11) rebellion a   kildare, wexford
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11) rebellion a kildare, wexford

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11) rebellion a   kildare, wexford 11) rebellion a kildare, wexford Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • UNITED IRISHMEN
    • 1791-4 - open reformist organisation
    • Suppressed 1794 - by 1795 a secret military revolutionary organisation
  • UNITED IRISHMEN
    • Strategies after 1795
    • Infiltrate state forces - militia
    • Ally with Defenders
    • Propaganda campaign
    • Military alliance with France - Bantry Bay expedition December 1796
  • STATE RESPONSE
    • Purge militia
    • New forces - Yeomanry 1796
    • Intelligence - surveillance, informers
    • Counter-insurgency, counter-terror - from late 1796 martial law, torture, houseburning
  • REBELLION OF 1798
    • 2 issues
    • Timing - long after French expedition
    • Location - Wexford, largest rebellion - also Antrim, Down, Kildare - but north Leinster, south Ulster quiet
  • TIMING
    • After Bantry Bay, December 1796 - surge in recruitment in United Irishmen
    • Numbers doubled, even tripled in early 1797
    • Most counties - 10-15,000 sworn - eg Kildare early 1798 - 12,000 (on paper)
    • United Irish dilemna
    • Wait for French - but French less interested
    • Proceed with armed rebellion
    • State dilemna
    • Concentrate troops against invasion
    • Disperse troops against guerillas
    • 1797 - mainly state counter-terror
    • Disrupted United Irish organisation in east Ulster - then moved into south Ulster, then through Leinster
    • Extent of disruption --> geography of risings
  • LOCATION OF REBELLION
    • Areas of insurgency 1796, 1797 –south Ulster, West Ulster, East Munster, North Leinster – don’t rise
    • Areas with longer tradition of violence – Armagh, East Munster – don’t rise
    • Main rebellion - Wexford - quiet before 1798
  • WEST ULSTER
    • Derry - radical republican presence from early 1790s
    • Bastille day parades from 1790
    • Rights of Man (Paine) printed 1791
    • United Irishmen late 1796: Derry 8,000, Tyrone 6,500, Donegal 3,000 - rapid rise in 1797
  • WEST ULSTER
    • Attacks through 1796-7
    • Divided on strategy - leadership more cautious - merchants, some landowners
    • ferocious counter-insurgency – whipping, house burning, suspension of normal law
    • No rebellion
  • MUNSTER
    • Disturbed since 1760s - Whiteboys, Rightboys
    • United Irish organisation in 1790s
    • Possibly 50,000 in Co. Cork 1798
  • MUNSTER
    • Tipperary – United Irishmen organised by Catholic gentry
    • Supposed commander – Hervey Moores – ex-Austrian army
    • Some activity – eg Cahir March 1798 – taken over for a few hours by men in black uniforms – all guns seized
    • As in Ulster – leadership divided – and counter-terror
  •  
  • MUNSTER
    • Two short risings – late, after defeat of main rising in Wexford
    • Clonakilty 19 June ‘Battle of the Big Cross’ – ambush of militia by several hundred UI – 30 or 40 UI killed
    • Slievenamon July – maybe 100 killed
  • UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY
    • Initially strongest in East Ulster
    • State terror concentrated there - organisation seriously disrupted
    • Focus shifts to Leinster
    • Centred in Dublin
    • Strong presence in ring around capital - Meath, Kildare, Carlow, Wicklow
  • UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY
    • Rebellion to begin in Dublin
    • Seize capital
    • Surrounding counties rise and converge on Dublin
    • Decision repeatedly postponed - rumours of French preparation
    • March 1798 - meeting of Leinster committee to decide on rising
    • Government warned - arrested entire leadership
    • 30 March - martial law for entire country - houses burnt, torture, flogging, arrests
    • Created fear of general massacre
    • Rebellion now necessary - or annihilation
  • UNITED IRISH NATIONAL STRATEGY
    • 24th May
    • Rebellion in Dublin
    • Seizure of mailcoaches - signal to other counties
    • But - Dublin flooded with troops - no success
  •  
  • KILDARE 24 MAY
    • Naas attacked by 1,000 men - attack defeated, 100 dead
    • Prosperous - successful attack - 30-50 militia killed
    • Clane attacked by 300 - defeated
    • Kilcullen - attack successful initially, then counterattacked - 150-300 dead
  •  
  • KILDARE 24 MAY
    • Ballitore captured by several hundred - joined by a few thousand - army defeated, hundreds killed
    • State forces withdraw to fortified towns - Naas, Athy
    • Kildare town taken by 2,000 without fight
  • KILDARE 25 MAY
    • Monasterevan attacked by 1,500 - defeated by militia
    • Rathangan attacked, taken
  •  
  • KILDARE 26 MAY
    • Rebels control South Kildare
    • What next? Dublin not risen, Carlow and Meath rebellions defeated
    • Victory by default - state withdrew to towns, did not always engage
    • When fighting took place, artillery of state a deciding factor
  • KILDARE AFTER 26 MAY
    • Rebels began surrendering
    • Some freed, some killed
    • Many did not surrender, made camps in bogs, guerilla warfare until mid-June
  • MEATH
    • Attacks on Dunshaughlin, Dunboyne, Ratoath
    • Main battle - Hill of Tara
    • 4-5,000 United Irishmen on 26 May
    • Good defensive position
    • Rebels attacked yeomanry, defeated
    • 350 rebels killed
  •  
  • CARLOW
    • Attack on Carlow town 26 May
    • Defeated
    • Account in your document pack
    • William Farrell - sadlier
    • Written in 1830s
    • By participant - but not given in court
  • REBELLION IN WEXFORD
    • Largest rebellion
    • 2 puzzles
    • Why in Wexford? Quiet beforehand
    • Why so successful? Rebels held county for 3/4 weeks
  • NOT TROUBLED BEFORE
    • United Irishmen centred in Belfast and Dublin
    • Defenders strongest in South Ulster, North Leinster
    • Little agrarian protest in 18th century
    • Few reports to government in 1790s
  • STANDARD EXPLANATION
    • Catholic nationalism in late 19th and 20th centuries - Catholic rebellion - led by Fr. Murphy - responding to state provocation
    • Unionist historians shared explanation
  • STANDARD EXPLANATION
    • But - religious divide not political divide
    • Protestant rebels, rebel leaders
    • Catholic Church strongly anti-rebel - Bishop Caulfield of Ferns
  • RELIGIOUS ELEMENT
    • Wexford had an unusual religious configuration
    • Major English settlement in 1620s and 1630s - Protestant farming class
    • North Wexford/South Wicklow - largest Protestant population outside Ulster
  • RELIGIOUS ELEMENT
    • Surviving Catholic gentry - network of landowning families - trade - contact with France
    • Overall - religious divisions in all social classes
    • Catholic question explosive
    • Tension at elections in 1790s
  • RELIGIOUS ELEMENT
    • Political division on religious question - but not on religious lines
    • Liberal Protestants - United Irishmen
    • Conservative Catholics - sided with state
    • Younger radical Catholics - United Irishmen
  • ECONOMIC FACTOR
    • North Wexford - barley area, main producer of malt
    • War - end of bounties on barley and malt
    • Wartime taxation
    • Severe difficulty by 1798
  • OUT OF THE BLUE?
    • Major militia riot 1793
    • Orange lodges founded from summer 1797 in North Wexford, South Wicklow
    • November 1797 - 16 parishes declared to be in state of rebellion
    • Counter-terror campaign - April 1798
  • REBELLION
    • No message from Dublin
    • Confused mobilisation 26-7 May
    • Early success - contrast to Kildare, Carlow
    • State troops not visible - scattered garrisons - few troops east of river Slaney
  •  
  • REBELLION
    • Mobilisation without interference
    • Oulart hill
    • Militia attack 27th May - heavily defeated
    • Encourages ‘turn out’
    • State troops retreat to towns - Enniscorthy, Arklow, Wexford
  • REBELLION
    • 28th May - rebels took Enniscorthy - army of c.6,000
    • Greater success than elsewhere
    • Had time to gather army - took fortified town
    • Capture of Enniscorthy encourages mobilisation in west of county
  •  
  • REBELLION
    • 30th May - capture of Wexford town
    • Some luck - ambushed militia force - took cannon
    • Wexford garrison surrendered town
    • Encourages turnout in S. Wexford
    • Entire county under rebel control - only one to have succeeded
  •