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An Application of Role Modellingto the Decomposition of Business ProcessesArtur Caetano, José Borbinha, José TriboletDep. ...
SummaryResearch questions  – How to decompose a business process according to    specific criteria?  – How to identify the...
Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application.                                     artur...
Enterprise Architecture Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole  of principles, methods and models used to  anal...
Enterprise Architecture                                                                               2-5 yrs             ...
Business Process Modelling Business processes describe how a set of  structured activities produce an output. Processes ...
Process Decomposition                           A1           A1.1           A1.2     A1.3                    ...A1.1.1    ...
Process Decomposition                        artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt   8
Process Decomposition Lack of criteria to determine when and how to decompose  an activity. Lack of criteria to determin...
Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application.                                     artur...
Separation of ConcernsSeparation of concerns, which, even if notperfectly possible, is yet the only availabletechnique for...
Separation of Concerns SoC is an abstraction technique. Its main goal is to isolate the different concerns  (aspects) of...
Role Modelling as SoC Entities (natural types) specify the structure (active and  passive) of a system. Role types descr...
Role Types and Natural Types Role type (e.g. Buyer, Seller)      – Founded: existence depends on other concepts      – No...
Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application.                                     artur...
Conference Organization«Organizing a conference involves managingpaper submissions. Authors submit papers tothe conference...
Conference Organization «Organizing a conference involves managing paper submissions. Authors submit papers to the confere...
Conference Organization«Organizing a conference involves managing papersubmissions. Authors submit papers to theconference...
Conference Organization View #1 “Who is doing what?” View #2 “What resources are being used?”                           ...
Example            Role-based Decomposition                                                           Manage              ...
Example    Role-based Decomposition                                                       Manage                          ...
Role-based Decomposition An activity is defined a collaboration between  entities playing roles. The decomposition metho...
Example              Role Type Ontology A role type ontology specifies the role types (i.e. concerns)  applicable to a gi...
Role Type Ontology                     artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt   25
Summary The proposed method decomposes a business process based  on a role type ontology that specifies the concerns of t...
An Application of Role Modellingto the Decomposition of Business ProcessesArtur Caetano, José Borbinha, José TriboletDep. ...
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An Application of Role Modelling to the Decomposition of Business Processes

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Artur Caetano, José Borbinha, José Tribolet, An Application of Role Modelling to the Decomposition of Business Processes

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  1. 1. An Application of Role Modellingto the Decomposition of Business ProcessesArtur Caetano, José Borbinha, José TriboletDep. of Computer Science and Engineering, IST, Technical University of Lisbon&Information Systems Group, INESC-ID Lisbonartur.caetano@ist.utl.ptCONFENIS 2012. September 2012, Ghent, Belgium.
  2. 2. SummaryResearch questions – How to decompose a business process according to specific criteria? – How to identify the atomic activities of a business process (the activities that cannot be further decomposed)?Goals – Create consistent views over the process model. – Facilitate the identification of business services.Approach – Application of role modelling (separation of concerns) – Method to decompose a process based on roles.
  3. 3. Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application. artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 3
  4. 4. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole of principles, methods and models used to analyse, design and realise the infrastructure, processes and support systems of an organization. EA artefacts cross-cut heterogeneous domains such as strategy, people, processes, services, information, IS, IT. Multiple views are required to address the concerns of all stakeholders (cf. ISO 42010, ArchiMate, TOGAF).
  5. 5. Enterprise Architecture 2-5 yrs Strategic Indicators, External Products & Services, Strategy Contracts, Rules, Regulations, … < 6 mo Business Processes, Information Entities, Actors, Business Organizational Units, Operational Indicators, … 3-6 yrsIS Infrastructure Software, Services, Components, Packages, … 6-10 yrs Processing, Storage and Communication nodesIT Infrastructure and artefacts, … artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 5
  6. 6. Business Process Modelling Business processes describe how a set of structured activities produce an output. Processes can be modelled using different modelling languages and paradigms. – Most focus on the specification of the workflow of a process (transformational paradigm). BPMLs are often method-independent: – do not provide the means to assess the qualities of a model; – do not prescribe process design principles.
  7. 7. Process Decomposition A1 A1.1 A1.2 A1.3 ...A1.1.1 A1.1.2 A1.1.NThe specification of an atomic activity is always context-dependent. artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 7
  8. 8. Process Decomposition artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 8
  9. 9. Process Decomposition Lack of criteria to determine when and how to decompose an activity. Lack of criteria to determine whether an activity is atomic. Views over the same business process may be inconsistent. Business Process A1 A2 B1 B2 B3A1.1 A1.2 A1.3 A2.1 A2.2  B1.1 B12 B2.1 B2.2 B3.1 B3.2 ? A1.2.1 A1.2.2 View #1 View #2
  10. 10. Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application. artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 10
  11. 11. Separation of ConcernsSeparation of concerns, which, even if notperfectly possible, is yet the only availabletechnique for effective ordering of onesthoughts, that I know of. This is what I meanby “focussing ones attention upon someaspect”: it does not mean ignoring theother aspects, it is just doing justice to thefact that from this aspects point of view, theother is irrelevant.Edsger Dijkstra, “On the role of scientific thought”, 1982.
  12. 12. Separation of Concerns SoC is an abstraction technique. Its main goal is to isolate the different concerns (aspects) of a system in a given context. Isolated concerns are easier to analyse and understand. SoC approach: 1. Identify the concerns (i.e. build a concern ontology). 2. Analyse the separated concerns. 3. Weave the concerns back together.
  13. 13. Role Modelling as SoC Entities (natural types) specify the structure (active and passive) of a system. Role types describe the behaviour of each entity. Entities play roles in a specific collaboration context. An activity is a role-based collaboration between entities. Credit Person Book Bookstore Card Payment Buyer Item Seller Buy Item
  14. 14. Role Types and Natural Types Role type (e.g. Buyer, Seller) – Founded: existence depends on other concepts – Not rigid: looses identity outside context Natural type (e.g. Person, Book) – Not founded: independent existence – Rigid: universal (upper-domain) identityN. Guarino. “Concepts, attributes and their relations”. Data & Knowledge Engineering (8), 249-261, 1992.
  15. 15. Agenda1. Motivation.2. Approach: role-based modelling.3. Example of application. artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 16
  16. 16. Conference Organization«Organizing a conference involves managingpaper submissions. Authors submit papers tothe conference. The papers are then reviewedby at least two reviewers who produce a writtenreview. The reviewers cannot be the authors ofthe paper»
  17. 17. Conference Organization «Organizing a conference involves managing paper submissions. Authors submit papers to the conference. The papers are then reviewed by at least two reviewers who produce a written review. The reviewers cannot be the authors of the paper» Concerns (role type ontology) – Actor role (who)  Author, Reviewer – Resource role (what)  Paper, Review
  18. 18. Conference Organization«Organizing a conference involves managing papersubmissions. Authors submit papers to theconference. The papers are then reviewed by atleast two reviewers who produce a written review.The reviewers cannot be the authors of the paper» Manage Paper resource: actor: 2..* resource: Review Reviewer Paper actor: Author artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 19
  19. 19. Conference Organization View #1 “Who is doing what?” View #2 “What resources are being used?” artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 20
  20. 20. Example Role-based Decomposition Manage Paper resource: actor: 2..* resource: Review Reviewer Paper actor: Author Manage Paper A1 A2resource: actor: resource: actor: resource:Review Reviewer Paper Author Paper Decomposition based on the “actor” role type.
  21. 21. Example Role-based Decomposition Manage Paper resource: actor: 2..* resource: Review Reviewer Paper actor: Author Manage Paper A3 A4resource: actor: actor: resource:Review Reviewer Reviewer Paper actor: actor: Author Author Decomposition based on the “resource” role type. artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 22
  22. 22. Role-based Decomposition An activity is defined a collaboration between entities playing roles. The decomposition method recursively separates an activity into sub-activities while it contains overlapping role types. An activity is considered atomic if it has no overlapping role types (i.e. cannot be further decomposed). artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 23
  23. 23. Example Role Type Ontology A role type ontology specifies the role types (i.e. concerns) applicable to a given domain. Upper-level ontologies specify domain-independent concerns, such as: – Actor – who – Resources – what – Locations – where – Goals – why – Events – when Domain-specific ontologies specify concerns applicable to a given context. These can be refined from the upper-level ontology.
  24. 24. Role Type Ontology artur.caetano@ist.utl.pt 25
  25. 25. Summary The proposed method decomposes a business process based on a role type ontology that specifies the concerns of the stakeholders. – Enables creating views over a process that focus on specific concern. – Enables identifying the atomic activities of a process based on a set of concerns (role types). – Facilitates the identification of business services (and thus business - IS mapping). This abstraction technique reduces the problem of process decomposition to the problem of identifying a suitable role type ontology.
  26. 26. An Application of Role Modellingto the Decomposition of Business ProcessesArtur Caetano, José Borbinha, José TriboletDep. of Computer Science and Engineering, IST, Technical University of Lisbon&Information Systems Group, INESC-ID Lisbonartur.caetano@ist.utl.ptCONFENIS 2012. September 2012, Ghent, Belgium.
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