Semantic Reasoning with Refined REA-EO Primitives
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Guido Geerts, Sergio de Cesare, Semantic Reasoning with Refined REA-EO Primitives

Guido Geerts, Sergio de Cesare, Semantic Reasoning with Refined REA-EO Primitives

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Semantic Reasoning with Refined REA-EO Primitives Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Semantic Reasoning with Refined REA-EO Primitives Guido L. Geerts – University of Delaware Sergio de Cesare – Brunel University CONFENIS 2012 6th International Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems Ghent, Belgium September 20
  • 2. The Resource-Event-Agent Enterprise Ontology (REA-EO) REA-EO STEREOTYPICAL BUSINESS PROCESS DEFINITION Inside accountable Agent Economic stock-flow Economic Resource Event Outside participates Agent duality BUSINESS PROCESS SPECIFICATION (INSTANTIATION) WITH SEMANTIC (REA-EO) ANNOTATIONS <<accountable>> <<stock-flow>> <<Inside Agent>> has << Economic with << Economic SalesPerson Resource>> Event>> <<participates>> Product Sale with <<Outside Agent>> <<duality>> <<participates>> Customer applies-to with <<stock-flow>> << Economic with <<Economic Resource>> Event>> Cash Cash Receipt <<Inside Agent>> <<accountable>> Cashier has
  • 3. How to use the REA-EO Semantics (1) Augmented Intensional Reasoning (Geerts and McCarthy 2000) DATABASE value(customer,0002,customer_name,Grabski). value(sale,0001,sale_nr,0001). SEMANTIC ANNOTATIONS rea(sale,event). rea(customer,agent). rea(product,resource). CONCEPT DEFINITIONS claim(Agent,AgentValue,Event,EventValue,FutureEvent):- dualrel(Event,Dual,FutureEvent), part(Event,Dual,DualValue,EventValue), not relpart(Event, EventValue, Dual,FutureEvent, FutureEventValue), control(Event,Control,Agent), relpart(Event,EventValue,Control,Agent,AgentValue). CONCEPT INSTANTIATIONS (Semantic Information Retrieval) Agent AgentValue Event EventValue FutureEvent Intension Extension Intension Extension Intension customer 0001 cash_receipt 0002 sale vendor 0001 purchase 0002 cash_disbursement vendor 0001 purchase 0003 cash-disbursement
  • 4. How to use the REA-EO Semantics (2) Knowledge-Intensive DesignDefinition of Modeling Rules in terms of REA-EO Semantics (Geerts 1993; Rockwell and McCarthy 1999; Hruby 2006) Economic Economic Economic Event stock-flow Resource stock-flow Event inflow outflow“Each economic resource must participate in at least one inflow association and must participate in at least one outflow association” Economic Economic Event duality Event “Each economic event must be connected to another economic event, which affect resources in the opposite way, by means of a duality association.”
  • 5. How to use the REA-EO Semantics (3)Operational Business Rules in terms of REA-EO Semantics (Gailly and Geerts, 2012) Economic Economic Economic Event stock-flow Resource stock-flow Event inflow outflow“The participation of an Economic Resource instance in a stock-flow outflow association must be preceded by the participation of the same instance in a stock-flow inflow association” << Economic <<Economic <<Economic Event>> Resource>> Event>> Purchase <<Sfi>> Product <<Sfo>> Sale with with “A specific product can’t be sold if it hasn’t been acquired (purchased) yet”
  • 6. This Paper’s Research Question(s)1) Should we refine the REA-EO semantics? What problems can be solved by such refined semantics? 2) Are we able to discover some guidelines as part of the refinement process (How)?
  • 7. Overview of the Different Types of REA-EO Extensions I. Three-Layer Architecture (Geerts and McCarthy 2001) Car Cash Labor Labor Payroll Cash Labor Maintained Car Used Car Process Maintenance Revenue Labor Car Labor Process Process Labor Maintained Car Used Cash Car Cash Acquisition Used Car Used Car Process Car Revenue Rental Maintained Customer Agent Car Labor Rental Used Car Car Give Car Exchange Take Cash Receipt Cash Used Car Cash Customer CashierAccept Customer Contact Find Car & Provide Keys Assess Customer Needs Check Out Car Check Car File & Choose Assess Insurance Options & Credit Return Car Fill in Contract Customer Pays Update Files
  • 8. Overview of the Different Types of REA-EO Extensions II. More Complete Specification of Business Processes (Geerts and McCarthy 2000) Resource Event typification Type Agent Commitment Image reciprocal Commitment Commitment participation reserves executes executes participation {accountability -- internal agent} Economic stock-flow Economic dual Economic Economic Resource { inflow Event Event Agent outflow } linkage custody (resource – internal agent) association description (resource – external agent) Extended REA Framework responsibility (internal – internal) (REA Enterprise Ontology) assignment (internal – external) alliance (external – external)
  • 9. Overview of the Different Types of REA-EO Extensions III. REA-EO PRIMITIVE REFINEMENT (Geerts and McCarthy 2000; HRUBY 2006) Stock-Flow Inflow Outflow Take Production Give Use Consumption Market Exchange Conversion Exchange Use EconomicEconomic Give Economic ResourceResource Event Economic Duality Production Economic Economic Duality Event Event EventEconomic Take EconomicResource Event Economic Resource Consumption Conversion Exchange Market Exchange Use MachineFinished Give Sale Production Good Production Duality Manufacturing Economic Steps Process Event Duality Take Cash Cash Ingredients Receipt Consumption
  • 10. DSRM Activities Activity Description Knowledge Base (A wide variety of) applications benefit from Literature Review.Problem Identification and (extended) semantics. Identify additional problems Practice: Problems solved by using Motivation that can be solved by using semantics semantics. . Literature Review. Full understanding of current REA-EODefine the Objectives of a Refined semantics should result in more and improved primitives and the business practices, Solution operational rules modeling rules, and instance rules they can support. 1) Stock-Flow Networks 2) Refined Specification (Taxonomy) of Stock-Flow Scenario-driven ontological engineering.Design and Development Semantics Economic and Accounting Theory. 3) Ontology-Based Operational Rules 4) Refinement Process Application of refined semantics and operational rules Demonstration Business Process Analysis to a number of business scenarios Case Study To what extent are the extended semantics and the Evaluation Case Study associated operational rules applicable. Present the ideas and results to academics and Communication Knowledge of the disciplinary culture. managers.
  • 11. STOCK-FLOW NETWORKS Inflow Outflow Economic Economic Economic Event Resource Event Economic Economic Event Event Economic Economic Event Event Inflow Outflow Fixed Buy Employ Asset Lease Sell DisposeMaintenance Return
  • 12. BUSINESS MODEL I THE “BUSINESS ENTITY” BUYS AND SELLS VIDEOS (CDs) TAKE Video GIVE Buy Sale (CD) DUALITY DUALITY Cash GIVE TAKE Cash CashDisbursement Receipt
  • 13. BUSINESS MODEL II THE “BUSINESS ENTITY” BUYS AND SELLS VIDEOS (CDs)CUSTOMERS CAN RETURN VIDEOS THAT DON’T WORK AND GET THEIR MONEY BACK Return TAKEDUALITY TAKE Video GIVE Purchase Sale (CD) DUALITY DUALITY GIVE TAKE Cash Cash Cash Disbursement Receipt
  • 14. BUSINESS MODEL II With REFINED SEMANTICS THE “BUSINESS ENTITY” BUYS AND SELLS VIDEOS (CDs) CUSTOMERS CAN RETURN VIDEOS THAT DON’T WORK AND GET THEIR MONEY BACK Return TAKE-U-RETURN TAKE Video GIVE Purchase Sale (CD)1) DEPENDENCY EXISTS BETWEEN GIVE and TAKE-U-RETURN (BUSINESS MODELING)2) COMPLIES WITH THE “A GIVE REQUIRES A TAKE” OPERATIONAL RULE.3) OTHER (OPERATIONAL) RULES CAN BE DEFINED IN TERMS OF THE EXTENDED SEMANTICS; SUCH AS: a) A TAKE-U-RETURN MUST BE PRECEDED BY A GIVE. b) A TAKE cannot be (immediately) followed by a TAKE-U-RETURN and vice versa.
  • 15. BUSINESS MODEL III With REFINED SEMANTICS THE “BUSINESS ENTITY” NOW DECIDES TO BOTH SELL AND RENT CDs Cash DUALITY Receipt DUALITY Return Rent TAKE-W-RETURN GIVE-BORROW TAKE Video GIVE Purchase Sale (CD)1) DEPENDENCIES EXIST BETWEEN GIVE/TAKE and GIVE-BORROW/TAKE-W-RETURN (BUSINESS MODELING)2) OTHER (OPERATIONAL) RULES CAN BE DEFINED IN TERMS OF THE EXTENDED SEMANTICS; SUCH AS: a) Participation in a TAKE-W-RETURN association must be preceded by participation in a GIVE- BORROW. b) Participation in a GIVE association cannot be followed by participation in a TAKE-W-RETURN association
  • 16. REFINED TAXONOMIC DEFINITION OF THE STOCK-FLOW ASSOCIATION Stock-Flow Inflow Outflow Take Production Give Use Consumption Take-Return Take-Borrow Give-Borrow Give-Return Take-U- Take-W- Give-U- Give-W- Return Return Return Return
  • 17. CONCLUSIONS Semantically Refined Stock-Flow Associations1) Enable to express more complex “business modeling” dependencies 2) Enable to define more advanced operational rules FUTURE RESEARCH 1) Work-In-Progress 2) Define full-blown stock-flow association taxonomy 3) Define additional instance and (business) modeling rules 4) Investigate stereotypical “Work-Flow” patterns for the different stock-flow associations 5) Generalize the REFINEMENT PROCESS 6) Evaluation of the artifacts
  • 18. Stock-FlowSemanticsReasoning Questions?