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New Urbanism: Just... performs...better

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  • The LEED for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) rating system is the result of a partnership between the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and the Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU). First conceived in 2002, the rating system integrates the principles of smart growth, New Urbanism, and green building into the first national standard for green neighborhood development.

New Urbanism: Just... performs...better New Urbanism: Just... performs...better Presentation Transcript

  • Smart Government and New Urbanism: It Just Performs Better Stephen Filmanowicz Communications Director Congress for the New Urbanism [email_address] www.cnu.org
  • Photo: Alfonso Surroca via Flickr (CC) It takes a lot of gasoline to run most communities.
  • Photo: Alfonso Surroca via Flickr (CC) Be prepared to drive everywhere… starting with school and work in the morning..
  • Photo: Size8Jeans via Flickr (CC) The meter is running all the time.
  • It takes a lot of gasoline to run most communities. Communities run better on New Urbanism.
  • They still use gasoline, just a lot less of it.
  • New Urbanism saves families money on their second largest expense — transportation. It creates more enduring value in down and up markets. It connects people to convenient nearby destinations. It’s now the green standard in community design. It produces big increases in traffic safety and public health. … while delivering benefits that it doesn’t pay to ignore. It creates more tax base while being more efficient to protect and serve.
  • Image: Del Mar Transit Village, Pasadena, CA, photo by Tom Bonner So what exactly is New Urbanism?
  • Community 1.0 (B.C.-1950) Photo: David LaHaye Think of it as an operating system for the design of communities, based on traditional community operating systems (1.0).
  • Community 1.0 Connected street network Mixed-use: residences near workplaces, shops, schools, parks and other amenities. Served by transit High quality public realm Compact neighborhood form Photo: Western Nevada Historical Society (CC).
  • Community 2.0 (envisioned 1920s-30s) Photo: Broadacre City via Kjell on Flickr(CC).
  • Community 2.0 (1945- ) Photo: courtesy of Doug Farr, Farr & Associates. Low-connectivity Separate use: homes are buffered from schools, workplaces, shops etc, Ample parking Transit limited to park-n-ride, if that. Spread-out form
  • Photo: Oak Brook, Illinois, Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 2.0 establishes new standards Separate-use zoning High-volume arterial and highway design standards 4-5 req. parking spaces per 1000 s.f. of commercial space
  • Community 2.0 overwrites 1.0 Photo: Seven Dials, courtesy of Ben Hamilton-Baillie
  • Photo: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 2.0 establishes new standards
  • Image: Leon Krier: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.0 (articulated as renegade reform vision in 1970s)
  • Photo: courtesy of Duany Plater-Zyberk Community 3.0 (New Urbanism 1982- ) Against big odds, Seaside, Florida emerges as New Urbanism’s first built example in early 1980s .
  • Photo: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.0 Models for walkable, livable neighborhoods from the rural fringe to the dense urban core.
  • Photo: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.0 Where implemented, New Urbanism is embraced by market: I’On near Charleston, S.C, Harbor Town, Memphis.
  • Photo: TK for Moule Polyzoides; CNU Charter Awards Archive Community 3.1 transit-oriented development Del Mar Village, Pasadena, CA; Rockville Town Square, Rockville, MD
  • Photo: (l) Robert Taylor Homes by Lobstar28 via Flickr (cc), Chatham Square by Boris Feldbluym, CNU Charter Awards Archives Community 3.2 re-conceiving public housing as mixed-income neighborhoods Robert Taylor Homes, Chicago; Chatham Square Hope VI, Alexandria, VA
  • Photo: City of Vancouver, Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.3 green neighborhood development Leed Platinum-rated Southeast False Creek (Olympic village), Vancouver
  • Community 3.3 establishing new standards “ For the first time in the history of federal grant competitions, I want to announce today that HUD will be using location efficiency to score our grant applications. "Using the LEED-ND green neighborhood rating system that CNU developed in partnership with the Natural Resources Defense Council, it’s time that that federal dollars stopped encouraging sprawl and started lowering the barriers to the kind of sustainable development our country needs our communities want. And with $3.25 billion at stake in these competitions, that’s exactly what they will start to do HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan, May 21, 2010
  • Photo: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.4 suburban retrofits Crystal City, Arlington, Virginia
  • Photo: Congress for the New Urbanism Archives Community 3.5 Sustainable regions of livable communities Choices for future growth presented in Louisiana Speaks Plan for Southern Louisiana
  • New Urbanism New Urbanism maximizes the connection between people and their neighborhood — connecting people to jobs, nature, shops, services and, most importantly, to each other.
  • As Communities 2.0 have become the standard, the amount of driving by U.S. households has swelled. The average U.S. household logs 21,250 miles per year in car trips. That’s more than 85% of the distance around the earth each year. New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Images from the film Built to Last: courtesy of FirstandMain.tv New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Navigating Community 2.0:
  • Images from the film Built to Last: courtesy of FirstandMain.tv New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Navigating New Urbanism:
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Residents of livable mixed-use neighborhoods live more active and healthy lifestyles — and don’t need to drive as much. Peer-reviewed research shows they can average 2/3, even 1/2 as much driving as those in spread-out auto-oriented communities.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Developed with support from the Brookings Institution, this project from the Center for Neighborhood Technology features the most advanced, peer-reviewed database for measuring how driving patterns vary across regions . It matches data from U.S. Census surveys to characteristics such as density, street pattern, use mix, income and transit service .
  • Average household drives 13,629 miles per year. $763 monthly transportation costs in 2000. $981 per month in 2008. Average household drives 26,998 miles per year. $1021 monthly transportation costs in 2000. $1312 per month in 2008. New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Here’s what it shows: Dacula, Georgia Decatur, Georgia Savings = $260 to $330 per month
  • Average household drives 9811 miles per year. $ 690 monthly transportation costs in 2000. $795 per month in 2008. Average household drives 23,217 miles per year. $873 monthly transportation costs in 2000. $1122 per month in 2008. New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Here’s what it shows: Highland Creek, Charlotte, NC Dilworth, Charlotte, NC
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Often overlooked during the housing bubble as people sought more house for their money in far-flung “drive-till-you-qualify” locations, transportation costs are a household’s second largest household expense. The housing crisis showed: Lower transportation costs in your community mean fewer families in distress, fewer foreclosures and a more stable values. But there’s more… Photos via Flickr (CC): Huazhi and Willamor Media. Neighborhoods may someday come with fuel economy stickers
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Local and regional governments are big beneficiaries of location efficiency : Highland Creek, Charlotte, NC Dilworth, Charlotte, NC Station 31 serves 5779 households in 8 square miles. Station 2 serves 26,930 households in 14 square miles.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Local and regional governments are big beneficiaries of location efficiency : Highland Creek, Charlotte, NC Dilworth, Charlotte, NC
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Cities save tax dollars with location-efficient neighborhoods: Highland Creek, Charlotte, NC Dilworth, Charlotte, NC Charlotte pays $740 per person per year in life cycle costs for Station 31. Charlotte pays $159 per person per year in life cycle costs for Station 2.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Charlotte’s most recent mayors have been supporters of New Urbanism .
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Infrastructure runs better on New Urbanism: EPA head-to-head study (2010). The EPA study compared sprawl vs. new urbanist development plans for a 750 acre site in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina (outside Charleston) and for a 575-acre site north of Phoenix.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Infrastructure runs better on New Urbanism: EPA head-to-head study (2010). “ When comparing CSD scenarios to alternative TND designs, the study found that infrastructure costs for the TND scenarios were consistently less than CSD. Reductions in infrastructure costs due to TND development patterns ranged from 32 to 47% , with the extent of TND cost savings based principally on density.”
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Other EPA Study Takeaways : •” Utilization of lower density CSD development patterns requires additional land acquisition spending compared to a compact TND with the same development program.” •” The same TND infrastructure framework can support much higher densities due to the interconnected transportation network, mixing of uses, and parking efficiencies.” Read full report at www.morrisbeacon.com.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base New Urbanism dramatically reduces the stormwater impact of new development: Photo courtesy of Morris Beacon Design. TND alternatives generated an average of 55% less runoff per unit than comparable CSD alternatives - before the introduction of engineered BMPS.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base “ Every day as I go to work I see people walking on absolutely unsuitable pedestrian infrastructure. For me as a doctor, this is like looking at somebody with high blood pressure who’s not taking his or her medicine ... Transit-friendly communities get their full daily requirement of daily activity simply by walking to and from the transit stops.” -- Dr. Howard Frumkin, Special Assistant to the CDC Director for Climate and Health, Honorary Chair of CNU 18
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base “ [New urbanist] neighborhoods like Glenwood incorporate many of the features that we increasingly recognize promote good health. More physical activity. More social interaction, helping to build community -- that is something that is very good for health. Less driving, which improves the air quality. Less driving, which reduces the risk of being in car crashes.” -- Dr. Howard Frumkin, Honorary Chair of CNU 18
  • Davis, CA 14 % of people ride to work New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Research by Norman Garrick and Wes Marshall, professors of transportation engineering at University of Connecticut and University or Denver.
  • Davis, CA Road Fatality Rate: 1 per 100,000 New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Road Fatality Rate for All 157 California Cities Over 40,000 number per 100,000 population 0.0 17.3 New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Road Fatality Rate for All 157 California Cities Over 40,000 number per 100,000 population New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Among the mid-sized California cities they studied, professors Garrick and Marshall discovered distinct groups of traffic safe cities like Davis and less-safe cities like Irvine. Safer Cities Alameda Berkeley Cupertino San Luis Obisbo Santa Barbara Santa Cruz Less Safe Cities Alameda Berkeley Cupertino San Luis Obisbo Santa Barbara Santa Cruz
  • Image adapted from Stephen Marshall Pre-1950’s Post-1950’s Evolution of the Street Network New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base The group of safer cities wound up having older street networks with more connected urban streets. The less-safe cities had newer networks with cul-de-sacs, collector and arterial networks — the infrastructure of Community 2.0.
  • Images: Keep Houston Houston (l), LEED for Neighborhood Development (r) New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Community 3.0: Connected network creates short direct routes, efficient multi-directional travel for people and cars. Community 2.0: Cul-de-sac pattern extends walking distances to impractical lengths, funnels car traffic to unsafe high-volume arterials.
  • Images: Keep Houston Houston (l), LEED for Neighborhood Development (r) New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Measuring Community 3.0: More intersections per square mile (140 or higher) . Measuring Community 2.0: Few intersections per square mile (usually 70 or less).
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Among the mid-sized California cities they studied, professors Garrick and Marshall discovered distinct groups of traffic safe cities like Davis and less-safe cities like Irvine.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Scenes from Sprawlanta , part 1 of the American Makeover web series (First + Main Media). New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base With so much traffic funneled into arterial thoroughfares, engineers for Community 2.0 make these streets wider and wider (left). Crosswalks are spaced so widely that people put their lives at risk playing “Frogger” to cross the street. New urbanist neighborhoods (Community 3.0) rely on interconnected networks that distribute traffic more equally. Major thoroughfares don’t need to be so wide and feature inviting sidewalks and public amenities. Small blocks make for frequent, convenient and safe crosswalks.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Eric Dumbaugh , Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning at Texas A&M University, has studied the safety impact of high-volume arterials compared to New Urbanism’s livable streets: Arterials roads are associated with increased crash risks for all users, regardless of mode. • 14% increase in multiple-vehicle crashes. • 10% increase in pedestrian crashes. • 8.4% increase in bicyclist crashes. Per vehicle mile traveled, livable streets reported: • 40% fewer midblock crashes than roadway averages. • 67% fewer roadside crashes than roadway averages.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base More from Eric Dumbaugh : Each additional arterial-oriented commercial use is associated with: a 2.4% increase in  multiple-vehicle crashes • a 3.0% increase in pedestrian crashes • a 1.7% increase in   vehicle-cyclist crashes. Each big box store is associated with: • an 8.7% increase in  multiple-vehicle crashes • an 8.9% increase in pedestrian crashes • a 4.6% increase in cyclist crashes. Each pedestrian-scaled retail use is associated with: • a 3.4% decrease in multiple-vehicle crashes •a 1.6% decrease in pedestrian crashes • a negative but statistically insignificant effect on bicyclist crashes.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Image: Urban Advantage for LEED-ND Using the principles of New Urbanism, it’s now possible to transform automobile-dependent strips into walkable corridors.
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Image: Urban Advantage for LEED-ND
    • These streets are convenient for all users — pedestrians, cyclists, transit riders and drivers.
    • They serve the three functions expected of streets from Roman times to mid 20 th century: places of travel, places of commerce, and public meeting places.
    • They function best as parts of highly connected networks that distribute traffic evenly and efficiently.
  • Photo: Lake Oswego, Oregon; courtesy of Dan Burden A CDC health assessment impact determined that converting 2.4 miles of an Atlanta-area high-volume arterial into a pedestrian-friendly street would cost $10 million but yield $47 million in societal savings (ie. reduced health care costs, emergency response) over 20 years.) Source: Candace Rutt, CDC New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Photo: M.VJantzen via Flickr (CC) New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base January 9, 2010 The New York Times quoted a study by Joe Cortright for CEOs for Cities: “They found that in many ways , the street corner beats the cul de sac.. . The study found that houses with above-average Walk Scores commanded a premium. It was as much as $30,000 in cities like Charlotte, N.C., Chicago, Sacramento and San Francisco, wrote Cortright, an economist at Impresa, a consulting firm in Portland, Ore." The study looked at the sales of 90,000 homes in 15 markets to estimate how much value was associated with better Walk Scores. Using a 100-point scale, this score rates the number of destinations, including libraries, parks and coffee shops, within walking distance of a home..
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base The Times got the chief economist Stan Humphries at Zillow.com to see what happened during the downturn. In the not-so-walkable Seattle suburb where he lives, Sammamish (Walk Score 29) average home values are down 21 percent from their peak in 2007. Prices fell 14 percent in the centrally located Green Lake neighborhood of Seattle, (Walk Score 89) — a decline comparable to that of other more urban neighborhoods of the city. Using Zillow data, Humphries looked at concentric circles of major metropolitan areas and it generally held true that property values closer to the city center held up better Image via Zillow
  • Image: Sankt Erik infill development, Stockholm New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base By putting land to use more efficiently — with a high-quality public realm and higher-density development — New Urbanism boosts assessed value while boosting quality of life.
  • Image: Actually Mayfair Mall, Wauwatosa; right courtesy of Milwaukee Journal Sentinal New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Bayshore Mall becomes Bayshore Town Center: Glendale, WI put up $58 million in TIF-financed bonds for infrastructure and site prep. Developer adds mixed-use – housing, offices, entertainment, fine-dining restaurants.
  • Image: Actually Mayfair Mall, Wauwatosa; right courtesy of Milwaukee Journal Sentinal New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base Bayshore Mall Bayshore Town Center Assessed value in 2002: $73.7 million Assessed value in 2010: $329.8 million
  • Photo: M.VJantzen via Flickr (CC) New Urbanism Location Efficient Infrastructure/Service Efficient Healthier & Safer Enduring Tax Base
  • Learn more about principles and tools for implementing New Urbanism in your community at cnu.org.
  • New Urbanism: Just. Performs. Better.