According to the U.S. Department of Commerce's American Community Survey and information from the U.S. Census, bicycling a...
project for transportation reform CNU Adopting and implementing a metropolitan plan: Portland Metro's experience  Metro Co...
Clean Air! Clean Air! Clean Air! Walkable Community Organic Farm Zone HAZARD ZONE No Development Endangered Butterfly Habi...
 
 
As early as 1907, the newly created Oregon Board of Health referred to the Willamette River as  “ an open sewer,”  
 
 
 
Urbanization of the Willamette Valley Oregon-Washington Region
By the third quarter of the 20 th  Century, Oregon was experiencing sprawl and Portland was experiencing…… Declining popul...
The context for the Portland metropolitan plan is a statewide plan for growth and conservation.
                                          
 
<ul><li>Goal 1 - Citizen Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2 - Land Use Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 3 - Agriculture L...
State Laws & Goals  City & County Comprehensive Plans  & Amendments to Plans City & County Land Use Regulations Local Deci...
Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
Antelope, Oregon Population 34 Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
Defining the Limits of Urban Growth Portland Gresham Vancouver & Clark County, Washington Wilsonville Oregon City Hillsbor...
Elected Metro Councilors Elected Metro Council President Metropolitan Portland Regional Government  (Oregon Portion Only) ...
 
Background Regional Framework Plan Urban Growth Management Functional Plan Regional Transportation Plan Metropolitan Plann...
Source: Arthur C. Nelson:  “How Do We Know Smart Growth When We See It?” in  Smart Growth: Form & Consequences , Lincoln I...
 
Metro Policy Advisory Committee
Implementing the Plan
Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky
 
Charleston City & County SC Lincoln-Lancaster Co. NB Concord NH Sioux Falls, Minnehaha & Lincoln-Lancaster Co. SD Lancaste...
Results
Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
Do they work? Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
San Antonio Columbus Charlotte These five regions were of comparable populations, size and growth during the 1990s. Source...
Regional Population Growth Allocated By Density Category   1990 -2000 Charlotte  Columbus  Orlando  San Antonio Portland U...
 
Redeveloping Outer Suburbs
 
 
 
Redeveloping Older Suburbs
 
 
 
 
Redeveloping  Inner Neighborhoods
 
 
 
 
 
 
Photo © The Westerly 2008
Pearl District Redevelopment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
South Waterfront   (former industrial area)  &  Oregon Health & Sciences University
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
 
 
<ul><li>In  the Portland metropolitan region 1977-82: </li></ul><ul><li>Acreage of residential zoned land increased 10%. <...
Average Single Family  Residential Lot Size  Portland, Oregon Metro Region <ul><li>12,800 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>1982 8...
Dwelling Units Permitted by Type in the City of Portland More Housing Choices & Density
PROCEEDINGS  OF THE   ELEVENTH NATIONAL CONFERNCE  ON CITY PLANNING   NIAGARA FALLS AND BUFFALO, NEW YORK MAY 26-28, 1919 ...
Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning Introductory Statement by Arthur C Comey,  City Planner, Cambridge Mass. Today as we...
It may be a reasonable view that the health and general physical and mental welfare of society would be promoted by each f...
City of Euclid v. Ambler  Judge Westerhaven US District Court 1925 The blighting of property values and the congesting of ...
City of Euclid v. Ambler US Supreme Court 1926 With particular reference to apartment houses, it is pointed out that the d...
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  Underwriting Manual of 1938 Section 937 .  Quality of Neighborhood Development   … A...
SOURCES James C. O’Connell, “Thinking Like a Region:  Historical and Contemporary Perspectives,” in Charles C. Euchner, ed...
Income groups intermingle; Land-use planning nurtures economic integration in Portland, census data show”   Betsy Hammond,...
September 18, 2007 Portland Public Schools Enrollment to Level Off by 2011, Then Begin a   Gradual Rebound, According to P...
Median Single Family Home Prices in Metro Regions  National Association Realtors      2007  2009 2 nd  qtr  2007 to 2009 2...
Clackamas Between 1990 and 1999 Portland regional transit ridership grew 24 percent faster than vehicle miles traveled & 5...
 
 
 
According to the U.S. Department of Commerce's [2008] American Community Survey and information from the U.S. Census, bicy...
Lady Madonna, cyclists at your feet  By Joseph Rose November 02, 2009 Church leaders and 35 bicyclists gather at St. Steph...
 
More Travel Choices, Less Dependence on Cars
 
Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
 
Census of Agriculture Trends in total acres of farmland in Willamette Valley 1950-1997 Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, ...
Land Use Change On Non-Federal Land in Western Oregon, 1973-2000”  Azuma, Birch, Herstrom, Kline & Lettman (May 2002) “ In...
Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
Politics
(Repeal) Initiative Campaigns  1976, 1978, 1982, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2007
The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989
The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989
The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989   May 1989  23 arrested August 1989
CITY OF MILWAUKIE   RECALL ELECTIONS   Submitted to the legal voters of said City   Official Ballot, Special Election Coun...
Southwest Community Plan Controversy
Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
Implementing our Plan:  Making the Greatest Place
Regional Framework Plan Urban Growth Management Functional Plan Regional Transportation Plan
Recommended Regional Investment Strategy
Employment: Forecasted Distribution
The Study Area (400,000 acres)
 
Metro  Residential Capacity Analysis
Metro  Residential Capacity Analysis
Local Aspirations for Urban Growth ,  Development & Redevelopment
Local Aspirations for Urban Growth, Development & Redevelopment Rendering from Hillsboro’s Amberglen Concept Plan
Public Investments to Support Urban Development & Redevelopment
 
Public Investments to Support Urban Development & Redevelopment The [Metro infrastructure] analysis also reported that the...
If the relationship between land use and population in the last decade continues, [by 2025] there will be 68 million more ...
The big picture .
project for transportation reform CNU Adopting and implementing a metropolitan plan: Portland Metro's experience  Metro Co...
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Adopting and Implementing a Metropolitan Plan: Portland Metro's Experience

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Metro Councilor Robert Liberty discusses and presents work that Metro is doing in an effort to produce environmentally and pedestrian friendly communities, while preserving and investing in the communities that already exist. Mr. Liberty recognizes that the current, rapid rate of land development in the United States is destructive to our economy, environment and way of life.

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  • In comparing us to all metro regions within 250,000 population, we have the lowest level of vehicle travel per person and the lonely one with a distinct downward direction.
  • Adopting and Implementing a Metropolitan Plan: Portland Metro's Experience

    1. 1. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce's American Community Survey and information from the U.S. Census, bicycling as a mode of commuting has jumped 275 percent in Portland since 1996. At the same time, driving has slowly declined. Public transportation and walking have increased 25 percent and 15 percent, respectively, according to the data.
    2. 2. project for transportation reform CNU Adopting and implementing a metropolitan plan: Portland Metro's experience Metro Councilor Robert Liberty
    3. 3. Clean Air! Clean Air! Clean Air! Walkable Community Organic Farm Zone HAZARD ZONE No Development Endangered Butterfly Habitat Overlay Zone Urban Growth Boundary Diverse Beneficiaries W e l c o m e t o M e t r o P o r t l a n d !              High Density Mixed Use & Mixed Income Redevelopment
    4. 6. As early as 1907, the newly created Oregon Board of Health referred to the Willamette River as  “ an open sewer,”  
    5. 10. Urbanization of the Willamette Valley Oregon-Washington Region
    6. 11. By the third quarter of the 20 th Century, Oregon was experiencing sprawl and Portland was experiencing…… Declining population Sprawling suburbs A polluted river Air pollution A fading downtown Economic change & dislocation Rising racial tensions The future was not bright….
    7. 12. The context for the Portland metropolitan plan is a statewide plan for growth and conservation.
    8. 13.                                           
    9. 15. <ul><li>Goal 1 - Citizen Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2 - Land Use Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 3 - Agriculture Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 4 - Forest Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 5 - Open Spaces, Scenic and Historic Area, and Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 6 - Air, Water and Land Resources Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 7 - Areas Subject to Natural Disasters and Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 8 - Recreation Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 9 - Economy of the State </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 10 - Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 11 - Public Facilities and Services </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 12 - Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 13 - Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 14 - Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 15 - Willamette Greenway </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 16 - Estuarine Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 17 - Coastal Shorelands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 18 - Beaches and Dunes </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 19 - Ocean Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 1 - Citizen Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2 - Land Use Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 3 - Agriculture Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 4 - Forest Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 5 - Open Spaces, Scenic and Historic Area, and Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 6 - Air, Water and Land Resources Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 7 - Areas Subject to Natural Disasters and Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 8 - Recreation Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 15 - Willamette Greenway </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 16 - Estuarine Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 17 - Coastal Shorelands </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 18 - Beaches and Dunes </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 19 - Ocean Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 9 - Economy of the State </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 10 - Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 11 - Public Facilities and Services </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 12 - Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 13 - Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 14 - Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 1 - Citizen Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2 - Land Use Planning </li></ul>Oregon’s Development & Conservation Goals
    10. 16. State Laws & Goals City & County Comprehensive Plans & Amendments to Plans City & County Land Use Regulations Local Decisions Implementing the Plans & Regulations
    11. 17. Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
    12. 18. Antelope, Oregon Population 34 Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
    13. 19. Defining the Limits of Urban Growth
    14. 20. Defining the Limits of Urban Growth Portland Gresham Vancouver & Clark County, Washington Wilsonville Oregon City Hillsboro Forest Grove Tigard
    15. 21. Elected Metro Councilors Elected Metro Council President Metropolitan Portland Regional Government (Oregon Portion Only) Elected Metro Auditor
    16. 23. Background Regional Framework Plan Urban Growth Management Functional Plan Regional Transportation Plan Metropolitan Planning Organization Other regional functions & facilities Oregon Zoo, Convention Center, PCPA, Expo Recycling & Solid waste Parks & Greenspaces
    17. 24. Source: Arthur C. Nelson: “How Do We Know Smart Growth When We See It?” in Smart Growth: Form & Consequences , Lincoln Institute for Land Policy 2002 NOTE: Current boundary contains about 256,000 acres Portland Regional Urban Growth Boundary Expansions 1980 - 2000 Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    18. 26. Metro Policy Advisory Committee
    19. 27. Implementing the Plan
    20. 28. Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky
    21. 30. Charleston City & County SC Lincoln-Lancaster Co. NB Concord NH Sioux Falls, Minnehaha & Lincoln-Lancaster Co. SD Lancaster County PA Ventura County CA
    22. 31. Results
    23. 32. Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    24. 33. Do they work? Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    25. 34. Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    26. 35. San Antonio Columbus Charlotte These five regions were of comparable populations, size and growth during the 1990s. Source: Nelson & Sanchez, “ Lassoing Urban Sprawl ” Metroscape IPMS Winter 2003 Orlando Portland Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    27. 36. Regional Population Growth Allocated By Density Category 1990 -2000 Charlotte Columbus Orlando San Antonio Portland Urban 7% 31% 64% 63% 88% 3000+ persons/sq mile Suburban 50% 45% 23% 8% 9% 1000 to 3000 persons/sq mile Exurban 45% 18% 12% 12% 1% 300 to 1000 persons/sq mile Rural -1% 7% 2% 17% 3% 0 to 300 persons/sq mile Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    28. 38. Redeveloping Outer Suburbs
    29. 42. Redeveloping Older Suburbs
    30. 47. Redeveloping Inner Neighborhoods
    31. 54. Photo © The Westerly 2008
    32. 55. Pearl District Redevelopment
    33. 68. South Waterfront (former industrial area) & Oregon Health & Sciences University
    34. 80. Compact Urban Development & Redevelopment
    35. 83. <ul><li>In the Portland metropolitan region 1977-82: </li></ul><ul><li>Acreage of residential zoned land increased 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-family acreage almost quadrupled to 27%. </li></ul><ul><li>- Maximum potential buildable units increased from 129,000 to over 301,000 </li></ul>More Housing Choices & Density
    36. 84. Average Single Family Residential Lot Size Portland, Oregon Metro Region <ul><li>12,800 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>1982 8,280 sq. ft. </li></ul>More Housing Choices & Density 1995 6,738 sq. ft. 1997 6,481 sq. ft. 1999 6,151 sq. ft. 2000 5,857 sq. ft. 5,132 sq. ft. 2001 001
    37. 85. Dwelling Units Permitted by Type in the City of Portland More Housing Choices & Density
    38. 86. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH NATIONAL CONFERNCE ON CITY PLANNING NIAGARA FALLS AND BUFFALO, NEW YORK MAY 26-28, 1919 Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning
    39. 87. Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning Introductory Statement by Arthur C Comey, City Planner, Cambridge Mass. Today as we came down Delaware Avenue, a street largely built up with fine single houses, set well back, we saw a large pile of lumber and we were told that somebody proposed to put a large frame apartment house. In a few years, this apartment house would become, in the ordinary course, a poor kind of tenement house, and property values along the street would soon be destroyed. Page 159 Apartment houses and multi-family houses should be assigned to specific districts which have adequate protection against apartment houses. The single family house does not damage apartment dwellings, so that the only requirement necessary is to establish residential district where apartments are not permitted. Page 160
    40. 88. It may be a reasonable view that the health and general physical and mental welfare of society would be promoted by each family dwelling in a house by itself. Increase in fresh air, freedom for the play of children and of movement for adults, the opportunity to cultivate a bit of land, and the reduction in the spread of contagious diseases may be thought to be advanced by a general custom that each family live in a house standing by itself with its own curtilage…... There is nothing on the face of this by law to indicate that it will not operate indifferently for the general benefit.   Brett v. Building Commissioner of Brookline , 250 Mass. 73, 78, 145 N. E. 269, 271 (1924) Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning
    41. 89. City of Euclid v. Ambler Judge Westerhaven US District Court 1925 The blighting of property values and the congesting of population whenever the colored races or certain foreign races are so well known as to be within judicial cognizance. [But]..in the last analysis, the result to be accomplished is to classify the population and segregate them according to their income or situation in life ….[thus the zoning measure was unconstitutional under Buchanan v. Warley.] Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning
    42. 90. City of Euclid v. Ambler US Supreme Court 1926 With particular reference to apartment houses, it is pointed out that the development of detached house sections [viz. neighborhoods] is greatly retarded by the coming of apartment houses, which has sometimes resulted in destroying the entire section for private house purposes; that in such sections very often the apartment house is a mere parasite…. Moreover, the coming of one apartment house is followed by others… Origins of Exclusionary (Snob) Zoning
    43. 91. Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Underwriting Manual of 1938 Section 937 . Quality of Neighborhood Development … Areas surrounding a location are investigated to determine whether incompatible racial and social groups are present, for the purpose of making a prediction regarding the probability of the location being invaded by such groups. If a neighborhood is to retain stability, it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same racial classes. A change in social or racial occupancy generally contributes to instability and a decline in values. REINFORCING Exclusionary Zoning
    44. 92. SOURCES James C. O’Connell, “Thinking Like a Region: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives,” in Charles C. Euchner, ed., Governing Greater Boston: The Politics and Policy of Place (Cambridge, MA: Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston, 2002), 51. “ Wide Open Spaces: The USA Today Sprawl Index,” USA Today , August 13, 2001. The areas compared are the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas, which in the case of Boston stretches as far west as the Worcester area and north into southern New Hampshire. The Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA) for Boston has 1,603 persons per square mile while the Los Angeles PMSA has 2,183 per square mile. BOSTON METROPOLITAN REGION 1982-1997: Metro Boston Population Increased by 6.7% 1982-1997: Metro Boston Urban Area Increased by 46.9% 1950 –2000: Metro Boston Population Density Decreased 55% 2000: Metro Boston Density ½ Metro Los Angeles Effects of EXCLUSIONARY Zoning
    45. 93. Income groups intermingle; Land-use planning nurtures economic integration in Portland, census data show” Betsy Hammond, The Oregonian (May 15, 2002) “ Bucking national trends, Portland and its suburbs became more economically integrated during the 1990s, new census figures show. Poor families are less concentrated in Portland and more likely to live in the suburbs – nearly all the suburbs – than a decade ago. ….. The residential mingling of haves and have-nots can be traced to a state land-use rule put in place nearly a quarter century ago, local developers and planners say.” More Housing Choices & Density
    46. 94. September 18, 2007 Portland Public Schools Enrollment to Level Off by 2011, Then Begin a Gradual Rebound, According to Portland State University Population R esearchers Enrollment in Portland Public Schools is expected to drop by roughly 2,750 students over five years, before stabilizing at about 42,700 K-12 students in 2011-12. .. From 2000 to 2006… the percentage of school-age children enrolled in PPS - dropped only slightly, from 85.6% to 83.7%. More Housing Choices & Density
    47. 95. Median Single Family Home Prices in Metro Regions National Association Realtors 2007 2009 2 nd qtr 2007 to 2009 2 nd qtr Portland $295,200 $246,200 -17% Atlanta $172,000 $121,400 -30% Boston $395,600 $336,100 -15% Chicago $276,600 $204,300 -26% NY-N’ern NJ $469,700 $379,800 -19% Phil-Cam-Wil $234,900 $211,000 -10% Sacramento $342,800 $177,500 -49% San Francisco $804,800 $472,900 -41% Seattle $386,900 $328,400 -18%
    48. 96. Clackamas Between 1990 and 1999 Portland regional transit ridership grew 24 percent faster than vehicle miles traveled & 59 percent faster than population growth. Wilsonvillee
    49. 100. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce's [2008] American Community Survey and information from the U.S. Census, bicycling as a mode of commuting has jumped 275 percent in Portland since 1996. At the same time, driving has slowly declined. Public transportation and walking have increased 25 percent and 15 percent, respectively, according to the data.
    50. 101. Lady Madonna, cyclists at your feet By Joseph Rose November 02, 2009 Church leaders and 35 bicyclists gather at St. Stephen’s Parish in downtown Portland on Monday night for a blessing of the bikes. The ceremony was part of the unveiling of what is believed to be the nation’s only church shrine dedicated to the Madonna del Ghisallo, patron saint of cyclists.
    51. 103. More Travel Choices, Less Dependence on Cars
    52. 105. Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    53. 106. Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    54. 108. Census of Agriculture Trends in total acres of farmland in Willamette Valley 1950-1997 Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    55. 109. Land Use Change On Non-Federal Land in Western Oregon, 1973-2000” Azuma, Birch, Herstrom, Kline & Lettman (May 2002) “ In the period from 1994 to 2000 the conversion rate of resource land dropped from 6,000 acres per year to 4,000 acres per year. In this period population and personal income growth rates were again high but the rate of development continued to slow. This is a good indication that the land use program has slowed the rate of resource land conversion (Figure 20.) “ Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    56. 110. Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    57. 111. Rural Lands Conserved for Farming, Ranching & Forestry
    58. 112. Politics
    59. 113. (Repeal) Initiative Campaigns 1976, 1978, 1982, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2007
    60. 114. The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989
    61. 115. The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989
    62. 116. The Battle Over NW Portland Row Houses 1989 May 1989 23 arrested August 1989
    63. 117. CITY OF MILWAUKIE RECALL ELECTIONS Submitted to the legal voters of said City Official Ballot, Special Election County of Clackamas, State of Oregon Tuesday, December 16, 1996 Craig Lomnicki, Mayor of Milwaukie REASONS FOR DEMANDING RECALL OF CRAIG LOMNICKI, MAYOR, CITY OF MILWAUKIE Mayor Craig Lomnicki has consistently demonstrated his unwillingness to abide by the will of the citizens on issues including land use / density, neighborhood livability, traffic and light rail. We do not have confidence in Mayor Lomnicki to protect the existing quality of life, traditions and character of our community.
    64. 118. Southwest Community Plan Controversy
    65. 119. Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
    66. 120. Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
    67. 121. Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
    68. 122. Public and Voter Support Remains Strong and Steady
    69. 123. Implementing our Plan: Making the Greatest Place
    70. 124. Regional Framework Plan Urban Growth Management Functional Plan Regional Transportation Plan
    71. 125. Recommended Regional Investment Strategy
    72. 126. Employment: Forecasted Distribution
    73. 127. The Study Area (400,000 acres)
    74. 129. Metro Residential Capacity Analysis
    75. 130. Metro Residential Capacity Analysis
    76. 131. Local Aspirations for Urban Growth , Development & Redevelopment
    77. 132. Local Aspirations for Urban Growth, Development & Redevelopment Rendering from Hillsboro’s Amberglen Concept Plan
    78. 133. Public Investments to Support Urban Development & Redevelopment
    79. 135. Public Investments to Support Urban Development & Redevelopment The [Metro infrastructure] analysis also reported that the combined public costs of deferred maintenance and new infrastructure to accommodate growth are estimated at between $27 billion and $41 billion over the next 30 years. Only half of this cost estimate can be met with existing revenue sources, leaving a funding gap of between $10 and $20 billion.
    80. 136. If the relationship between land use and population in the last decade continues, [by 2025] there will be 68 million more acres of developed land in the contiguous U.S. than there are today. This newly developed acreage – equivalent to the land area of Wyoming – will almost match the amount of land developed from the founding of the country until 1983.” Dana Beach, SCCCL for the Pew Oceans Commission Environmental Impacts of EXCLUSIONARY Zoning
    81. 137. The big picture .
    82. 138. project for transportation reform CNU Adopting and implementing a metropolitan plan: Portland Metro's experience Metro Councilor Robert Liberty

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