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#CU12: Using emotions to drive online video sharing - Margaret Faulkner at Connecting Up 2012
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#CU12: Using emotions to drive online video sharing - Margaret Faulkner at Connecting Up 2012


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In today’s socially connected world, marketers are turning to viral video in the social media space as a way to extend reach and gain cut through. But why are some videos shared tens of thousands of …

In today’s socially connected world, marketers are turning to viral video in the social media space as a way to extend reach and gain cut through. But why are some videos shared tens of thousands of times, while others fall short of expectations?

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  • 1. Thanks to our sponsors from many countriesAkzoNobel General Mills Otsuka PharmaceuticalANZ General Motors Procter & GambleARF GlaxoSmithKline Roy Morgan ResearchBritvic SAB MillerBP Innerscope SC Johnson ITV Sun ProductsCaxton Kantar WorldpanelCBS Kellogg’s The Edrington GroupCoca-Cola Kraft Turner BroadcastingColgate-Palmolive KWP! Advertising Unilever Leo Burnett VodafoneDENR ..... and moreDistell MarsElders MountainviewESPN National PharmaciesFirstRand NielsenFonterra Network TEN
  • 2. Our research discoveries include:Benchmarks for loyalty… and marketing metricsHow to plan mediaWhat your customer base should look likeWhat advertising really doesWhat price promotions doWho to target for growthLaws that have held for decadesSimple, trustworthy, quantified findingswith major implications
  • 3. Understanding which emotionsdrive video sharingPresented by Dr Margaret FaulknerSocial media research contact: Dr Karen Nelson-Field
  • 4. Why would you create videos?
  • 5. Sharing for low- cost reach We thought a few thousand people would see the film, but in less than a week, millions of people around the world saw it. Danica Russell explains-irrational-acts-20120318- 1vcwu.html#ixzz1sOO6D0FDImage: Creative Commons Attribution-Share alike 2.0
  • 6. Social media provides newopportunitiesPower of personal referral not new (i.e. WOM)Web 2.0 opportunities to tap into vast numbersacross vast networksParticularly with rise of sharing giantsand increased sharing functionalityImage: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
  • 7. Currently more art than science? Salsa Dog: wSalsa Dog
  • 8. Must love dogs? Ultimate Dog Tease: CQkPw Ultimate Dog Tease
  • 9. High or Low Arousal Psychological construct of emotion Emotions likely to cause a physiological response - heart rate, sweating, smile, tears Sharing occurs shortly afterwards Extent of sharing related to strength of arousal Oval Budha: Takashi Murakami pop art exhibition at Versailles 2010
  • 10. Fit Metric to Objective Low cost reach requires sharingCreative Commons Attributions 2.0
  • 11. Sharing via Facebook Facebook function used to explore which emotions drive video sharing Two studies of the 400 most shared videos Measured total average share/day/video (actual figures) Study 1: User-generated videos Study 2: Brand videos
  • 12. User Generated Videos Explores sharing without the issues of confounding results with brand effects Provides benchmarks to compare with branded results for second study Image taken by Ehrenberg-Bass Institute ©
  • 13. Branded Videos
  • 14. Emotions relatedto sharing Four broad categories of emotions: humour, motivation, temperament and awe Valence: positively or negatively driven emotion Creative Commons Attribution-Share alike 2.0 Generic Buster Benson expressions based on Paul Eckman Facial Action Coding System
  • 15. Emotional construct Positive NegativeEmotional High Low Arousal High Low ArousalDescriptor Arousal ArousalHumour Hilarity Amusement Disgust DiscomfortMotivation Inspiration Calmness Sadness BoredomTemperament Astonishment Surprise Shock IrritationAwe Exhilaration Happiness Anger FrustrationArousal/Valence Emotions Grid, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute 2012 ©
  • 16. Video 1
  • 17. Results What did you think?
  • 18. Video 2
  • 19. ResultsWhat did you think?
  • 20. Video 3 EwA&feature=player_embedded
  • 21. Results What do you think?
  • 22. Propensity to view Videos coded in each classification (as proportion of total %) Positive Negative High Low High Low Arousal Arousal Arousal ArousalUser-Generated 19 45 6 31(n=800)Branded (n=798) 22 48 5 25Non-profit (n=20) 30 35 25 10 Photo by Margaret Faulkner © Wellness Skull by Atelier van Lieshout, Soothby’s at Sudley Castle
  • 23. Hypotheses H1: Videos that evoke high arousal emotions(either of positive or negative valence)are shared more than those that evoke low arousal emotions(either of positive or negative valence).H2: Videos that evoke high arousal positive emotions are sharedmore than those that evoke high arousal negative emotions.H3: Videos that evoke positive emotions are shared more thanthose that evoke negative emotions. Photo by Margaret Faulkner © Rainbow, Ring of Kerry Road, Ireland
  • 24. Video SharingFindings in order of sharing - rankings Positive Negative High Low High Low Arousal Arousal Arousal ArousalUser- 1 3 2 4Generated(n=800)Branded 1 3 2 4(n=798)Non-profit 1 4 2 3(n=20) Photo by Margaret Faulkner ©
  • 25. Concluding comments We now have a greater understanding of why some videos are shared more than others We also can explore the forms of emotion elicited to test whether the videos maximise arousal or fulfill our objectives Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
  • 26. Next steps Consider the objectives of your marketing activity How will you evaluate its success? Pre-test and modify Pre-testing again before release to increase effectiveness Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
  • 27. Staying Alive: US and UK style US: Youtube clip: Image and clip sourced from: dsonlycpr/fundraiser/american heart?ref1=socialmedia UK: Vinne Jones Hard and Fast CPR ?v=ILxjxfB4zNk&feature=player _embedded
  • 28. Motivation video xMezM&feature=player_embedded
  • 29. Integrated social media What did you think? What did you think?
  • 30. Get Up! It’s TimeYoutube cliphtt://
  • 31. Questions
  • 32. Institute contacts:Non-profit marketing: Dr Margaret Faulkner margaret.faulkner@marketingscience.infoSocial media marketing: Dr Karen Nelson-Field karen.nelson-field@marketingscience.infoOther Institute enquiries:
  • 33. Literature references:PsychologyBaumeister, R. & Bushman, B., (2010). Social Psychology and Human Nature, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Belmont CA.Cacioppo, J.T., Berntson, G.G., Larsen, J.T., Poehlmann, K.M. & Ito, T.A. (2000), "The psychophysiology of emotion". Haviland-Jones,M.L.a.J.M. (ed.) In: Hanbook of Emotions, 2nd ed., The Guilford Press, New York,Heilman, K. (1997), "The Neurobiology of Emotional Experience", Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 9, 3, 439-448.Rimé, B., Philippot, P., Boca, S. & Mesquita, B. (1992), "Long-lasting cognitive and social consequences of emotion: Social sharing andrumination.", European Review of Social Psychology, 3, 225-258.Rimé, B., Finkenauer, C., Luminet, O., Zech, E. & Philippot, P. (1998), "Social Sharing of Emotion: New Evidence and New Questions", EuropeanReview of Social Psychology, 9, 145-189.WOMEast, R., Hammond, K. & Lomax, W. (2008), "Measuring the impact of positive and negative word of mouth on brand purchase probability",International Journal of Research in Marketing, 25, 3, 215-224.AdvertisingSouthgate, D., Westoby, N. & Page, G. (2010), "Creative determinants of viral video viewing", International Journal of Advertising, 29, 3, 2-14.Eckler, P. & Bolls, P. (2011), "Spreading the Virus: Emotional Tone of Viral Advertising and Its Effect on Forwarding Intentions and Attitudes",Journal of Interactive Advertising, 11, 2, 1-11.Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., Beverland, M., Vanhamme, J. & van Wijk, R. (2007), "Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally",Business Horizons, 50, 4, 291-304.Southgate, D., Westoby, N. & Page, G. (2010), "Creative determinants of viral video viewing", International Journal of Advertising, 29, 3, 2-14.Brown, M., Bhadury, R. & Pope, N. (2010), "The Impact of Comedic Violence on Viral Advertising Effectiveness", Journal of Advertising, 39, 1,49-65.Poels, K. & Dewitte, S. (2006), "How to capture the heart? Reviewing 20 years of emotion measurement in advertising", Journal of AdvertisingResearch, 46, 1.Berger, J. (2011), "Arousal Increases Social Transmission of Information", Psychological Science Online, 22, 7, 891-893.Berger, J. & Milkman, K. (2010), Social Transmission, Emotion, and the Virality of Online Content, Wharton Business School, University ofPennsylvania.