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C2 102 Problem Definition, Issue Identification and Frameworks

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  • Please advise, if i can get full pdf copy of presentation above by any chance? Thank you in advance

    Olga Arkhiereva
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  • 1. 102 Training Week 2 Problem Definition Issue Identification and FrameworksThis information is confidential and was prepared by Conjunct Consulting for training purposes; it is not to be relied on by any 3rd Party without our prior written consent. CONFIDENTIAL
  • 2. Our mission is to create maximum socialimpact through catalysis and empowerment • We create maximum social impact by – Catalyzing strategic change in the social sector Social – Empowering the next generation Impact of social sector leaders • We do so through: Catalyze Empower – Pro bono strategy consulting strategic next-gen – Social sector leadership paradigm change leaders – Inter-disciplinary collaboration • Our values are Pro bono Sector Inter- – Passion for our community strategy leadership disciplinary consulting paradigm collaboration – Collaboration across all levels – Impact-focused for true change Source: Conjunct Consulting Constitution CONFIDENTIAL 2
  • 3. Great applicants solve problems, align withvalues and communicate well Problem-solving Project • Focus on impact Value • Structure issues • Generate solutions Alignment Team • Collaborate well performance • Integrate values • Leverage strengths Communication Client • Serve with passion Partnership • Speak with clarity • Display confidence Source: Conjunct Consulting Materials CONFIDENTIAL 3
  • 4. Problem-solving is a non-linear and iterative process based on fundamental skills 101. Social Sector Overview & 102. Problem Definition, Issue 103. Hypothesis Testing & 104. Data Gathering & Collation Conjunct Consulting Identification, & Frameworks Research Planning Client Hypo 1 Research Plan 1 Sub issue 1 Current Vision situation Issue A Client surveys Client Client interviews literature Hypo 2 Research Plan 2 Sub issue 2 Primary Secondary Hypo 3 Research Plan 3 Benchmarking Surveys External Interviews sources Strategy Issue B Framework 3 Hypo 4 Research Plan 4 External 105. Analysis & Modeling 106. Solution Formulation & Mapping 107. Recommendations 108. Communications Development & Client Enablement Benefits Feasibility Model 1A Hypo 1 A Sub 1 L Benefits M 1B M Strategy 1X vs. Y Hypo 2 3B 3A 2A Recommend Sub 2 M 1A 2 5 Tactics 2B L H Hypo 3 1B Feasibility 3 4 6 7 2B 2A Model 3A M Impact Hypo 4 Sub 3 B 3B H H Source: Conjunct Consulting Methodology CONFIDENTIAL 4
  • 5. The project timeline and requisite support materials have been mapped for the team Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Scoping Intensity Project Leader Project Director Consultant PD+PL Consultant Project Internal Client Team + Client Internal Client T+C Survey &Bootcamp Bootcamp Kickoff Midpoint Midpoint Survey Finale Finale Sanitisation 000s (Orientation) 100s (Applicants) 400s (Expertise Areas) 500s (Conjunct Leaders) 001 Conjunct Infosession 101-108 Refer Previous Slide 401 Strategic Planning 501 Elections & 002 Conjunct Orientation 402 Impact Assessment Organizational Leadership 200s (Consultants) 003 The Project Team and You 403 Financial Sustainability 502 Chairman & Board 004 Problem Solving Summary 201 Client Interfacing 404 Operations Management 503 President & Hub Leaders (101 Recap) 202 Project Work 405 Human Capital 504 Student Leadership & CDs 005 Consultant Skills 203 Team Dynamics 406 Toolkit: Theory of Change 505 Clients & ADPs Summary (201 Recap) 407 Toolkit: Volunteer Catalyst 506 Development & ADDs 300s (PLs + PDs) 006 Project Leadership 408 Toolkit: Frameworks 507 Operations & ADOs Summary (301 Recap) 301 Leadership and Influence 508 External Affairs & ADEs 007 Train-the-Trainer 302 Project Scoping 509 Professionals & Wing 303 Team Management Source: Conjunct Consulting Tracking and Methodology CONFIDENTIAL 5
  • 6. Definition and benefits Definition • Problem definition is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed • Issue identification is the critical first step in problem-solving which breaks down big issues to determine the key issue • Frameworks are tools used in issue analysis to give a broad overview, outline, or skeleton of interlinked issues Benefits • Analyses big objectives into smaller issues • Eliminates gaps and overlaps during analysis • Structures issues into interlinked categories • Sets the research plan on the right track • Prioritises resources and attention • Helps storyboarding and presentations CONFIDENTIAL 6
  • 7. These are today’s key learning objectives • Projects vs. cases differences • Project scoping and problem definition methodology • Issue identification tools Learn • Frameworks for effective issue analysis • Problem statement • Issue trees creation • Good characteristics of issue analysisIntegrate CONFIDENTIAL 7
  • 8. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 8
  • 9. Projects are complex situations involvingdynamic information, clients and teams Dynamic information and environment Clients Teams Source: Wicked problems in project definition, http://www.leanconstruction.org/pdf/WickedProblemsinProjectDefinitionIGLC10.pdf CONFIDENTIAL 9
  • 10. Cases are static write-ups based onchallenges faced in real projects Cases ProjectsInformation Involves summary of Involves extensive background information, information on client’s several key issues, background information competitive landscapes, and statistics of problem statements organisationTime duration Range between hours to Range between weeks to days monthsProcess Allows less extensive Allows more planning and research as comprehensive planning snapshot of pre- and dynamic data must gathered data is be continuously provided gathered Source: Interactive Case, http://www.bcg.com/join_bcg/interactive_case/default.aspx CONFIDENTIAL 10
  • 11. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 11
  • 12. Project scoping requires clear definition of success, the problem and the solution space Current Vision situation StrategyPreliminary success Preliminary problem Solution Spacedefinition definition • 4. Scope deliverables• Theory of change • 1. Identify general problem • 5. Identify key benefits • 2. Focus on perspective and • 6. Identify criteria for context success • 3. Identify key decision • 7. Recognize constraints makers Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 12
  • 13. Define success of client organisation withTheory of Change Ecosystem L e v e r sProblem /Need Intended Impact Activities/Program Outputs Outcomes Impact (mid-term) (long-term) Populations Strategies Outcomes Source: Government of Ontario Canada. Evaluation Toolkit, http://www. reddi.gov.on.ca/track_readlogicmodel.htm CONFIDENTIAL 13
  • 14. Sample: Define success with Theory ofChange Ecosystem L e v e r sProblem /Need Intended Impact Activities/Program Outputs Outcomes Impact Government % client (mid-term) (long-term) agencies and Quality Consulting satisfactionSocial sector Catalyzing strategic affiliates Projects project scoreorganisations change in the social Sector Leadership # ofrequire sector University Client-reported More effective Development organisationsstrategy, service increase in social sector Empowering the servedinformation and departments organisational organisations Inter-disciplinary globallyleaders to reach next generation of effectiveness Collaborationmaximum social social sector Previous % member (0.5 & 1-year)impact leaders Clients C2Community , satisfaction Mentors & Alumni score Alumni-reported Increased number Corporate # of socially Impact tracking & tracking of social of social sector partners conscious self-assessment sector impact leaders students and (annual) Capacity International professionals builders growth & exchange equipped Populations Strategies Outcomes Source: Conjunct Consulting Visioning and Strategic Planning Meeting CONFIDENTIAL 14
  • 15. Project scoping requires clear definition of success, the problem and the solution space Current Vision situation StrategyPreliminary success Preliminary problem Solution Spacedefinition definition • 4. Scope deliverables• Theory of change • 1. Identify general problem • 5. Identify key benefits • 2. Focus on perspective and • 6. Identify criteria for context success • 3. Identify key decision • 7. Recognize constraints makers Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 15
  • 16. Identify the basic question to be resolved Example 1. General problem • Brings focus to the Should analytic work which should be succinct Conjunct • Ensure that the Consulting findings can be acted upon expand its operations into Indonesia? Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 16
  • 17. Understand the context and situation inwhich this problem was identified by client Example 2. Perspective/context • Comments on the Conjunct has “situation” and established a strong “complication” facing foundation in Singapore the client and is planning to • What events and/or expand internationally opportunities create the need for the project? Conjunct aims to further maximize its social impact in Asia’s social sector Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 17
  • 18. Integrate the decision-makers who are thecritical gatekeepers for our work and impact Example 3. Key decision makers Chairman A (Project Sponsor) • Who at the client decides whether to act on the President B recommendations of the study Mandate is Singapore community • Understand impact • Who benefits the most/ least VP Operations C from our entry? Manages risk and financial • Who will most/ least align sustainability with our output? VP Clients D • Who can commit resources to Focused on quality of social impact implement? and client portfolio • Who can remove roadblocks? Director E • Who can play an active role? Consultant located in Indonesia • Who must I work with? Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 18
  • 19. Project scoping requires clear definition of success, the problem and the solution space Current Vision situation StrategyPreliminary success Preliminary problem Solution Spacedefinition definition • 4. Scope deliverables• Theory of change • 1. Identify general problem • 5. Identify key benefits • 2. Focus on perspective and • 6. Identify criteria for context success • 3. Identify key decision • 7. Recognize constraints makers Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 19
  • 20. PLs and PDs scope deliverables to defineoutputs to be delivered Example 4. Deliverables Market expansion plan: • Define what will and what Two years only will not be delivered Jakarta only • Separate the critical from the ‘nice to have’ Market size: • Be very specific Nonprofits and social enterprises • Document Professionals • Key deliverables University students • Research methods • Business units Not included: • Geographies Marketing plan and timeline • Locations Contact list • Interfaces Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 20
  • 21. PLs and PDs identify the benefits and valuecreated by a successful project and outputs Example 5. Key benefits Tangible: • How are benefits calculated? Number of volunteers • Ensure that the client is Number of projects aligned on the priority of the Social impact various benefits Cost/ working capital reduction • Check for client-perceived target amount of benefits and Revenue/ profit increase manage client expectations / Improved efficiency team targets accordingly Higher volunteer satisfaction scores • List and categorize benefits • Focus on tangible benefits Intangible: • Document intangible benefits Legal and regulatory requirements Improved collaboration Increased visibility Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 21
  • 22. Identify success factors to ensure alignmentof project for sign-off and implementation Example 6. Criteria for success • The basis on which the Recommendations should client will decide whether coincide with Conjunct’s or not to act on the study vision, mission and values recommendations Key client-defined criteria • Ensure are Quality, Operational • Specific Sustainability and • Measureable Managed Scale • Appropriate Financial costs and returns • Realistic must be planned for • Time-bound Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 22
  • 23. Understand the constraints as perceived bythe client 7. Scope of potential space/ Example Potential constraints • Indicates what will not be included in the study and any Conjunct lacks a constraints on the substantial cash recommendation • What factors make this decision buffer for investment a complicated one? • Considerations Conjunct is primarily • Resources English-speaking • Time • Competing projects Conjunct does not • Sequence • Technology have a substantial • Vendors network in Indonesia • Process and methodologies Source: Ideas on Successful Project Initiation and Scoping CONFIDENTIAL 23
  • 24. Activity: Breakout and discuss case The Old Chang Kee (OCK) brand is synonymous with deep fried food. But sales have been falling with an increasing obesity rate in SG. Should OCK drop its deep fried food line and move into healthier product lines? Construct a Prelim Problem Definition and Solution Space, giving a few examples for each point CONFIDENTIAL 24
  • 25. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue Identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 25
  • 26. Logic trees are useful and beneficial forissue identification Break problem • Work streams identified into component • Priorities set parts • Responsibilities allocated Build a common • Focus and big picture clearly communicated understanding • Interfaces settled within the team Ensure problem • No gaps, no overlaps really is solved Source: Powerful Problem Solving , http://powerful-problem-solving.com/build-logic-trees CONFIDENTIAL 26
  • 27. Issue identification is based on issue treesand hypothesis trees Logic trees HypothesisIssue trees trees Source: Powerful Problem Solving , http://powerful-problem-solving.com/build-logic-trees CONFIDENTIAL 27
  • 28. Issue tree is a visual approach to organizechunks of information Description • Breaks an issue into smaller sub- issues • Sub-issues answer the question Sub “what?” or “how?” subissue 1 Sub issue 1 Why use it SubKey issue subissue 2 • Addresses the Sub entire solution space Sub issue 2 subissue 3 When to use it • Early on, when you know little about the problem and the risk of missing an issue is high Source: Powerful Problem Solving , http://powerful-problem-solving.com/only-ask-how-if-you-know-why CONFIDENTIAL 28
  • 29. Sample: Issue tree analyses profitmaximization Key issue Sub issues Sub subissues Can price be raised? Can revenue be increased? Can quantity sold be raised? Can cost of goods sold beCan profits be increased? lowered? Can general & administrative expenses be lowered? Can operating expenses be decreased? Can marketing & sales expenses be lowered? Can R&D expenses be lowered? Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 29
  • 30. Activity: Create the Conjunct Consultinginternational expansion issue tree Case Study: Conjunct Consulting• Show how expansion into Indonesia is feasible/ unfeasible for Conjunct Consulting, with consideration for the key facts/ issues/ problems. CONFIDENTIAL 30
  • 31. Hypothesis tree is a hypothesized solutionpathway backed up by facts or evidences Description • Postulates a potential solution with necessary and sufficient arguments to prove or disprove it Supporting • “What do I have to believe?” argument 1 Argument 1 Supporting Why use itHypothesis argument 2 • Efficiently focuses on only part of Supporting the solution space Argument 2 argument 3 When to use it • When you know enough about the problem to formulate sound hypotheses Source: Powerful Problem Solving , http://powerful-problem-solving.com/category/issue-trees-2 CONFIDENTIAL 31
  • 32. Example: Hypothesis tree outlinesinternational expansion Hypothesis Major arguments/ Sub elements to support Supporting hypothesis key arguments Eugene was once a national dragon- boater and knows the Eugene is able to gym inside-out maintain a strict exercise regime Eugene should visit Eugene has lots of the gym more often free time because it will helphim build muscle mass The gym that Eugene Eugene has frequents is well- memberships with 3 equipped state-of-the-art gyms Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 32
  • 33. Activity: Create the Conjunct Consultinginternational expansion hypothesis tree Case Study: Conjunct Consulting• Show how expansion into Indonesia is feasible/ unfeasible for Conjunct Consulting, with consideration for the key facts/ issues/ problems. CONFIDENTIAL 33
  • 34. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 34
  • 35. Good issue analysis should be MECE,practical, logical and consistent Good issue analysisMutually exclusive, collectively Practical Logical Consistent exhaustive issue Source: Powerful Problem Solving , http://powerful-problem-solving.com/build-logic-trees CONFIDENTIAL 35
  • 36. Mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive(MECE) issue analysis has no gaps or overlapsIncludes a comprehensive list of issues• The set of all subcategories, taken together, should fully characterize the larger category of which the data are part• Diverging rules: Think creatively and consider the big picture to include as many options as possibleIssues disaggregrated into separate “branches”that can be considered independent of the others• No subcategory should represent any other subcategory• Think critically and organize options into categories Source: Powerful Problem Solving, http://powerful-problem-solving.com/be-mece CONFIDENTIAL 36
  • 37. Example: MECE issue analysis ensures no gaps andoverlaps in identifying emotions after exams Happy Happy Sad Emotions Emotions Sadafter exams Worried after exams Anxious Anxious Others Panic Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 37
  • 38. Practical and actionable issue analysisshould distribute work plan readilyReadily provides plan for splitting upwork among team members• Each category should be sufficiently broken down to facilitate work distribution among members• Allows prioritization of work distributionAllows sequencing of analysis, as piecesnot dependent on each other• Flow of dependency is known Source: Powerful Problem Solving, http://powerful-problem-solving.com/be-mece CONFIDENTIAL 38
  • 39. Example: Practical issue analysis divides strategyissues into work plans among members Promotion mix Member A strategy Types of Promotion Types ofpromotion mix promotion strategy strategy, strategy that can Media that can Members Media be selection A,B,C be selection Member adopted strategy, adopted B as Advertising as strategymarketing Copy marketing strategy? strategy strategy? Advertising Member copy strategy C Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 39
  • 40. Logical and hierarchical issue analysis havesubparts flow into parts then into wholeSame level issues are on the samehierarchy • Abstract and detailed concepts not mixedOrder of issue based on somecommonly accepted logic • Issues should be listed in ascending order • E.g. chronological, importance, size, convention Source: Powerful Problem Solving, http://powerful-problem-solving.com/be-mece CONFIDENTIAL 40
  • 41. Example: Logical issue analysis categorizesfamily activities into appropriate hierarchies Indoors Reading Reading Common Indoors Common types of Cooking types of Cooking family family activities in activities in Singapore Outdoors Singapore Outings Outdoors Outings Travelling Travelling Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 41
  • 42. Clear and consistent issue analysis haveparallel concepts from same hierarchy levelMembers are grouped in same class ofthings or steps in the same process• Issues which do not belong to the same class should be further disaggregated into suitable categoriesLanguage used is simple and preferablyfamiliar to client• Use client’s terminology if possible• Avoid excessive technical jargon Source: Powerful Problem Solving, http://powerful-problem-solving.com/be-mece CONFIDENTIAL 42
  • 43. Example: Clear issue analysis includes onlythe appropriate water sports Swimming Water Swimming polo Types of Types of water Waterwater sports Diving sports polo Badminton Diving Soccer Source: Conjunct Consulting Simulation CONFIDENTIAL 43
  • 44. Activity: Check for good characteristics ofissue identification and improve analysis Team swaps to analyse previous works and apply good characteristics of issue analysis CONFIDENTIAL 44
  • 45. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 45
  • 46. Frameworks are pre-defined issueidentification shortcuts for issue analysis • Determines competitiveness and attractiveness of Porter’s 5 forces market • Evaluates internal and external considerations of SWOT analysis organisations PESTEL analysis • Assesses the macro environmental factors BCG Growth Share • Analyses business units and product lines Matrix McKinsey’s 7Ss • Evaluates organisational effectivenessValue proposition and • Determines a product’s unique selling point Marketing Mix Source: Consulting Interview Case Frameworks, http://globthink.com/2009/12/13/consulting-interview-case-frameworks/ CONFIDENTIAL 46
  • 47. Porter’s 5 forces determines competitivenessand attractiveness of market Porter’s 5 forcesBargaining Bargaining Threat of Competitive Threat of new power of power of substitute rivalry within entrants suppliers consumers products industry Source: Porter’s Five Forces, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_08.htm CONFIDENTIAL 47
  • 48. SWOT analysis evaluates internal andexternal considerations of organisations Strengths Weaknesses SWOT Opportunities Threats Source: SWOT Analysis: A Basic Business Consulting Framework, http://www.mylesvivesblog.com/consulting-framework.html CONFIDENTIAL 48
  • 49. PESTEL analysis assesses the macroenvironmental factorsPolitical • Tax policy; Employment laws; Environmental regulations; Trade restrictions and tariff; Political stability; Bureaucracy and corruptionEconomic • Economic growth; Cost of labor; Exchange rate; Inflation rate; Levels of disposable incomeSocial • Population growth rate and age profile; Attitudes on health, education, social mobility; Opinions about employment, volunteering; Press attitudes, cultural preferences; Lifestyle choices and preferencesTechnological • R&D activity; Impact of internet, social media; Growth of emerging technologies; Rate of technological changeEnvironmental • Environmental protection laws; Waste disposal laws; Energy consumption regulation; Popular attitude towards the environmentLegal • Employment regulations; Competitive regulations; Health and safety regulations; Product regulations Source: PESTEL Analysis, http://pestel-analysis.com/ CONFIDENTIAL 49
  • 50. BCG Growth Share Matrix analyses businessunits and product lines Source: BCG Matrix, http://www.netmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg/ 50 CONFIDENTIAL 50
  • 51. McKinsey’s 7Ss evaluates organisationaleffectivenessShared Values •Core beliefs and attitudes that drive employee behavior Strategy •Long-term strategic direction of company Structure •Company Hierarchy System •Formal/informal procedures & processes Staff •Motivated/talented/ engaged Style •Key personnel management style Skills •Core competencies and capabilities Source: The McKinsey 7S Framework, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_91.htm CONFIDENTIAL 51
  • 52. Value proposition and Marketing Mixdetermines a product’s unique selling point Value proposition A business or marketing statement that summarizes why a consumer should buy a product or use a service. This statement should convince a potential consumer that one particular product or service will add more value or better solve a problem than other similar offerings. Test if viable 4Ps 4Cs Price Cost Promotion Communication Place Convenience Product Consumer Source: Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp#ixzz206A7yc3y CONFIDENTIAL 52
  • 53. Agenda• Projects vs. Cases• Problem statement• Issue identification• Characteristics of good issue analysis• High level overview of frameworks• Conclusion• Appendix CONFIDENTIAL 53
  • 54. These points conclude today’s lessonDuring this lesson, we have• Learned about – Projects vs. cases differences – Project scoping and problem definition methodology – Issue identification tools – Frameworks for effective issue analysis• Integrated – Problem statement – Issue trees creation – Good characteristics of issue analysis CONFIDENTIAL 54
  • 55. Feel free to ask any questions you haveregarding today’s lesson Q&A CONFIDENTIAL 55