OF REBELLION <ul><li>Areas of insurgency 1796, 1797 –south Ulster, West Ulster, East Munster, North Leinster – do...
WEST ULSTER <ul><li>Derry - radical republican presence from early 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>Bastille day parades from 1790 ...
WEST ULSTER <ul><li>Attacks through 1796-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Divided on strategy - leadership more cautious - merchants, s...
MUNSTER <ul><li>Disturbed since 1760s - Whiteboys, Rightboys </li></ul><ul><li>United Irish organisation in 1790s </li></u...
MUNSTER <ul><li>Tipperary – United Irishmen organised by Catholic gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Supposed commander – Hervey Moo...
 
MUNSTER <ul><li>Two short risings – late, after defeat of main rising in Wexford </li></ul><ul><li>Clonakilty 19 June ‘Bat...
UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>Initially strongest in East Ulster </li></ul><ul><li>State terror concentrated ther...
UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>Rebellion to begin in Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Seize capital  </li></ul><ul><li>Sur...
<ul><li>March 1798 - meeting of Leinster committee to decide on rising </li></ul><ul><li>Government warned - arrested enti...
UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>24th May </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion in Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of mailcoa...
 
KILDARE 24 MAY <ul><li>Naas attacked by 1,000 men - attack defeated, 100 dead </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperous - successful at...
 
KILDARE 24 MAY <ul><li>Ballitore captured by several hundred - joined by a few thousand - army defeated, hundreds killed <...
KILDARE 25 MAY <ul><li>Monasterevan attacked by 1,500 - defeated by militia </li></ul><ul><li>Rathangan attacked, taken </...
 
KILDARE 26 MAY <ul><li>Rebels control South Kildare </li></ul><ul><li>What next? Dublin not risen, Carlow and Meath rebell...
KILDARE AFTER 26 MAY <ul><li>Rebels began surrendering </li></ul><ul><li>Some freed, some killed </li></ul><ul><li>Many di...
MEATH <ul><li>Attacks on Dunshaughlin, Dunboyne, Ratoath </li></ul><ul><li>Main battle - Hill of Tara </li></ul><ul><li>4-...
 
CARLOW <ul><li>Attack on Carlow town 26 May </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Account in your document pack </l...
REBELLION IN WEXFORD <ul><li>Largest rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>2 puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Why in Wexford? Quiet beforeh...
NOT TROUBLED BEFORE <ul><li>United Irishmen centred in Belfast and Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Defenders strongest in South U...
STANDARD EXPLANATION <ul><li>Catholic nationalism in late 19th and 20th centuries - Catholic rebellion - led by Fr. Murphy...
STANDARD EXPLANATION <ul><li>But - religious divide not political divide </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant rebels, rebel leader...
RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Wexford had an unusual religious configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Major English settlement in 162...
RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Surviving Catholic gentry - network of landowning families - trade - contact with France </li></...
RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Political division on religious question - but not on religious lines </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal ...
ECONOMIC FACTOR <ul><li>North Wexford - barley area, main producer of malt </li></ul><ul><li>War - end of bounties on barl...
OUT OF THE BLUE? <ul><li>Major militia riot 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Orange lodges founded from summer 1797 in North Wexford...
REBELLION <ul><li>No message from Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Confused mobilisation 26-7 May </li></ul><ul><li>Early success ...
 
REBELLION <ul><li>Mobilisation without interference </li></ul><ul><li>Oulart hill </li></ul><ul><li>Militia attack 27th Ma...
REBELLION <ul><li>28th May - rebels took Enniscorthy - army of c.6,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater success than elsewhere </...
 
REBELLION <ul><li>30th May - capture of Wexford town </li></ul><ul><li>Some luck - ambushed militia force - took cannon </...
 
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11) rebellion a kildare, wexford

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Transcript of "11) rebellion a kildare, wexford"

  1. 2. UNITED IRISHMEN <ul><li>1791-4 - open reformist organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressed 1794 - by 1795 a secret military revolutionary organisation </li></ul>
  2. 3. UNITED IRISHMEN <ul><li>Strategies after 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrate state forces - militia </li></ul><ul><li>Ally with Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Military alliance with France - Bantry Bay expedition December 1796 </li></ul>
  3. 4. STATE RESPONSE <ul><li>Purge militia </li></ul><ul><li>New forces - Yeomanry 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence - surveillance, informers </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-insurgency, counter-terror - from late 1796 martial law, torture, houseburning </li></ul>
  4. 5. REBELLION OF 1798 <ul><li>2 issues </li></ul><ul><li>Timing - long after French expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Location - Wexford, largest rebellion - also Antrim, Down, Kildare - but north Leinster, south Ulster quiet </li></ul>
  5. 6. TIMING <ul><li>After Bantry Bay, December 1796 - surge in recruitment in United Irishmen </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers doubled, even tripled in early 1797 </li></ul><ul><li>Most counties - 10-15,000 sworn - eg Kildare early 1798 - 12,000 (on paper) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>United Irish dilemna </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for French - but French less interested </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed with armed rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>State dilemna </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate troops against invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Disperse troops against guerillas </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>1797 - mainly state counter-terror </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted United Irish organisation in east Ulster - then moved into south Ulster, then through Leinster </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of disruption --> geography of risings </li></ul>
  8. 9. LOCATION OF REBELLION <ul><li>Areas of insurgency 1796, 1797 –south Ulster, West Ulster, East Munster, North Leinster – don’t rise </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with longer tradition of violence – Armagh, East Munster – don’t rise </li></ul><ul><li>Main rebellion - Wexford - quiet before 1798 </li></ul>
  9. 10. WEST ULSTER <ul><li>Derry - radical republican presence from early 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>Bastille day parades from 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of Man (Paine) printed 1791 </li></ul><ul><li>United Irishmen late 1796: Derry 8,000, Tyrone 6,500, Donegal 3,000 - rapid rise in 1797 </li></ul>
  10. 11. WEST ULSTER <ul><li>Attacks through 1796-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Divided on strategy - leadership more cautious - merchants, some landowners </li></ul><ul><li>ferocious counter-insurgency – whipping, house burning, suspension of normal law </li></ul><ul><li>No rebellion </li></ul>
  11. 12. MUNSTER <ul><li>Disturbed since 1760s - Whiteboys, Rightboys </li></ul><ul><li>United Irish organisation in 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly 50,000 in Co. Cork 1798 </li></ul>
  12. 13. MUNSTER <ul><li>Tipperary – United Irishmen organised by Catholic gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Supposed commander – Hervey Moores – ex-Austrian army </li></ul><ul><li>Some activity – eg Cahir March 1798 – taken over for a few hours by men in black uniforms – all guns seized </li></ul><ul><li>As in Ulster – leadership divided – and counter-terror </li></ul>
  13. 15. MUNSTER <ul><li>Two short risings – late, after defeat of main rising in Wexford </li></ul><ul><li>Clonakilty 19 June ‘Battle of the Big Cross’ – ambush of militia by several hundred UI – 30 or 40 UI killed </li></ul><ul><li>Slievenamon July – maybe 100 killed </li></ul>
  14. 16. UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>Initially strongest in East Ulster </li></ul><ul><li>State terror concentrated there - organisation seriously disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Focus shifts to Leinster </li></ul><ul><li>Centred in Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Strong presence in ring around capital - Meath, Kildare, Carlow, Wicklow </li></ul>
  15. 17. UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>Rebellion to begin in Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Seize capital </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding counties rise and converge on Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Decision repeatedly postponed - rumours of French preparation </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>March 1798 - meeting of Leinster committee to decide on rising </li></ul><ul><li>Government warned - arrested entire leadership </li></ul><ul><li>30 March - martial law for entire country - houses burnt, torture, flogging, arrests </li></ul><ul><li>Created fear of general massacre </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion now necessary - or annihilation </li></ul>
  17. 19. UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY <ul><li>24th May </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion in Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of mailcoaches - signal to other counties </li></ul><ul><li>But - Dublin flooded with troops - no success </li></ul>
  18. 21. KILDARE 24 MAY <ul><li>Naas attacked by 1,000 men - attack defeated, 100 dead </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperous - successful attack - 30-50 militia killed </li></ul><ul><li>Clane attacked by 300 - defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Kilcullen - attack successful initially, then counterattacked - 150-300 dead </li></ul>
  19. 23. KILDARE 24 MAY <ul><li>Ballitore captured by several hundred - joined by a few thousand - army defeated, hundreds killed </li></ul><ul><li>State forces withdraw to fortified towns - Naas, Athy </li></ul><ul><li>Kildare town taken by 2,000 without fight </li></ul>
  20. 24. KILDARE 25 MAY <ul><li>Monasterevan attacked by 1,500 - defeated by militia </li></ul><ul><li>Rathangan attacked, taken </li></ul>
  21. 26. KILDARE 26 MAY <ul><li>Rebels control South Kildare </li></ul><ul><li>What next? Dublin not risen, Carlow and Meath rebellions defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Victory by default - state withdrew to towns, did not always engage </li></ul><ul><li>When fighting took place, artillery of state a deciding factor </li></ul>
  22. 27. KILDARE AFTER 26 MAY <ul><li>Rebels began surrendering </li></ul><ul><li>Some freed, some killed </li></ul><ul><li>Many did not surrender, made camps in bogs, guerilla warfare until mid-June </li></ul>
  23. 28. MEATH <ul><li>Attacks on Dunshaughlin, Dunboyne, Ratoath </li></ul><ul><li>Main battle - Hill of Tara </li></ul><ul><li>4-5,000 United Irishmen on 26 May </li></ul><ul><li>Good defensive position </li></ul><ul><li>Rebels attacked yeomanry, defeated </li></ul><ul><li>350 rebels killed </li></ul>
  24. 30. CARLOW <ul><li>Attack on Carlow town 26 May </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Account in your document pack </li></ul><ul><li>William Farrell - sadlier </li></ul><ul><li>Written in 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>By participant - but not given in court </li></ul>
  25. 31. REBELLION IN WEXFORD <ul><li>Largest rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>2 puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Why in Wexford? Quiet beforehand </li></ul><ul><li>Why so successful? Rebels held county for 3/4 weeks </li></ul>
  26. 32. NOT TROUBLED BEFORE <ul><li>United Irishmen centred in Belfast and Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Defenders strongest in South Ulster, North Leinster </li></ul><ul><li>Little agrarian protest in 18th century </li></ul><ul><li>Few reports to government in 1790s </li></ul>
  27. 33. STANDARD EXPLANATION <ul><li>Catholic nationalism in late 19th and 20th centuries - Catholic rebellion - led by Fr. Murphy - responding to state provocation </li></ul><ul><li>Unionist historians shared explanation </li></ul>
  28. 34. STANDARD EXPLANATION <ul><li>But - religious divide not political divide </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant rebels, rebel leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church strongly anti-rebel - Bishop Caulfield of Ferns </li></ul>
  29. 35. RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Wexford had an unusual religious configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Major English settlement in 1620s and 1630s - Protestant farming class </li></ul><ul><li>North Wexford/South Wicklow - largest Protestant population outside Ulster </li></ul>
  30. 36. RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Surviving Catholic gentry - network of landowning families - trade - contact with France </li></ul><ul><li>Overall - religious divisions in all social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic question explosive </li></ul><ul><li>Tension at elections in 1790s </li></ul>
  31. 37. RELIGIOUS ELEMENT <ul><li>Political division on religious question - but not on religious lines </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal Protestants - United Irishmen </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Catholics - sided with state </li></ul><ul><li>Younger radical Catholics - United Irishmen </li></ul>
  32. 38. ECONOMIC FACTOR <ul><li>North Wexford - barley area, main producer of malt </li></ul><ul><li>War - end of bounties on barley and malt </li></ul><ul><li>Wartime taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Severe difficulty by 1798 </li></ul>
  33. 39. OUT OF THE BLUE? <ul><li>Major militia riot 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Orange lodges founded from summer 1797 in North Wexford, South Wicklow </li></ul><ul><li>November 1797 - 16 parishes declared to be in state of rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-terror campaign - April 1798 </li></ul>
  34. 40. REBELLION <ul><li>No message from Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Confused mobilisation 26-7 May </li></ul><ul><li>Early success - contrast to Kildare, Carlow </li></ul><ul><li>State troops not visible - scattered garrisons - few troops east of river Slaney </li></ul>
  35. 42. REBELLION <ul><li>Mobilisation without interference </li></ul><ul><li>Oulart hill </li></ul><ul><li>Militia attack 27th May - heavily defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages ‘turn out’ </li></ul><ul><li>State troops retreat to towns - Enniscorthy, Arklow, Wexford </li></ul>
  36. 43. REBELLION <ul><li>28th May - rebels took Enniscorthy - army of c.6,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater success than elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Had time to gather army - took fortified town </li></ul><ul><li>Capture of Enniscorthy encourages mobilisation in west of county </li></ul>
  37. 45. REBELLION <ul><li>30th May - capture of Wexford town </li></ul><ul><li>Some luck - ambushed militia force - took cannon </li></ul><ul><li>Wexford garrison surrendered town </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages turnout in S. Wexford </li></ul><ul><li>Entire county under rebel control - only one to have succeeded </li></ul>
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