IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

Social navigation, user-to-user mediation
and participatory mediati...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

agenda
 social navigation
 user-to-user mediation
 participatory...
social navigation
= following traces of others
in spaces with affordances
for leaving traces
(Björneborn 2011. Behavioural...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

social navigation
 ‟social navigation‟
• Dourish & Chalmers (1994)...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

user participation = more affordances
for leaving traces and follow...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

typology: user-to-user mediation & social navigation

6

(Björnebor...
indirect user-to-user mediation and social navigation

mediation spaces with affordances
both for leaving traces
and follo...
mediation spaces with affordances
both for leaving traces
and following traces

8
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

”participatory mediation spaces”
= more affordances for interaction...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

“participatory cultural institutions”
•

“

I define a participator...
“participatory museum”

11

Denver Art Museum: visitors make their own rock music posters,
by remixing clips from real pos...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

participatory culture

(Jenkins et al. 2006:7)

1.

With relatively...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

new media literacies

cf. Björneborn (2011):

(Jenkins et al. 2006:...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

barriers for participation

(Björneborn 2013 work-in-progress)

tec...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

Nielsen, Jakob (2006). Participation inequality: lurkers vs. contri...
creators

conversationalists

critics

collectors

joiners

spectators

inactives
16

‟participation ladder‟

http://forre...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

participatory options for all
“… some people … are drawn to create,...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

“low threshold + high ceiling”
 “In cultures of participation, not...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

„scaffolding‟
 “The best participatory experiences

are not wide o...
„scaffolding‟

20

Denver Art Museum: visitors make their own rock music posters,
by remixing clips from real posters (Sim...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

encouraging to contribute
 Nielsen, J. (2006). Participation inequ...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

„meta-design‟ + „loose fit‟
 „meta-design‟: “creates open systems ...
„memex‟

23

Vannevar Bush (1945). „As we may think‟.
ill. from version in Life Magazine, September 10, 1945
24

Ted Nelson, 1965 – „hypertext‟
25

Baran (1964). „On Distributed Communications‟
26

Tim Berners Lee, 1989/90 – „World-Wide Web‟
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

”the adjacent possible”
“It just may be the case that biospheres
on...
Internet = computer network
= new „adjacent possibles‟

28

Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013

Ericsson Medialab
Web = document network

29 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013

www.cybergeography.org/atlas/

= new „adjacent possibles‟
= new „adjacent possibles‟

30 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013

Adamic et al. (2003). A social network caught in the Web...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

“Social Software Building Blocks”
(Smith 2007)

• Identity - unique...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

(Kietzmann et al. 2011)
32
33
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

4 network layers in digital mediation spaces
 reachability stru...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

”participatory mediation spaces”
= more affordances for interaction...
IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science

summing up
 social navigation
 user-to-user mediation
 participa...
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Social navigation, user-to-user mediation and participatory mediation spaces

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My slides from teaching a BSc course on user behaviour and social media, fall 2013.

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Social navigation, user-to-user mediation and participatory mediation spaces

  1. 1. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science Social navigation, user-to-user mediation and participatory mediation spaces Lennart Björneborn Associate Professor, PhD IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science University of Copenhagen LB@iva.dk http://ku-dk.academia.edu/Bjorneborn BSc course „User behaviour‟, fall 2013
  2. 2. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science agenda  social navigation  user-to-user mediation  participatory mediation spaces  barriers for participation  designing participatory affordances  “adjacent possibles” 2 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  3. 3. social navigation = following traces of others in spaces with affordances for leaving traces (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …) 3 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  4. 4. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science social navigation  ‟social navigation‟ • Dourish & Chalmers (1994). Running out of space: models of information navigation. HCI'94.  “moving through an information space and exploiting the activities and orientations of others in that space” • Dourish (2003). Where the footprints lead. pp. 273-291. In: Höök et al. (eds.). Designing Information Spaces: the Social Navigation Approach.  users‟ activities are guided by other users‟ activities mediated in some way between users in a given space • Björneborn (2011). Behavioural traces and indirect user-to-user mediation in the participatory library. http://ku-dk.academia.edu/Bjorneborn 4
  5. 5. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science user participation = more affordances for leaving traces and following traces in whole „life-wheel‟ of interaction (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …) social navigation follow traces leave traces follow traces leave traces = more affordances for serendipity leave traces user-to-user mediation 5 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  6. 6. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science typology: user-to-user mediation & social navigation 6 (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …)
  7. 7. indirect user-to-user mediation and social navigation mediation spaces with affordances both for leaving traces and following traces 7 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  8. 8. mediation spaces with affordances both for leaving traces and following traces 8
  9. 9. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science ”participatory mediation spaces” = more affordances for interaction in whole „life wheel‟ (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …) learn/ experience/ consume/ reflect/ remember/ … find/ search/ explore/ discover/ select/ … 9 create/ produce/ edit/ remix/ copy/ … store/ save/ organize/ facilitate/ structure/ … share/ mediate/ communicate/ disseminate/ inspire/ … Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  10. 10. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science “participatory cultural institutions” • “ I define a participatory cultural institution as a place where visitors can create, share, and connect with each other around content.”  Simon (2010). The Participatory Museum, p. ii 10 (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …)
  11. 11. “participatory museum” 11 Denver Art Museum: visitors make their own rock music posters, by remixing clips from real posters (Simon 2010:24)
  12. 12. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science participatory culture (Jenkins et al. 2006:7) 1. With relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement 2. With strong support for creating and sharing one‟s creations with others 3. With some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices 4. Where members believe that their contributions matter 5. Where members feel some degree of social connection with one another (at the least they care what other people think about what they have created). Jenkins, H. et al. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. 12
  13. 13. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science new media literacies cf. Björneborn (2011): (Jenkins et al. 2006:4) „participatory literacies‟ • play > the capacity to experiment with one‟s surroundings as a form of problemsolving • performance > the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery • simulation > the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes • appropriation > the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content • multitasking > the ability to scan one‟s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details. • distributed cognition > the ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities • collective intelligence > the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal • judgment > the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources • transmedia navigation > the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities • networking > the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information • negotiation > the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and 13 13 respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms
  14. 14. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science barriers for participation (Björneborn 2013 work-in-progress) technical barriers • too user-‟unfriendly‟: too confusing, difficult or rigid to contribute cognitive barriers • too little time, energy, memory, experience, skills, … • fear of information overload • too boring socio-cultural barriers + more! • no sense of ownership: ”what‟s in it for me?” • unclear why contribution is helpful: ”what‟s in it for others?” • fear of making mistakes and looking silly • fear of surveillance and abuse of personal data (i.e. privacy issues) • no critical mass: too few other participants and contributors • no obvious „opportune moment‟ for when to contribute • no reactions, feedback or rewards: why contribute if no one cares? • no extra value compared to other alternatives 14 • prefer top-down quality control by staff or others
  15. 15. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science Nielsen, Jakob (2006). Participation inequality: lurkers vs. contributors in internet communities. Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox, 9.10.2006. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html ‟participation inequality‟ ”90–9–1” rule (Nielsen 2006) • 90% ‟lurkers‟ • 9% sporadic contributors • 1% hyperactive contributors • blogs = 95–5–0,1 • wikipedia = 99.8–0.2–0.003 ”legitimate peripheral participation” (Lave & Wenger) • Lave & Wenger (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. • ok to be a ‟lurker‟ • ‟lurkers‟ observe, imitate, test, learn = socializing into “community of practice” • learning by participating 15
  16. 16. creators conversationalists critics collectors joiners spectators inactives 16 ‟participation ladder‟ http://forrester.typepad.com/groundswell/2012/01/the-global-social-takeover.html different degrees of participation
  17. 17. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science participatory options for all “… some people … are drawn to create, but many more prefer to participate in other ways, by critiquing, organizing, and spectating social content.” “… some people … will never choose to upload content to the Web, no matter how easy it is.” “Fortunately, there are other participatory options for them.” • Simon (2010).The Participatory Museum. http://www.participatorymuseum.org/read/ + http://museumtwo.com/ 17
  18. 18. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science “low threshold + high ceiling”  “In cultures of participation, not every participant must contribute, but all participants must have opportunities to contribute when they want to.” (Fischer 2011:48)  “low threshold and high ceiling, allowing new participants to contribute as early as possible, and at the same time supporting experienced participants with a broad functionality for their more complex tasks” (ibid.) Fischer, G. (2011). Understanding, fostering and supporting cultures of participation. Interactions, 18(3): 42-53 http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/~gerhard/papers/2011/interactions-coverstory.pdf 18
  19. 19. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science „scaffolding‟  “The best participatory experiences are not wide open. They are scaffolded to help people feel comfortable engaging in the activity.”  “A supportive starting point can help people participate confidently – whether as creators, critics, collectors, joiners, or spectators.” • Simon (2010, The Participatory Museum, p.13) 19
  20. 20. „scaffolding‟ 20 Denver Art Museum: visitors make their own rock music posters, by remixing clips from real posters (Simon 2010:24)
  21. 21. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science encouraging to contribute  Nielsen, J. (2006). Participation inequality. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html  make it easier to contribute  e.g. rating stars rather than writing reviews  make participation a side effect  e.g. user data in Amazon ”people buying X also bought …"  edit, don't create (cf. scaffolding)  e.g. modify existing templates rather than creating from scratch  reward – but don't over-reward  e.g. preferential treatment (discounts, alerts, gold stars, loan period :-)  but not too much: may stimulate people to dominate system  promote quality contributors 21  ‟reputation ranking‟: promoting quality contributors
  22. 22. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science „meta-design‟ + „loose fit‟  „meta-design‟: “creates open systems at design time that can be modified by their users acting as co-designers, requiring and supporting more complex interactions at use time.” (Fischer 2011:45)  „loose fit‟: “designing artifacts at design time so that unexpected uses of the artifact can be accommodated at use time” (ibid.:46) Fischer, G. (2011). Understanding, fostering and supporting cultures of participation. Interactions, 18(3): 42-53 http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/~gerhard/papers/2011/interactions-coverstory.pdf 22
  23. 23. „memex‟ 23 Vannevar Bush (1945). „As we may think‟. ill. from version in Life Magazine, September 10, 1945
  24. 24. 24 Ted Nelson, 1965 – „hypertext‟
  25. 25. 25 Baran (1964). „On Distributed Communications‟
  26. 26. 26 Tim Berners Lee, 1989/90 – „World-Wide Web‟
  27. 27. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science ”the adjacent possible” “It just may be the case that biospheres on average keep expanding into the adjacent possible. By doing so they increase the diversity of what can happen next. It may be that biospheres […] maximize the rate of exploration of the adjacent possible.” Stuart A. Kauffman. The adjacent possible. Edge, 11.9.2003 www.edge.org/conversation/the-adjacent-possible [Board game „Tantrix‟] 27 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  28. 28. Internet = computer network = new „adjacent possibles‟ 28 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013 Ericsson Medialab
  29. 29. Web = document network 29 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013 www.cybergeography.org/atlas/ = new „adjacent possibles‟
  30. 30. = new „adjacent possibles‟ 30 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013 Adamic et al. (2003). A social network caught in the Web Web 2.0 = person network
  31. 31. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science “Social Software Building Blocks” (Smith 2007) • Identity - uniquely identifying people in the system • Presence - knowing who is online, available or otherwise nearby • Relationships - describing how two users in the system are related • Conversations - talking to other people through the system • Groups - forming communities of interest • Reputation - knowing the status of other people in the system - who can be trusted? • Sharing - sharing things that are meaningful to participants 31 http://nform.ca/publications/social-software-building-block
  32. 32. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science (Kietzmann et al. 2011) 32
  33. 33. 33 IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science 4 network layers in digital mediation spaces  reachability structures  „adjacent possibles‟  serendipity affordances places/ forums people/ profiles artefacts/ resources metadata 33 Björneborn (2013). Designing for serendipity in food chains of everyday life creativity. http://ku-dk.academia.edu/Bjorneborn
  34. 34. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science ”participatory mediation spaces” = more affordances for interaction in whole „life wheel‟ (Björneborn 2011. Behavioural Traces …) learn/ experience/ consume/ reflect/ remember/ … find/ search/ explore/ discover/ select/ … create/ produce/ edit/ remix/ copy/ … store/ save/ organize/ facilitate/ structure/ … share/ mediate/ communicate/ disseminate/ inspire/ … 34 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013
  35. 35. IVA – Royal School of Library and Information Science summing up  social navigation  user-to-user mediation  participatory mediation spaces  barriers for participation  designing participatory affordances  “adjacent possibles” 35 Björneborn, BSc course, fall 2013

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