Corporate Sector involvement in Sanitation – A CII Report


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India, a country with one of the oldest civilisations of the world had the concept of sanitation from Indus valley days. Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjadaro sites show evidence that even in ancient India, the practice of using toilets was prevalent and even community toilets and proper drainage systems were present. Yet so many centuries later, it is a paradoxical reality that the country is grappling with the problems of open defecation and access to sanitation facilities. Sanitation, in today’s parlance, is a comprehensive concept which includes waste disposal, environmental, domestic, personal and food hygiene. It is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index. Good sanitary measures and proper utilisation of the facilities is an important component of healthy living including reduction of morbidity and mortality and prevention of water and soil pollution. Lack of clean drinking water, improper disposal of waste and human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene - all of this has direct adverse impact on health, quality of life and economic and social well being. A number of innovative and successful approaches have increased access to sanitation. However, much more needs to be done to scale-up and sustain these efforts.

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Corporate Sector involvement in Sanitation – A CII Report

  1. 1. 1  Corporate sector involvement in Sanitation
  2. 2. Front Inside Cover Blank
  3. 3. Corporate sector involvement in Sanitation
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013 by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in, or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. CII has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of information presented in this document. However, neither CII nor any of its office bearers or analysts or employees can be held responsible for any financial consequences arising out of the use of information provided herein. However, in case of any discrepancy, error, etc., same may please be brought to the notice of CII for appropriate corrections. Published by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), The Mantosh Sondhi Centre; 23, Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 (INDIA) Tel: +91-11-24629994-7; Fax: +91-11-24626149; Email:; Web:
  5. 5. 5  Introduction1. 1 Adani Foundation Experience:2. Rural Sanitation Project 7 Aditya Birla Centre for Community Initiatives and3. Rural Development 13 Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF)4. 17 Asahi India Glass Ltd.5. 20 Biocon Foundation : Sanitation Hygiene6. 23 Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited’s7. Role on Sanitation in Surrounding Villages 26 GMR Varalakshmi Foundation’s work in the area of8. Sanitation: Towards Setting Standards 29 Infosys Foundation Initiative in the Area of9. Sanitation in North Karnataka 34 Jankidevi Bajaj Gram Vikas Sanstha10. 40 K K NAG LIMITED – LOW COST SANITATION SOLUTIONS 4411. Suzlon Foundation –12. Sanitation programs 47 Tata Motors’ initiatives for Ensuring Drinking Water13. and Promoting Sanitation in Villages 53 Tata Power –14. Community Development Project 57 TATA Steel’s involvement in Total Sanitation Campaign15. 60 TVS Electronics’ Corporate Partnership in Sanitation16. 63 USHA MARTIN GRoup: Clean Environment for Healthy Living17. 69 CONTENTS
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  7. 7. 1 Introduction Introduction Context India, a country with one of the oldest civilisations of the world had the concept of sanitation from Indus valley days. Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjadaro sites show evidence that even in ancient India, the practice of using toilets was prevalent and even community toilets and proper drainage systems were present. Yet so many centuries later, it is a paradoxical reality that the country is grappling with the problems of open defecation and access to sanitation facilities. Sanitation, in today’s parlance, is a comprehensive concept which includes waste disposal, environmental, domestic, personal and food hygiene. It is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index. Good sanitary measures and proper utilisation of the facilities is an important component of healthy living including reduction of morbidity and mortality and prevention of water and soil pollution. Lack of clean drinking water, improper disposal of waste and human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene - all of this has direct adverse impact on health, quality of life and economic and social well being. A number of innovative and successful approaches have increased access to sanitation.  However, much more needs to be done to scale-up and sustain these efforts.
  8. 8. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 2 The United Nations Millennium Declaration envisages the central role of water and sanitation in sustainable development and poverty alleviation. From this perspective, enhanced health and socio-economic benefits of safe water and sanitation are the most compelling arguments to support resource allocations towards this goal. Indian Scenario In India, diseases associated with impure water and inadequate/ nonexistent sanitation still have considerable public health significance. The latest estimates link unsafe drinking water, inadequate availability of water for hygiene, and lack of access to sanitation with about 88% (1.5 million) of deaths from diarrheal diseases (including cholera, typhoid and dysentery) in children younger than 5 years of age. Asia records the majority of deaths on account of poor hygiene and sanitation, with 90% mortality in the population between zero and five years. More than half of such deaths occur in India. Poor hygiene, lack of sanitation and unhealthy personal habits borne out of ignorance add to the woes of the poor, undermining their immunity and exposing them to illness. Studies have shown that better sanitation can reduce diarrheal deaths by up to 32% and hygiene campaigns such as promoting hand-washing can reduce diarrhea-induced mortality by up to 45%. However, mere provision of facilities or creation of infrastructure facilities does not suffice in making sanitation either a sustainable process or to achieve the desired impact. It is important to make the end users realize the importance of why they need to use sanitation services and make them stakeholders in the true sense.
  9. 9. 3 Introduction Government’s Programmes and Schemes Government have undertaken several measures to address the issue of sanitation. Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was launched in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of rural people and also provide privacy and dignity to women. This was improved in a new format, where CRSP moved towards a “demand driven” approach. The Programme is being implemented with focus on community- led and people centered initiatives. Children play an important role in absorbing and popularizing new ideas and concepts. This Programme, therefore, intends to tap their potential as the most persuasive advocates of good sanitation practices in their own households and in schools. About Total Sanitation Campaign1 The concept of sanitation was expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. With this broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a “demand driven” approach with the name “Total Sanitation Campaign” (TSC) with effect from 1999. The revised approach emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This enhanced people’s capacity to choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. The Programme was implemented with focus on community-led and people centered initiatives. Financial incentives were provided 1
  10. 10. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 4 to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households for construction and usage of individual household latrines (IHHL) in recognition of their achievements. Assistance was also extended for construction of school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets and Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC) apart from undertaking activities under Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM). To give a fillip to the TSC, Government of India also launched the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) that sought to recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage. The award gained immense popularity and contributed effectively in bringing about a movement in the community for attaining the Nirmal Status thereby significantly adding to the achievements made for increasing the sanitation coverage in the rural areas of the country. Encouraged by the success of NGP, the TSC is being renamed as “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” (NBA). The objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats with following priorities: Provision of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) of both Below• Poverty Line (BPL) and Identified Above Poverty Line (APL) households within a Gram Panchayat (GP). Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water• to be taken up. Priority may be given to Gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply. Provision of sanitation facilities in Government Schools and• Anganwadis in Government buildings within these GPs.
  11. 11. 5 Introduction Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) for proposed• and existing Nirmal Grams. Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like Panchayati• Raj Institutions (PRIs), Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and field functionaries for sustainable sanitation. Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man-• days and skilled man-days. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the NBA are as under: Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in• the rural areas. Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the• vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status. Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions• promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education. To cover the remaining schools not covered under Sarva• Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Anganwadi Centres in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertake proactive promotion of hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for• ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation. Develop community managed environmental sanitation• systems focusing on solid liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
  12. 12. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 6 Rationale for involving Corporate Sector in Sanitation Improving water and sanitation service delivery to the poor is a key factor in reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Apart from the Government, coordinated efforts from all sections of society are needed to achieve the MDGs. The corporate sector is well suited to service the poor because of their knowledge and understanding of the needs of their communities. Moreover, since ‘Health’ is one of the top priority activities under the wider umbrella of Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR activities; sanitation - one of the primary factors affecting the overall well being of people – demands a greater focus. These resources pooled for building a healthy society also translates into better socio-economic prospects for future. With this background, CII brings to you a compendium of case studies, each describing how corporate sector has contributed in providing sanitation services and improving health of people. CII hopes that more and more of its members would engage in arranging sanitation facilities for the benefit of people of the country.
  13. 13. 7 Adani Foundation Experience: Rural Sanitation Project Adani Foundation Experience: Rural Sanitation Project The Adani Foundation, setup by Adani Group, played a pivotal role in bringing about Sustainable Development in and around their area of operations. It has been present and rendering its services in the area of Rural Development since 1996. Rural sanitation is perhaps one of their most integral fields of operation. It however, isn’t the only one with education, community health, sustainable livelihood development, and rural infrastructure all being important areas of Core Community Development Project. As the root cause of health problems lies in poor sanitation practices, a movement to create awareness, motivates communities to accept the general concept of household sanitation unit and encourage people to get the same facilities has been the mission. The Foundation has aided six villages in getting 100 % household toilet coverage status by supporting the construction of more than 700 toilets during the 2008-2009 time period. The target for the year 2009-2010 was to cover 19 more villages with the same sanitary set up which required the construction of more than 1500 individual toilets in these areas with proper sewage
  14. 14. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 8 systems. From 2008 to March 2012, the Foundation was able reach to 3643 Households in 26 villages. They also encourage and prepare villages for the “Nirmal Gam Puraskar”. Under Rural Infrastructure Development activities, they have implemented Rural Underground Drainage System in 16 villages with partial financial support from WASMO and approximately 8-10 % contribution from beneficiaries. A Sewer Water Treatment Plant is a major focal point for this entire project. This plant will not only keep the surrounding areas clean but also raise the general sanitation level of villages as well. Treated water will be utilized either in irrigation or for tree plantation. Process: The Motivation Drive:• This phase is very critical in the entire process. People from a cross section of age groups are dealt with separately and when the need arises, together as well. Children are given an opportunity to discuss hygiene and sanitation standards for their own village through elocution and essay competitions. They participate in cleanliness rallies and basically act as a pressure group against people who let sewage flow in the village streets. Meanwhile, the women are encouraged to think beyond their routine household activities and helplessness about attending nature’s calls. Youth groups are encouraged to bring about change. Adults are explained about how much trouble the elderly and women suffer by not having a toilet in the house and how unnecessary medical expenses can be saved in the process. Village institutions such as panchayats, self help groups, youth groups, religious groups are informed about the Nirmal Gram parameters.
  15. 15. 9 Adani Foundation Experience: Rural Sanitation Project After these informal and indirect motivational drives, matla meets, mohalla meets and Gram Sabhas are organized to gather a consensus on all the houses that have and/or intend to have individual toilets.The entire price breakdown is explained while taking into account various low cost toilet designs, the Government incentive amount under Total Sanitation Campaign, Adani Foundation support and individual contribution. Listing and verification:• Each maholla prepares its list of houses not having a toilet. The list is verified by village leaders and the Gram Panchayat along with the Foundation staff and volunteer’s who visit each house. Material Distribution and Coordination with the• Government Offices: The Total Sanitation Campaign is a national movement. It involves active participation from all concerned including District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) to the Taluka Panchayat to the Village Sukhakari Samiti and finally, direct support to the beneficiary. The Foundation had involved a DRDA consultant during the motivation drive phase as well. The Foundation staff helps to coordinate various issues and protocol with the Taluka Panchayat for the timely payment of incentive money to the beneficiaries. The Foundation also provides these beneficiaries/families with two bags of cement, a door
  16. 16. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 10 and ventilation. It also tries to facilitate Toilet pan kit from WASMO otherwise provide that too. Here local participation is sought at every step. Objective, Flexible and Practical approach for Support:• Following a democratic process, if we come across some households needing more or at times less support, a flexible approach is adopted. For example, if a house already has a constructed toilet but are in need of a door and perhaps ventilation, then only those items would be provided. It is, essentially need based assistance. In case of very poor family/ widow/ person with disability, full support and extra support to build an accessible toilet is extended too. EncourageVillages to prepare for Nirmal Gam Puraskar:• All the parameters are explained and help is extended to achieve the goals, all through Social Mobilization. Touching Lives: Ratanben Aahir came to village Wanki 30 years ago• following her wedding to a village man. Her house did not have toilet. She found herself facing more difficult odds and problems when her husband got into an accident and as a result was partially disabled. As a result, she was forced to dispose of his excreta everyday by walking to a nearby dump which was in plain view. Now
  17. 17. 11 Adani Foundation Experience: Rural Sanitation Project with a toilet in the house one could see tears of happiness and relief in her eyes. Courage was always a virtue of Mahendra Sinhji Jadeja• (fondly known as Rajubhai). He always believed in fulfilling every task he undertook, with courage and conviction. But the year 2006 brought in a disaster for him. He met with a horrendous accident which resulted in a grave injury to the spinal cord. Even though he was treated successfully for the injury he was unable to walk and had to be dependent on a wheelchair for moving from one place to another. But he faced serious problem when it came to relieving himself every morning. Adani Foundation took a decision to construct a Handicap Friendly toilet at Rajubhai’s residence. The decision proved to be a blessing for Rajubhai and his family, who were visibly relieved.
  18. 18. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 12 Learnings: Rural Sanitation is a very crucial aspect that our nation• needs to address for not only creating a healthy society but bring about sensitivity and equality to gender issues. One has to be patient and should neither try hasten Social• Mobilization Process nor go for short cuts. The coordination with Government schemes made• implementation more result oriented. Open defecation is a very complex and a major issue.• One should work towards eradicating, however small the effort it may be. Every baby step reduces the distance to reach to our common goal!
  19. 19. 13 Aditya Birla Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development Aditya Birla Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development For over 50 years now, the Aditya Birla Group have been and continue to be involved in meaningful, welfare driven initiatives that distinctively impact the quality of life of the rural poor. The vision is to actively contribute to the social and economic development of the communities in which we operate, in so doing build better sustainable way of life for the weaker sections of the society and raise the country’s human development index. Our footprint The footprint of our community work straddles 2,500 villages. In working with the communities, they gauge what their real needs are. Of the 2,500 villages that, we are engaged in, we have zeroed in on 300 villages, which we hope to morph into model villages. Making of a Model Village entails ensuring self-reliance in all aspects viz., education, healthcare and family welfare, infrastructure, agriculture and watershed management, and
  20. 20. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 14 working towards sustainable livelihood patterns. Fundamentally, ensuring that their development reaches a stage wherein village committees take over the complete responsibility and the teams become dispensable. It is against this backdrop that one will dwell on the Group’s experience in sanitation. Water – the life force, integral to Sanitation The Foundation has been providing water on a continual basis to the villages that are in proximity to their Plants. But this is for their basic needs. With water scarcity, open spaces seemed perhaps the only option to the villagers. Hence to tackle the issues related to sanitation, we had to first grapple with the challenge of tapping new avenues of water. For this, the Foundation evolved a multi – pronged strategy based on an integral development plan. Various schemes of the Government viz., Swajaldhara Yojana, Jalnidhi, Rajeev Gandhi National Drinking Water Scheme, and many more were used and these schemes enabled them to extend their reach as catalysts benefitting thousand of villagers. Changing Mindsets The second plank of our strategy entailed a massive awareness drive on cleanliness linking it with hygiene and sanitation. District Authorities and NGOs were roped in this endeavour to sensitize and persuade the villagers. The Foundation recoursed to ‘Nukkad Nataks” (street level plays) and puppet shows to drive messages linking hygiene and good health to sanitation. It was highlighted how they could prevent water borne and sanitation diseases from occurring and spreading, if we were able to have toilets blocks in the villages.
  21. 21. 15 Aditya Birla Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development Energizing the Villagers The fourth plank was to get this movement rushing amongst the villagers. In the village of Devari (Renukoot, Uttar Pradesh), the campaign was started in a creative way. Using the platform of the Panchayat General Meeting, the Foundation began energizing the villagers by highlighting how Devari can be positioned on the map of UP, if it received the President’s Award under the Nirmal Gram Yojana. The thought of acquiring this fame was a great booster. This did help, and a year down the line, the Devari Pradhan did receive this Award. Towards good hygiene Of the 300 model villages that the Foundation is engaged in, 60 have already reached the level of model villages and most of these have reasonable sanitation facilities. Of these – Hiple Station in Maharashtra; Balanivav, Kagvadar, Asarma, Balota in Gujarat; Ilav in Bharuch; Malkhed and Dandoti in Karnataka; Nayan andTakrawda in Nagda – MP,; Sawa, Naadsar and Arniyapan Panchayat in Rajasthan; Kesarpura, Damodarpura, Khor in Madhya Pradesh; Devari and Parasi in Sonebhadra District in Renukoot, Uttar Pradesh; Bagru in Lohardaga - Jharkhand; Naickerpalayam, Chitteri, Thandalam, Parithiputhur, Papamkuppam and Echankadu (Gummidipondi), Tamil Nadu, have attained 100% sanitation. In fact the Government of Tamil Nadu on their website has commended our Carbon Black Plant – Hi-Tech Carbon at Gummidipondi for its work in this domain (Reference –Total Sanitation Campaign,Tiruvallur District,Tamil Nadu State, construction of Toilets through Corporate Sectors – Success Story). They have showcased the Group as a case study. In the last 5 years, the Foundation has set up over 10,000 toilets in villages in proximity to the company’s plants across India. These include community complexes and at several schools as well. In
  22. 22. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 16 doing so, we have helped provide sanitation facilities to nearly a million people in the villages that we work in, through collaborations and in an inclusive manner. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. Given the magnitude of our country and its complexities; much more needs to be done. We owe this to our people, to the nation and to ourselves. Together we can make it happen.
  23. 23. 17 Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF) Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF) Introduction Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF) is the corporate Foundation of Ambuja Cements Limited. It has been working for improvement of quality of lives of the communities around Ambuja’s manufacturing facilities since 1993. The Foundation today reaches out to a population of over 1.5 million people living in around 770 villages across 10 States of the country. The integrated development programme of the Foundation focuses mainly on Agro-based livelihoods, Natural Resources Management and Human Development. A principal facet of human development is health. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. We need to go a long way to achieve that as we are still trying to cope with the massive incidence of disease in our country. However, if closely viewed, most of the diseases are not only preventive, but also are linked to the poor environmental sanitation.
  24. 24. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 18 Having realized that, we have sanitation as a key programme component in our Public Health Programme and have been attempting to deal with it in the following manner: 1. Through construction of individual house-hold toilets: A survey of our programme area reveals that like in most parts of India, the community at large in our programme area also defecates in the open. Since this is a potential health hazard, the practice needs to be stopped. With an objective to make our villages open defecation free, ACF not only communicates with the communities for behavioural change but also supports them, both technically and financially, for construction of low cost toilets. So far, over 3700 individual house-holds have been supported for construction of low- cost toilets through our programme. 2. Another major stakeholder in our programme is the Truckers, who happen to be a significant constituent of the supply chain. It, thus, becomes our responsibility to take care of their conveniences at the halting points in and around Ambuja’s facilities. We, thus, have made every effort to construct and provide washrooms at most of our locations for the Truckers where they bathe, wash and use toilet facilities. One of the recent programmes was to set-up a complex in Ropar in Punjab and Rabriyawas in Rajasthan in partnership with Sulabh International. 3. Leveraging on the skills that ACF has developed to work on the sanitation issues, it has also been engaged by the State Government of Himachal Pradesh to act as a support agency in the centrally funded Total Sanitation campaign in District Solan. ACF undertook an intensive Information, Education and Communication campaign in the programme area. As a result of that, 5 Gram Panchayats were recommended
  25. 25. 19 Ambuja Cement Foundation (ACF) by the State Government for Nirmal Gram Puraskar to Government of India. Another 5 villages in Punjab were also recommended for this award after ACF’s intervention. Similar recommendations have been made from our programme area in Maharashtra also. ACF recognises sanitation as a critical indicator of quality of life and thus would continue to make serious efforts to help communities improve personal and environmental sanitation.
  26. 26. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 20 Asahi India Glass Ltd. Introduction Asahi India Glass Ltd is the largest glass company in India, manufacturing a wide range of international quality automotive safety glass, float glass and architectural processed glass. From being the largest manufacturer of automotive and float glass in the country, Asahi India Glass Ltd is on its way to becoming an innovative pioneer in glass solutions. AIS is now moving up the exciting value chain of glass by providing design, products and services that make glass more versatile and more user friendly. In the year 2004, the diverse development initiatives were brought under a common umbrella of the Integrated Community Development Programme (ICDP), designed, administered, and monitored by Youthreach, a Delhi based NGO. The enunciated goal of the Integrated Community Development Programme was to enhance the quality of life in the community, by providing services and enabling community participation and leadership to mobilize government, community and all other resources that are critical to achieving this. The ICDP institutionalizes the CSR philosophy of Asahi India Glass Ltd, and adheres to the following parameters. • Programme implementation involves the community at every stage; the community is seen not as a recipient, but as a
  27. 27. 21 Asahi India Glass Ltd. partner to the entire process of furthering change. • Solutions to problems are evolved in a bottom-up manner, tapping the community’s reservoir of indigenous knowledge. • Efforts are made to revive indigenous knowledge and to leverage it for greater impact. • While quantitative indicators are important in analyzing results, long term process changes are often captured in qualitative indicators, that are reflected through interviews with village elders, and other stakeholders in the community. Water Sanitation The Water and Sanitation interventions in 110 villages of Rewari district, seeks to promote sustainable water management systems by village communities especially women through participatory initiatives in rainwater harvesting, recycling or managing waste water and water saving cropping patterns. The interventions under water and sanitation included activities like organizing women into sangathans and building their capacity in village level governance, constructing rainwater-harvesting structures (johads, tanks, recharging wells) at the household and the community level, and household toilets. The local women have been organized into self-help groups and are being provided with loans to undertake income-generating activities.The self-help group mechanism has been leveraged to train women in areas of local governance, water and sanitation. The interventions in the area of water and sanitation were implemented over a period of three years (2006-2009), at the end of March 2009 which 6500 families will have access to ground water for cooking drinking purposes, 540 household will have access to closed sanitation and income of 400 women will increase in the range of Rs. 1500 to Rs. 4000 depending on the venture.
  28. 28. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 22 Family water closet – Over the three years, 540 families from across 110 villages were provided with financial technical support for individual household toilets. The objective of the water closet system was to promote adoption of proven sanitation techniques by families communities. The families got interest free loans to be repaid in 10 easy installments over a period of 12 months. During the Financial Year 2009-10, 658 family toilets were constructed in 110 villages surrounding the AIS manufacturing Plant in the District of Rewari, as well as 189 toilets was constructed during April 2010 to June 2010, in the same villages. During the Financial Year 2010-2011 and 2011-12, 669 family toilets were constructed in 110 villages surrounding the AIS Manufacturing Plant in the District of Rewari.
  29. 29. 23 Biocon Foundation : Sanitation Hygiene Biocon Foundation : Sanitation Hygiene Biocon Foundation’s sanitation initiative, started in 2007, is charged with the responsibility to increase the access of poorer communities to safe and sustainable sanitation facilities. Such facilities will improve the health status of the community and decrease the environmental impact of inadequate sanitation practices. Good Sanitation will also generate economic benefits by increasing the number of workdays and help the environment. In 2007 Biocon Foundation built a community toilet block in Huskur, Anekal, for the village community and outside visitors. This block comprises of separate sections for men and women; each section has 6 toilets and two bathing cubicles. This was done in collaboration with the Gram Panchayat of Huskur, and the Zilla Panchayat, Bangalore Urban. This toilet block is now used by pilgrims to the local village temple, by local school children, and by bus drivers and conductors. In their first household sanitation initiative, The Foundation has built 900 household toilets in Huskur Gram Panchayat, Anekal, Karnataka, in partnership with the community, the Embassy of Ireland and the Government of Karnataka.
  30. 30. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 24 The Foundation has worked in close collaboration with Zilla Panchayat, the Gram Panchayat and the KRWSSA offices. These government bodies have developed numerous Information Education Communication tools, which were used to generate awareness and motivate people to build and use their toilets. Biocon Foundation (BF) and the Karnataka Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (KRWSSA), conducted a number of awareness and educational workshops with the community in Huskur. Through these activities the Foundation was able to cover all the 1123 households in Huskur GP. These awareness generation activities included short movies, charts and focus group discussions which covered the connection between good health and proper sanitation. This was followed by demo sessions by vendors of toilet pans. These sessions, facilitated by the KRWSSA, demonstrated different models of floor pans, explained the benefits and costs of each. The sessions were attended by the Huskur Gram Panchayat committee members, who decided what model of toilet would be best for the houses in the covered areas. After this, six teams consisting of two ladies each visited every house in the seven villages under the Huskur GP jurisdiction. These teams again spoke to the head of the household about the sanitation project, if that house did not have a toilet; the ladies convinced them to build one and collected their contribution (Rs. 1000) for the cost of the toilet. At the same time the Foundation hired two contractors from the village and the actual building work started. While the contractor was responsible for the foundation, the superstructure, laying the floor pan, the plumbing, lining the soak pit and covering it with a concrete cover; the household was responsible for digging the pit.
  31. 31. 25 Biocon Foundation : Sanitation Hygiene The Foundation has just completed building 411 toilets in Mangalgudda village, Badami Taluk, Bagalkot District, North Karnataka. Each toilet has its own individual soak pit as in the earlier project. The Foundation is also trying to implement end to end solid and liquid waste management solutions, in an attempt to provide villagers with a sustainable easy-to-manage solution which will ensure sustained use of toilets. Biocon Foundation intends to extend this programme to other villages; the target is to build 2000 toilets in the financial year 2012-2013. The Foundation intends to proceed with caution – and ensure active community participation in the project. Communities must take ownership of these projects, and they must access the Government funds that are available for these projects. The 12th Five Year plan provides additional help and incentives for sanitation and the Government is actively promoting its sanitation mission. Biocon Foundation intends to work actively with the Government to increase the reach and effectiveness of this programme.
  32. 32. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 26 Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited’s Role on Sanitation in Surrounding Villages Rural health is integral to India’s development. It is obvious that only healthy rural population can contribute to the development through enhanced productivity. Sanitation is critical to ensure rural health. Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited understands its responsibility towards rural population and has undertaken various sanitation initiatives in the villages near its manufacturing plants at Gadepan (Kota), Rajasthan. Chambal plans to enhance sanitation through ‘community participation’ and ‘people led’ programmes. This paper shares Chambal’s proactive role in public sanitation in surrounding villages and how the implementation is spearheaded. Importance of Sanitation Individual health and hygiene is largely dependent upon availability of adequate drinking water and proper sanitation. There is a
  33. 33. 27 ChambalFertilisersandChemicalsLimited’sRoleonSanitationinSurroundingVillages direct relationship between water, sanitation and public health, especially in the poor communities whose health and nutrition status is the weakest. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene are root causes of many diseases in developing countries including India. Sanitation has not received the recognition it deserves due to lack of awareness and socio-cultural attitudes. This forces a large number of households to the continued indignity of open defecation. This has adverse impacts on health and is an acute problem especially for women and young girls. Chambal’s Initiatives on Sanitation To promote sanitation among rural population in the vicinity of its plants, Chambal has initiated a project to improve sanitary practices through awareness campaigns and construction of toilets. Awareness about good sanitary habits is spread by regularly organizing health camps and sensitization programmes in nearby villages/ schools. Chambal constructed toilets for selected households in the villages surrounding its plants as a pilot project under Total Sanitation Campaign of the Government of India. In the years between 2010 and 2011, 715 toilets were constructed in 4 Gram Panchayats covering 22 villages. For this purpose, a unique low construction cost, low water consumption model of toilet was selected. More than 50% cost of this project was borne by Chambal. In light of the significant gender dimension of sanitation, this project encouraged active involvement of women in the implementation of the program. Chambal Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited’s Proactive Role on Sanitation in Surrounding Villages
  34. 34. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 28 Chambal has also constructed toilets in the schools for girls in nearby villages so that ‘good sanitation habits’ can be inculcated at young age. To ensure general hygiene, the company has also undertaken the work of covering some village drains as open drains normally lead to stagnant water and spread of diseases. Another initiative taken up by Chambal is construction and maintenance of roads inside the villages to prevent stagnation of water on such roads. This ensures proper drainage of rain-water and household water. Such activities help in improvement of living conditions and sanitation amongst rural population. Conclusion Chambal is not only helping farmers with increased crop yields but is also committed to improve quality of life of people in the vicinity of its plants. In recognition of its CSR initiatives, Chambal has won many awards including the coveted Golden Peacock Award for Corporate Social Responsibility for the year 2009-10, Golden Peacock Award for Sustainability for the year 2011. Chambal constructed additional 200 toilets in FY 2012-13. In light of the significant gender dimension of sanitation, this project encouraged active involvement of women in the implementation of the program.
  35. 35. 29 GMR Varalakshmi Foundation’s work in the area of Sanitation: Towards Setting Standards Introduction GMR Varalakshmi Foundation is the Corporate Social Responsibility arm of the GMR Group. Its mandate is to develop social infrastructure and enhance the quality of life of communities around the locations where the Group has a presence. GMRVF is a section 25 (Not for Profit) company. Sanitation has been an area of concern in almost all of GMRVF’s project areas. While it is involved in development of community toilets in rural areas, creating awareness about sanitation and related issues, and other aspects of sanitation, this note deals
  36. 36. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 30 with experiences and learnings in setting up and running pay- and-use toilets in an urban context. Pay-and-Use Toilets: Experiences and Learnings In 2005, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation announced a PPP scheme for construction of pay-and-use toilets on pavements. GMRVF decided to participate in this, as we felt that it would be a useful contribution to the city to help create model sanitation facilities. It was decided right from inception that the goal would be to achieve the highest standards in this. In order to do this, it was decided to undertake a survey of existing public toilet facilities, their use, maintenance, etc. Some of the important issues that this survey threw up were: The difficulty of maintaining such a facility, given the general1. attitude of the public towards responsible use of public facilities Difficulty of maintenance of the surroundings of such facilities,2. with the nearby walls being more used as toilets than the toilets themselves Motivation, attitude and behavior of the staff, reflecting on3. customer interface, maintenance, etc. Very low, often zero, use of such facilities by women.4. The Foundation talked to a variety of experts to get inputs to planning our project. We photographed current sites and analysed them for design features. We also talked to users of the toilet for their feedback. At the same time, it was decided to get deeper into the last issue, i.e., low use of such facilities by women. Accordingly, a major survey involving about 400 women was Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation
  37. 37. 31 GMR Varalakshmi Foundation’s work in the area of Sanitation: Towards Setting Standards done across the twin cities, about their perception about public toilets and why they did not use them. Some of the insights we got as to why women did not use such facilities included: Feeling of insecurity1. Embarrassment2. Bad smell, lack of hygiene3. Lack of running/adequate water4. Unclean surroundings5. The Inputs from all these processes were kept in consideration in designing, building and running our toilets. Some of the steps taken were: Clean Surroundings: Unclean surroundings had been cited by both men and women as a major deterrent in the use of such facilities. But often, sites allocated for pavement toilets are near garbage dumps. We discussed with GHMC and had a clause inserted in the MOU itself that garbage dumps would not be situated near our toilets. We also looked at design solutions, in that we made sure to landscape the immediate surroundings of the toilet. In addition, we asked the maintenance person to look after the surroundings, not just the inside of the toilet. Design Features: Not only was an architect commissioned to look at the study and design the toilets, we also had a very senior architect-town planner to give his inputs into the design presentation! Some of the things we brought in as design features: (1) separate male-female entrances, as many women had stated that they felt embarrassed using a common entrance. Moreover, the male and female sections are separated by the care-taker’s space so that there is no chance for any face to face encounter (2) lighting and ventilation—again many users had talked about bad smell, lack of ventilation, bad lighting.
  38. 38. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 32 We ensured that we had a 20 inch wide-grill ventilator running across the entire structure at a suitable height (3) we have also experimented with a child-toilet (smaller than usual pan), on the women’s side to help younger users (4) as a strategy, we used a very high quality outside finish, including granite cladding and aluminum facia. This was an effort to change the perception of the public regarding such facilities. (5) we installed features not usually found in public facilities like room freshners, soap dispensers, etc. Environment friendliness: Looking to high water consumption of such facilities, we felt that we should look at options for water saving. Accordingly, in half our toilets, urinals on the men’s side are ‘waterless urinals’ (aqua-free) which uses a technology that totally eliminates use of water for flushing, thus saving a huge amount of water. This may be a first for a public toilet in India. We have monitored this closely, and it has been found quite satisfactory in spite of heavy use. There is no bad smell or any other problem, provided the cartridges are changed as per schedule. Training and motivation: The key to satisfactory maintenance, upkeep and customer service is obviously the attitude and interest of the caretaker. Accordingly, we consistently work with them to keep this high. There are regular meetings and workshops which aim to train them on the technical maintenance issues, as well as public interaction, hygiene, etc. Most significantly, these interactions stress the dignity and importance of their job. There is also an annual award for the best care-taker from those who are manning our toilets. Monitoring: An elaborate system of monitoring has been set up which involves looking at 30 factors, from cleanliness of toilets and, whether the floor is dry, whether the outsides are clean,
  39. 39. 33 GMRVaralakshmiFoundation’sworkintheareaofSanitation:TowardsSettingStandards GMR Varalakshmi Foundation’s work in the area of Sanitation: Towards Setting Standards if litterbins are cleared, if consumables are in stock and stored properly, whether user register is maintained, etc. GMRVF staff make scheduled and surprise visits to check all these and discuss with the caretakers. Education and awareness: Using our toilets as venues for social awareness. The large ad space outside is not used for commercial ads but for social and environmental messages. Inside also, several relevant messages are put up. Days like ‘toilet day’, ‘hand wash day’ etc. are celebrated with users. Some of the processes and systems described above have helped to create and maintain decent public facilities. However, the most important learning is that it is a daily challenge!!!
  40. 40. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 34 Infosys Foundation Initiative in the Area of Sanitation in North Karnataka 1.  Goals of the initiative To make 40 villages, in North Karnataka, India, with over• 10,000 families, reach 100% sanitation level (from current less than 40% sanitation level) in Year 2012 and Educate 100,000 families in 100 villages to build a toilet at their homes Build re-usable artifacts like Awareness material (Displays,• audio, video etc.), Innovation (Design, Construction, Management, Maintenance), software programs (To track implementation), and long lasting coalitions that will continue to work even after this program is complete and have motivation to reach 100% throughout India Encourage small and medium entrepreneurs take advantage• of this Rs.300,000 business in India in building toilets and
  41. 41. 35 Infosys Foundation Initiative in the Area of Sanitation in North Karnataka help them make a sustainable living by making bricks, blocks, door panels, roofs, precast material etc. 2. Components of the project – Awareness creation The initiative has come up with a multi-pronged approach• to increase awareness in the public about sanitation. Some of the important ones include Seq. Initiative Progress between 2011 and January 20th, 2012 1. Partnership with local NGOs– To bank on the network already established, we have tied up with local NGOs. Sri Kottala Basaveshwara Bharateeya Shikshana Samithi Sedam that has a history of over 35 years is helping us in this effort. 2. IEC Sessions – Half day sessions with villagers to educate them on sanitation using professional speakers as well as advanced audio visual material. 75 sessions conducted in 60+ villages. Over 10,000 families attended these sessions. Details tracked in 3. Personal visits and phone call follow ups – Leaders in the villages are reached to get the Parishudh initiative started in their villages. So far over 120 villages (including ones where we conducted IEC sessions) are reached to participate in the initiative. 4. Door to door campaigns to the households on the need of sanitation. So far over 5,000 homes have been visited educating them on the need for proper sanitation. Details tracked in along with their names, contact details and date of visit. 5. Special awareness drives. Swamiji and other people who can make influence the society speak on this cause at the villages. So far five such exclusive sessions have been held. In addition, sanitation is stressed in all major public meetings held by the NGO. Infosys volunteers educated over 500 families one weekend.
  42. 42. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 36 Seq. Initiative Progress between 2011 and January 20th, 2012 6. Built prototypes – This is done by construction of a few toilets for early starters and have these stand as models of what the families will get in future. So far 300 toilets are built or are in progress at 12 villages. 7. Toilet summit – All day sessions for heads of villagers to learn on the need for sanitation in the villages. Two small meetings (20 villages) of village heads are conducted. Major toilet summit (200+ attendees from 54 villages) held in December 2011. 8. Toilet exhibition – Display of various artifacts to containing information on the need of sanitation. An artifact repository of over 100 display material ranging from awareness material to toilet technology to biogas to government incentive is built. 5 such exhibitions have been held in major events related to health and hygiene. 9. Children as change agents  – Sessions involving children are taken. Competition on rural hygiene and sanitation is currently in progress. Over 1,200 schools in five districts of North Karnataka re invited to participate in this competition. Over 10,000 students from 500+ schools are expected to participate in the competition. 10. C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Government – Government needs to tighten implementation of laws on hygiene and sanitation (All schools must have toilets, PWD must maintain roads and put necessary boards, Water Dept. must discourage open defecation in river banks, Finance dept. give VAT exemption, GP members must have toilets, All shopping complexes must have toilets etc. Letters written to 8 central ministries and Hon. Prime Minister to act in this regard outlining actions to be taken by each Ministry. Also a proposal submitted to Government of Karnataka to establish a “Task force on achieving 100% sanitation in the State of Karnataka”.
  43. 43. 37 Seq. Initiative Progress between 2011 and January 20th, 2012 11. Mass media and other means – Various other initiatives including updates to press on these initiatives, participation in Government programs etc. are used to raise awareness in the public. Press has been very supportive. As of January 2012, Parishudh initiative is known to at least 50% of the Gram Panchayats in Gulbarga district. 12. Visits to model villages –Tours of villagers to villages 100% sanitation villages Three visits to Shilkewadi (near Kolhapur) held so far. Over 40 village heads visited them. 3. Components of the project - Managing volume Sales Force, world’s leading contact management software• is implemented to manage the volume, keep a track of all campaigns conducted, contacts made, beneficiaries signed up and follow up needed. Sales force Foundation has given enterprise license for use, a value of over Rs. 15 Lakhs, complimentary for the Parishudh project for a year for 10 users. Attached presentation has details how this project is• managed on Sales Force platform and also details of campaigns in progress, villages selected, beneficiaries signed up, construction in progress, GPS position of the toilet location etc. Data is updated one time at the lowest level. Rest of the• data is all derived from the basic data entered and can be viewed anywhere where there is internet access. Infosys Foundation Initiative in the Area of Sanitation in North Karnataka
  44. 44. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 38 4.  Components of the project – Construction A design of the toilet with septic tank, brick walls, RCC• roof or an ECOSAN toilet is chosen for Phase 1 of this project. Other low cost models are evaluated but not implemented due to lack of successful usage of those in the geographic region and concerns over environmental viability of those models. Considering that something given for free may not have• perceived value, a joint participation model for construction of toilets is worked out. A toilet described as above costs Rs.18,000 each. Rs. 6,300 is borne by the beneficiary, Rs.3,700 is borne by the Government underTotal Sanitation Campaign and Rs.8,000 by Infosys Foundation. The Parishudh team links a designated local mason to do• the work and oversees the completion of the toilet within 60 days of commencement of each. As of mid-January, over 300 families have signed up for the program and have a toilet construction in progress. 5.  Highlights of the Year – 2012 Created awareness to over 250,000 families in over 500• villages in last 16 months. Over 32,000 families have registered their names for construction of toilets. Construction of 8,500+ toilets is complete so far in• over 300 villages. Over 4,000+ more toilets are under construction. Over 25 entrepreneurs are supported in the area of toilet• construction and making precast toilets and some of them have scaled up their operations. Over 1,000 masons are trained so far. New 40 Nirmal Gram Samithis and NGOs
  45. 45. 39 are formed or supported, each working on it’s own making their own villages cleaner by taking up hygiene and sanitation initiatives. Over 10 villages are on the path to achieve 100% sanitation• levels and becoming model villages. Various additional initiatives in the areas of health, energy, education, governance are initiated in these villages. Over 400 families have also built biogas plant along with a toilet. The parishudh team developed methodology, awareness• creation material, best practices and necessary IT systems to replicate the initiative at more districts. It also submitted recommendations to over 20 ministries on the initiatives to be taken up. it also did the project planning to help 1 crore families build toilets in 18 months and submitted to concerned organizations. Central Minister for Rural Development Sri. Jairam Ramesh• visited some of the villages under Parishudh Initiative, when he was also Minister for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in August 2012. Infosys Foundation Initiative in the Area of Sanitation in North Karnataka
  46. 46. 40 Jankidevi Bajaj Gram Vikas Sanstha Jankidevi Bajaj Gram Vikas Sanstha (JBGVS) is a registered society and Trust works for upliftment of poor and economically weaker sections of the society through implementation of Integrated Rural Development programmes. The organization was started by Bajaj Auto to fulfill its “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)”. The organization is working for upliftment of rural population through implementation of different activities like education, mother and child health care, income generation, agriculture development, watershed development etc. JBGVS acts as a Catalyst and its main emphasis has always been on people’s participation at grass root level and achieves results with high degree of effectiveness. During last 25 years, the organization has implemented 10 major projects of sanitation with financial assistance from various organizations/agencies like Central Government, UNICEF, World Bank, Government of Maharashtra, Rotary International, AFFPRO CHF, Hunger Project and Khadi Village Industries Commission (KVIC). JBGVS has developed expertise in Rural Sanitation work with the help of UNICEF. They have given guidance in various projects
  47. 47. 41 Jankidevi Bajaj Gram Vikas Sanstha like Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), World Bank assisted Rural Water Supply, Environmental Sanitation Health Education (WBSP), Sant Ghadgebaba Gram Swachhata Abhiyan, Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Gram Yojana supported by Central Government. Due to their experience in sanitation, Zilla Parishad Pune and Divisional Commissioner Office have selected JBGVS as District Committee Member forTotal Sanitation Campaign. Government of Maharashtra has selected JBGVS as a Knowledge Research Centre (KRC) Agency for Nirmal Gram Award. JBGVS has inspected 410 villages and after our guidance 80 villages have been selected for Nirmal Award. These villages have got memento, certificate and award of Rs.2 lac. We have organised awareness programmes, motivational meetings, Gram Sabhas, Mahila Melava’s, training to masons, Anganwadi Workers, Gram Sevaks, Gram Panchayat members, Zilla Parishad members atTaluka District level. We have covered Junnar, Khed, Maval, Haveli Mulshi taluka of Pune District including JBGVS villages. The two pit latrine model developed by JBGVS was certified by Government of Maharashtra and it became very popular throughout rural Maharashtra. The Sansthan has conducted mason training programmes as per request of Government in Pune,Aurangabad, Satara, Sangli Kolhapur Districts, around 120 masons were trained and they are working in their districts for construction of latrines.
  48. 48. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 42 Achievements Since Inception (1987-2012) Sl no. Name of Programme Unit Quantity 1 Environmental Sanitation Latrines constructed by JBGVS Nos. 7915 2 Latrines constructed by Technical guidance Nos. 4075 3 School Sanitation Complex Nos. 35 4 Soak Pits Nos. 2045 5 Bathroom/Urinals Nos. 190 6 Improved Chullhas Nos. 9275 7 Bio-Gas Plants Nos. 842 8 Villages inspected under Nirmal Gram Yojna Nos. 410 Government Sanitation Projects Implemented Sl. No. Name of the Scheme – Central / State Govt. Period No. of schemes or units 1 National Programme for Biogas Development – Central 1990- 2006 823 Biogas plants (Rs. 25.84 lakhs) 2 Improved Chullha Project- Central 1990- 2006 8680 Chullhas (Rs. 6.49 lakhs) 3 World Bank Assisted Rural Water Supply, Environmental Sanitation and Health Education Project - State 1994- 1999 Project (Rs. 15 lakhs) 4 Latrine Construction Programme - Central/State (CRSP) 1994- 2006 5715 latrines (Rs. 134 lakhs)
  49. 49. 43 Jankidevi Bajaj Gram Vikas Sanstha NON GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED Sl. No. Name of the Scheme Funded By Period 1 Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Project Women’s Motivation. UNICEF, Mumbai (Rs. 2.08 lakhs) 1990-1993 2 Biogas Extension Programme (270) - Training programme for 10 villages of Maval Taluks. Action for food Production (AFPRO) Delhi (Rs. 2.34 lakhs) 1994-1999 3 Water Purification Plants (3) Gahunje, Tal. Maval – 2 Kanhewadi Tarfe Chakan - 1 PNRCT under Rotary Foundation (Rs. 6.05 lakhs) Zilla Parishad Pune (Rs. 4 lakhs) 2001-2002 4 School Sanitation Project - 69 programmes UNICEF, Mumbai (Rs.13.02 lakhs) 2001-2003 Impact Reduced water borne diseases.• Reduced bad smell in villages• Change the habit of open defecation.• Increased participation in all the village development activities.• Provide social security and save embarrassment to women• Confidence increased in the women after 100% latrine• construction work. 10 villages of Khed Maval blocks of Pune District have• been awarded ‘Nirmal Gram Award’. Villagers are proud of work done under Nirmal Gram Yojana. Attendance increased in the school due to reduction of• various diseases. Sarpanch and Deputy Sarpanch have been developed as• motivators to other villages. Improvement in general status of health.•
  50. 50. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 4444 K K Nag Limited – Low Cost Sanitation Solutions The Company’s tryst with providing engineered, low-cost sanitation solutions began with revulsion to the sight of open defecation. Over time it was realised that it must be completely dehumanising to those who had no other choice but to indulge in it. They investigated numerous methods of off-site and on-site sewage treatment and disposal (many of which emanated from the West and were thus culturally unsuitable or much too expensive) and finally came to the conclusion that on-site methods were best suited for a geographically spread out country like India. But there were several on-site options available; some using aerobic digestion and others using anaerobic digestion, and each had a place in a given circumstance. We then decided that, given our limited resources, and the fact that we are a plastic processing company, instead of spreading ourselves too thin by working on all aspects of sanitation, the focus of our efforts on that area should be, which was common to all sanitation systems and where one could possibly add the most value, namely the Pans and Traps. The objective was to operate on a no - profit, no-loss basis, and
  51. 51. 45 K K Nag Limited – Low Cost Sanitation Solutions thus price the Pans and Traps so reasonably that no one could say that he could not afford to install one. We came out with our first products made of Fibreglass but soon found these to be inappropriate because these were cumbersome to transport and fairly expensive. In addition, the company’s laboratory trials showed that when the Pans were repeatedly rubbed with a brush, the top layer of resin would get eroded and the glass fibres would start coming out, leaving crevices in which dirt accumulated. The company studied the work that Dr Kamal Kar was doing with low-cost sanitation in Bangladesh. In 2003, we got to know that Dr Kar was leading a CLTS initiative in Maharashtra; so the company tracked him down. The most important take-away for the company from that first meeting was Dr Kar’s emphasis on total sanitation for everyone in a village. This meant that one could not consider the project of sanitation completed unless and until every inhabitant of the village had access to, and actually used, a toilet, as otherwise those who did not use toilets would continue to spread diseases even to those who had gone through the trouble and expense of installing toilets themselves. To improve the products, the company next tried rotationally moulding them in LLDPE as a one piece construction (which made them very bulky to transport because they could not be nested) and, in the next stage, these were rotationally moulded, the Pans and Traps separately (this solved the transportability problem but the cost was still not low enough due to the low productivity of the rotational moulding process and the amount of raw material that was used). The company believed that they had an ideal solution in the fourth generation of their product offering which consists of an injection moulded PP Pan and a blow moulded HMHDPE Trap. By using plastics as the material of construction, the company
  52. 52. has ensured that their sanitation products are easy to handle (because of their light-weight), easy to maintain and clean, highly abrasion and chemical resistant and virtually unbreakable when compared to similar ceramic products (which means that they can be transported to the interiors of India, on very primitive roads, without suffering any damage). The products are also available in a wide variety of colours. But the most unique advantages of these Pans and Traps stem from their engineering and design. Very little water is required for flushing because of the combination of a 20 mm water seal and a 350 slope (which is the maximum slope that can be achieved while maintaining the recommended assembly height of 11/2 ft and is a good 100 more than what is possible in ceramics, due to the thinner wall sections in plastics). The Pans are completely nestable and snugly fit one into the other so 3,300 sets can be accommodated in a truck (compared to about 800 ceramic Pans of a similar size) drastically reducing the transportation costs. The front of the Pan has also been provided with additional depth to avoid spillage of urine and the Traps are sized to fit with all standard 4” sanitary pipes. And, because of the plastic moulding processes that have been selected, the quantities that can be produced are highly scaleable. The company sells Pans and Traps on a no-profit, no-loss basis- the basic, ex-factory price was Rs 125 per set! The company has sold over a lac of sets in Maharashtra and various other parts of the country. However, the company sells some small quantities occasionally when they are approached by NGOs and others who are familiar with the quality of their products. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 46
  53. 53. 47 Suzlon Foundation – Sanitation programs 47 Suzlon Foundation – Sanitation programs In partnership with United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) SUZLON CSR The CSR initiatives of individual companies in Suzlon group are now under the umbrella of Suzlon Foundation. A comprehensive CSR policy and program framework has been evolved focusing on integrating a sustainability perspective across the business and offsetting business footprints through sustainable development programs Sanitation Program The Objective is to initiate and sustain sanitation and hygiene in poor unserved rural and peri-urban areas of Suzlon Neighborhood. The Key sanitation issues are Open defecation; poor hygiene and sanitation of toilets in schools; lack of proper hand washing; lack of adequate waste water drainage; lack of access to hygiene, sanitation knowledge, skill, facilities and services; lack of collective management of the issue.
  54. 54. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 48 The implementation approach focus is on Participatory rapid appraisal• Formation of health and sanitation committees and institutional• mechanisms Preparation of community action plans• Capacity building through workshops and exposure visits• Input supply• Community mobilization and behavior change communication• Construction of amenities• Maintenance of amenities by community• Solid Waste Management Location : Pondicherry; Villages : Thiruvandarkoil; Partner : Ekoventure; Reach: 600 households; Strategy : Household level solid waste management Women’s groups were formed and awareness meetings conducted on health, hygiene and solid waste management. Video films on solid waste management, ECOSAN toilets and Essential Microbicide (EM) usage were projected. Nearly 35 existing women SHGs were identified, scrutinised and graded for the selection of enthusiastic and willing women SHGs to participate and implement the project activities. Based on the performance, 24 women SHGs were selected, formed as a cluster, members trained and were issued with SWM drums one per household. Further, each SHG was provided with Rs. 25,000 as revolving fund. The amount has been issued as loans to the members at 2% interest per month and it was agreed that 50% of the interest
  55. 55. 49 Suzlon Foundation – Sanitation programs amount thus collected will be deposited in a Savings Bank account in the name of the cluster to be jointly operated by the elected/ selected leader of the cluster and the field staff of Ekoventure. The interest amount thus accrued was utilized for the project activities. This ensures the sustainability of the project activities. The amount thus saved was utilised in promoting Menstrual health and hygiene in Schools and 3 Incinerators were constructed (one at each School) for the safe disposal of the napkins. Exposure visits were organized to solid waste management projects at village/ community level to understand the importance of segregation and decomposition of solid waste. The women were trained in batches of 25 on Effective Microorganism based production of Activated EM, Bokashi and management of solid waste units through 28 introductory awareness sessions, 16 video projections, 4 exposure visits and 21 training programs on EM. Thereafter, each household was supplied with two solid waste management unit - a barrel with a tap at the bottom, small brick and nylon net/bag.The women groups prepared Activated Effective Microorganism (AEM) in a common place and each household received required quantity of AEM and Bokashi per month. The project provided the Effective Microorganism stock solution, jiggery, saw dust, etc required for the preparation of AEM and Bokashi.The technique is the one adopted from the Dr. Lucas Dengel’s manual on “EM Technology”. The fluid which is drained everyday from the barrel is used as a liquid fertilizer, in pots, in garden beds, etc. It is also poured down in the kitchen and bathroom drains and is used in septic tanks. The skills in making AEM and Bokashi using available material will be shared to ensure sustainability. Vegetable seed minikits were distributed to nearly 200 nos of women and demonstrations were conducted to lay Kitchen gardens using the compost obtained by decomposing the solid waste from the households by using the technology.
  56. 56. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 50 Nirmal Gram Location : Palsodi, MP; Villages : Isarthuni, Gopalpura Tajpuriya; Implementation by : Suzlon Foundation, MP with Total Sanitation Campaign Reach : 2 schools 200 households; Strategy : Open defecation check through sanitation committee General health check ups were done for 1013 students from all 12 schools. Positive health was reinforced through health awareness sessions for students, school teachers anganwadi workers. One teacher from each of the 12 schools was trained as a resource person and exposure visit was held for 25 students and panchayat members of Isarthoni. Student sanitation rally was also held. Technical expertise was sought from public health department to demonstrate soak pit constructed in two villages. 200 toilet constructed. “Triggering exercise” was held by taking groups near human waste and demonstrating contamination of water from waste, triggering a feeling of horror. A third party evaluation of Isarthoni village was done, it was declared ‘Open Defecation Free’ and received the President Award for ‘Nirmal Gram’. PEHCHAN-Karnataka/ Maharashtra Location : Gadag, Karnataka; Villages : Chikkavaddatti and Murdi; Partner : Project concern International (PCI) through BIRDS; Location : Dhule, Maharashtra; Villages : Jamgaon, Ghorvad, Advadi; Partner : PCI through Yuva Mitra;
  57. 57. 51 Suzlon Foundation – Sanitation programs Reach : 10000 population through 101 sanitation campaigns; Strategy : Behavior change communication and community action At the school levels, in order to bring about behaviour change among school going students, many school health programs were implemented in the villages and through this, messages related to proper use of toilets in school and sanitation education was imparted to reach the community and the houses. The messages are being reinforced from time to time to emphasize its importance. Sessions on personal hygiene with children about importance of regular cutting of nails, daily brushing of teeth, proper washing of hands and legs, daily bath etc was shared with the children. This was done through short stories from their school books like ‘Guni Manjoo’. In addition, coloured posters, songs, games and competitions were used. During self help group meetings, discussions were held on women’s health with emphasis on menstrual hygiene, environmental sanitation, safety of food and drinking water. Techniques in water filtration, purification using alum or chlorine solution, and handling were discussed and behavior change practices modified. Discussions about different health aspects of the village were held with Grampanchayat and village health committees. Epidemic prevention activities like cleanliness around and chlorination of drinking water tanks, well and hand pumps were carried out by the community members and, soakage pits were constructed around these water sources. Thus issues related to personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, and proper waste water disposal were covered in the multi-stakeholder sanitation campaigns.
  58. 58. Conclusion: Challenges: Resistance to drink chlorinated water due to its bitter taste; low adoption of vermicomposting activity due to water shortage; slow adaptation to new hygiene and sanitation practices by adults. Outcomes: Prevention of open defecation; Enhanced hygiene and sanitation in schools; Decrease in diarrheal episodes; Increased sanitation awareness; Enhanced sanitation around community water sources; Enhanced hygiene- sanitation knowledge, skill, facilities and services; Community ownership of the issue and its management. Lesson learnt: Multi-stakeholder, Multi-pronged approach to group sanitation behavior change is powerful in any community setting.
  59. 59. 53 TataMotors’initiativesforEnsuringDrinkingWaterandPromotingSanitationinVillages 53 Tata Motors’ initiatives for Ensuring Drinking Water and Promoting Sanitation in Villages Tata Motors is committed to improving the quality of life of communities by working in four thrust areas – Health, Employability, Education and Environment.The activities are concentrated primarily in the villages around the six manufacturing units of the company, viz in Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune (Maharashtra), Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttaranchal), Dharward (Karnataka) and Sanand (Gujarat) and more recently company has taken into fold Mumbai (Thane and Raigad district) for expansion of its CSR activities. In the past, more than 12000 low cost toilets were constructed in the villages near Jamshedpur and in 246 villages, village Water and Sanitation committees were created which are continuing to monitor the progress of improvements in sanitation related behavioural practices. A holistic programme that targets both the availability of sanitary facilities through construction of sanitary blocks and an awareness that promotes the use of such facilities through health campaigns,
  60. 60. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 5454 Tata Motors’ initiatives for Ensuring Drinking Water and Promoting Sanitation in Villages publications, media, plays, competitions and workshops is implemented in the villages. Tata Motors’ concerted efforts to improve health and sanitation in villages around the manufacturing units of the company have been recognized by the Government of India.Three panchayats in East Singbhum District (namely Dorkasai, Kalapathar and Potka) in the state of Jharkhand and three villages in Pune, Maharashtra have received the Nirmal Gram Puruskar from the President of India for promotion of Total sanitation facilities being available to all individual households in these villages. Sanitation Talks with school children in a village at Sanand, Gujarat Water Sanitation Programmes - Highlight of year 2011-12 Sanand Overall strategy is to make the village self-reliant which is being achieved through collaborative approach and active participation of the villagers leading to sustainable development.They are getting actively involved in planning and implementation of every program such that in four to five years time, TML will be able to phase out from the programs, which will run through the initiative of the villagers. Presence of Sakhi Mandals and village development committees
  61. 61. 55 TataMotors’initiativesforEnsuringDrinkingWaterandPromotingSanitationinVillages like WATSAN (Water Sanitation) committees are ensuring the continuity of the development initiatives started by TML. Sanitation in Every Household The findings of a rapid household survey by the CSR team of TATA MOTORS (TML) Nano Plant, at Sanand revealed that less than 20% of the households in villages that lie in the CSR project area of Sanand have access to sanitation facilities. To address this issue, an innovative sanitation program was initiated. The CSR team along with the engineers of the civil and utilities department of the TML Sanand plant tried out several models. Finally the team with help of the local masons developed a pre- fabricated, standardized, sustainable, low cost concrete model of household toilet. This model was developed based on the WHO approved pit type of hand flush latrine with water seal. The low cost, durable, high quality, innovative model of Household toilet that was designed cost Rs. 4500/- for complete installation and could be installed very easily in less than four hours time. This model of low-cost toilets has been installed in every household through an equal sharing of the total cost of installation by the company, by the Government and by the beneficiary. In 2011-12, 486 sanitation blocks have been installed, benefiting over 2500 people. Through this program, the Company has reached out to 7 villages in Sanand and 100% sanitation has been achieved in 3 villages of Aniyari, Melasana and Dodar-Davedi. This program has also led to reduction in the incidence of water borne diseases in these villages. SANITATION activities at Pune Another crucial aspect of health is that which pertains to dignified sanitation alternatives to the rural population. Tata Motors has been helping villagers to construct toilet blocks for nearly a decade now. We have provided toilet blocks to 267 families across villages namely Tupewasti, Chandus, Pamper, Kiwale, Kurkundi, near Pune.
  62. 62. 56 Sanitation Programme at Dharwad We are supporting National Sanitation Programme at Kurbagatti, Mangalgatti and Mulamutala Villages.Till date we have constructed 70 toilet blocks in the villages near to Dharwad. Tata Marcopolo Motors takes care of community surrounding its factory. With a view to improve the health, the company conducts the medical check-up camps, distribution of free medicines, support to the schools and drinking water projects. The company is aiming to complete around 500 toilets blocks under Belur Kurabagatti Panchyat limits. So far around 165 toilet blocks have been completed in Neeralkatti Belur Gram Panchayat. It also motivates the villagers to come forward to construct toilet blocks and make their village as model village. Sanitation Programme at Kurbagatti- NSS Camp Dharwad As a part of Industry – Institute interaction Tata Marcopolo Motors is supporting local institutes in many fronts. The company had extended its support for conducting 7 days NSS camp conducted by Karnataka College in Kurbagatti village. The main objective of conducting the camp was to improve the hygiene, cleanliness, and creating awareness about general health. Total 140 male female volunteers took part in the camp. As a part of camp, volunteers constructed around 60 toilet blocks during these seven days. Construction of toilet blocks-way to dignified sanitation. A mason (seen) measuring the dimension of a toilet block. Tata Motors’ initiatives for Ensuring Drinking Water and Promoting Sanitation in Villages
  63. 63. 57 Tata Power – Community Development Project 57 Tata Power – Community Development Project Tata Power has taken up several social-economic-environment development initiatives under its Community Relations (CR) department. It is guided by the company’s vision and mission. Community development initiatives are followed by triple bottom line – Building Social capital, economical development and Environment Care. There are seven thrust areas like Income Generation, Education, Healthcare, Infrastructure, Environment, Energy and Social Welfare. Each plant location prepares their plan with the community and prioritize their thrust areas. Demography Tata Power caters to a total population of 29,2016, wherein 51% are male and the remaining 49% are female in 380 villages of five States (Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Odisha and West Bengal). Tata Power has reached out to all categories of people in and around its operational
  64. 64. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 58 areas. Out of a total of 29, 2016 population, 62% (179625) belong to the general category, 31% (91361) belong to SC (13%) and ST (18%). The balance 7% (21030) belongs to OBC. Sanitation Programme: Public Private Partnership Model Tata Power is setting up a 4000 MW power plant named Coastal Gujarat Power Limited (CGPL) at Mundra, Kutch district in Gujarat. It has attracted thousand of workforce. Villagers used to go for open toilet defecation, which was uncomfortable for women folk of Tunda and Vandh village, neighbour of CGPL. They expressed their problems of sanitation during the several need assessment drives taken up CGPL during the initiation of the project. Detailed socio economic survey using the PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) techniques were used for identifying the short term and the long term needs of the villages in the catchment area. Total sanitation during the initial surveys showed the disinterest of the men folk of the cattle rearing community of the village and hence CGPL encouraged women Self-Help Groups (SHGs) to motivate their male counterparts; several awareness campaigns were organized involving Government officials (Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), a programme of Government of India) and authorities from District Rural Development Agency for behaviour change communication.
  65. 65. 59 Tata Power – Community Development Project Finally, all families agreed to construct sanitation (toilet and bathroom) in partnership with Government and CGPL. Out of total 560 households in these two villages, sanitation units were constructed for all 204 households of Below Poverty Line and Above Poverty Line within six months (October 2009 to March 2010), only those who didn’t have toilets. The entire activity was managed by each family, which has created a greater sense of ownership. This design was prepared in consultation with the community, after review of various models such as TSC, WASMO and Sulabh International. CGPL engineers monitored the quality of programme. The average cost of sanitation unit was Rs. 11000, where each family contributed 10% of total cost, 1% by Government and remaining by CGPL. Now 100% households of both villages have sanitation and piped water. After the completion of 100% sanitation, the villages have been audited by Ministry of Rural Development for Nirmal Gram Yojana.
  66. 66. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 6060 TATA Steel’s involvement in Total Sanitation Campaign Tata Steel through its Society’s Tata Steel Rural Development Society (TSRDS), Sanitation Project was started by the name WATSAN- Water and Sanitation, in the year 1999. It was started in Jamshedpur and Potka block. During the initial phase while giving emphasis on creating awareness on the key components of TSC, the construction of toilets started in the year 2001, with the decision of the Government to provide each household with toilets. In the year 2001-02 TSRDS was successful in putting up 1580 toilets. It is driven by the concept that awareness and health education will generate demand for sanitation facilities. Total Sanitation Campaign aims at: Bringing about an improvement in the general quality of life• in the rural areas Accelerate sanitation coverage in these areas• Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through• awareness creation and health education
  67. 67. 61 TATA Steel’s involvement in Total Sanitation Campaign Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in• sanitation Endeavors to reduce the incidence of water and sanitation• related diseases Cover schools in rural areas with sanitation facilities• It has a strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Capacity Building and Education on Hygiene aiming towards behavioral changes. T h e r e a r e s e v e n components of this project, which includes; Safe handling of drinking water; Safe disposal of waste water; Safe disposal of human excreta; Safe garbage disposal; Home Sanitation; Personal hygiene and Village sanitation Project Area and Interventions Initiated in 2003 by TSRDS, its operational area covers 212 villages and 24 panchayats in the Jamshedpur, Potka and Patamda blocks of East Singhbhum, Saraikela block of Saraikale and Kharswan district and Jharia block of Dhanbad district in the State of Jharkhand. By ensuring community participation in the process of demand generation and also implementation, TSRDS over the year has ensured that the benefit is made available to around 27,435 Structure of the toilet provided to each household
  68. 68. households through individual and community toilets, benefitting 1,58,877 people. The following pages will show the number of households in all these 5 blocks / clusters. The number of APL and BPL families in these clusters and the number of toilets installed in these villages. With each progressing year, the number of toilets being installed kept on increasing with the aim of successfully covering all the three blocks. The year wise details are given in the table below: Table 1: The year wise toilets constructed Activities 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 Total No of toilet installed in BPL families 1540 1700 650 2246 2848 3432 5211 4543 22170 No of toilet installed in APL families 40 134 54 82 21 328 267 1075 2001 TOTAL 1580 1834 704 2328 2869 3760 5478 5618 24171 As shown in the above table, The Society has constructed 24,171 toilets in four blocks and 212 villages of East Singhbhum, Saraikela and Dhanbad districts of Jharkhand. Recognition in TSC Nirmal Gram Puraskar to TSRDS intervening Panchayats Four Panchayats from TSRDS field area (three from Jamshedpur unit and one from Jamadoba unit ( as Jamdoba Unit is also implementing the project in Dhanbad District) has been awarded the “Nirmal Gram Puraskar”. The award is being given to the Panchayats who have done outstanding work in promoting rural sanitation and to reward Panchayati Raj Institutions (Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samitis, and Zilla Panchayat), individuals and institutions for their sustained efforts towards achieving it.
  69. 69. 63 TVS Electronics’ Corporate Partnership in Sanitation 63 TVS Electronics’ Corporate Partnership in Sanitation Introduction In TVS Electronics case, corporate contribution prior to interventions was limited to creation of infrastructure or in some cases creating awareness. However, in 2004 there was a paradigm shift in the approach from why sanitation by the corporate sector to why not sanitation. And the Government of Tamil Nadu invited TVS-Electronics to partner the sanitation programme in a Panchayat in Kancheepuram district – the Thiruvidanthai panchayat. Thiruvidanthai is a temple village with 365 households but was a great tourist attraction with an old Vishnu temple of archaeological significance. The path to total sanitation – Phase I: This was the most challenging phase focusing on behavioural change and adoption of good hygiene practices. Construction
  70. 70. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 64 of mere toilets would not ensure their utilisation, so an all out effort in the “MISSION” mode was planned and sparked off at the village level. Initially at the start of the programme, only 40% of the households had toilets constructed, of which nearly 30% were non-utilised and nearly 60% had no access to toilets. It was with this target that the programme was started in the village. The Government suggested a time period of four months for completing the programme. A scientific methodology for continuous demand creation was evolved. A Stake Holder’s meeting enlisted the support of the villagers, the Government and the corporate commitment to the programme. Street level committees were formed and volunteers enlisted. These volunteers were taken for an exposure to the Nirmal Gram Puruskar village to show them total sanitation as a feasible programme. Interestingly, the size of the leech pit and the model itself was the cause of great apprehension. It was regarding the capacity. The visit to the clean village put to rest these doubts as a discussion with women from similar background was able to convince them about the quantity of waste generated per day per person and the rate of decomposition. They created two types of demo models with two different costs and allowed for individual choice. Outcome: a real picture of what is constructed and at what cost is available to all households. The
  71. 71. 65 TVS Electronics’ Corporate Partnership in Sanitation different models and their costs should be discussed and the individual is allowed to choose according to their ability to pay. A Sanitation mapping exercise was conducted to mark the areas with Households having toilets and households not having one. Garbage dumps were also marked to ensure that they were cleaned up. This was followed by discussions on different toilet models and cost options. Cultural activities were organized with the teams from State Institute of Rural Development presenting plays on hygiene, puppet shows and screening video shows. Consciously, it was decided to make children as catalysts of change and involve them to a great extent in influencing behaviour change. Focus was on enhancing the utilization and increasing the toilet facilities in schools and Balwadis.. A village level student rally with hygiene messages and children encouraging parents to build toilets at home paved the way for demand creation of toilets in a sustained and a concerted manner. Focus was also on increasing the utilisation of the existing toilets and undertaking repairs etc. to ensure usage. On the supply side, there was a range of toilets on offer from the low water intensive to the plastic basins and also different leach pit models. Financially also an amount equivalent to which the company contributed was added to the Government contribution to build the toilets. The toilets were built with 17:17:66 percentile financial contributions from the stakeholders, the TVS-Electronics Limited and the Government. The Second phase of sanitation – Solid Waste Management (SWM): With increased urbanisation and Thiruvidanthai being an open village with constant pilgrim groups visiting the village, solid waste
  72. 72. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 66 disposal was one of the issues, the village was grappling with. Awareness creation of waste segregation methods and need for proper disposal mechanisms was evolved at the village level. A team of SHG women were identified to work as the Solid waste management team and they were trained on composting processes, segregation, recycling aspects and cleaning up of the public places in the village. Corporate contribution of 70% and Government contribution of 30% financially were provided initially. The continuous and combined efforts of the Government, the corporate and the stake holders saw the award of the Nirmal Gram Puruskar for the village in the year 2006. It paved the way for the evolution of a model of public private partnership in sanitation which can be scaled up and replicated elsewhere. The scheme is unique in a way that there was no duplication of activities and concerted efforts were made to ensure that there was always consensus in working to bridge resource gaps of all kinds whether it be technical, managerial or financial. The continuous presence of the company in the village ensured the sustainability of the project and the probability of getting their problems redressed through discussions. These successes gave the company avenue to take up the third phase of the sanitation – women’s hygiene. The Third Phase of Sanitation - Women’s Hygiene issues: The Government initiated training on low cost sanitary napkin production and a group of Self Help Group women were trained on production and a unit was set up with tripartite agreement of 80% financial contribution from the company, 15% from the Government and 5% from the SHG women. The social objective
  73. 73. 67 TVS Electronics’ Corporate Partnership in Sanitation is providing access to low cost hygienic napkins to adolescent girls and women in rural areas. The economic objective is that for a few women this production was a source of livelihood. Education and discussion on menstrual hygiene followed by providing access to low cost hygienic napkins paved the way for increased use of napkins. Combined with this, is the provision of low cost disposal techniques to ensure that the programme is environment friendly and sustainable in the long run. Conclusion These efforts and programmes in sanitation are not over and there is continuous innovation and adaptation to field realities that will keep the programme sustaining. While the path travelled has not been easy with lots of ups and downs, yet the results and the response from the field have been enormous. It has shown that any programme can be made successful with continued and sustained inputs and proper management. The commitment of the corporate sector in providing technical, managerial, marketing, problem solving and conflict resolution techniques to the social issue of enhancing sanitation usage is the model that has been presented here. Sustained concerted and committed efforts by the company from the top management have ensured that this unique model is continuously upgraded. This model has shown that such whole hearted commitment from companies and even individuals can help in addressing the sanitation gap in the developing countries. Technological dualism with pockets of high technology and low capital intensive units can co-exist and to a certain economic dualism with the high consumption groups and low consumption groups, can exist
  74. 74. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 68 together. The corporate model of sanitation that we have evolved is just a tiny drop in the ocean of sanitation campaigns to ensure that the access to such basic facilities like toilets and napkins are not the problems of the twenty first century.
  75. 75. 69 Usha Martin Group: Clean Environment for Healthy Living Usha Martin Group: Clean Environment for Healthy Living Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra (KGVK) was conceptualised as a sustainable, holistic and inclusive response to the complex problems of poverty, powerlessness, lack of community organisation, lack of assets, unemployment, malnutrition, ill health, illiteracy and ignorance surrounding the vulnerable people in 350 villages across 5 districts of Jharkhand. KGVK as a non- profit organization was registered in 1977. Integrated rural development has been the philosophy of KGVK, with Total Village Management (TVM) as its working model. Usha Martin’s shop floor learnings from Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) were adapted and adopted to suit the rural context and renamed as TVM. As a logical extension of the philosophy of TVM, activities related to safe drinking water access and sanitation are key priorities for KGVK. The awareness of, and access to, safe drinking water, clean energy sources and sanitation becomes imperative. As the purchasing capacity of rural people is limited, a paradigmatic
  76. 76. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 70 shift to a hygienic way of life must go hand in hand with low- maintenance and affordability. Sl. No Hygiene and Sanitation Jharkhand (Rural) (% Household) 1 Piped drinking water facility 0.1 2 Drinking Well 54 3 Hand pump 35.7 4 Smokeless oven N. A. 5 Bio gas 0.1 6 Toilet facility 5 Source: NFHS -3 Initiatives As part of KGVK’s development initiatives that integrate the concerns of natural resources and social capital, activities for safe drinking water like the construction of wells and piped drinking water networks, the repair and installation of hand pumps, smokeless cooking stoves (chulhas), biogas/gobar gas plants and low-cost toilets, are being taken up in the villages under KGVK’s command area. Constructing low-cost toilets KGVK pioneered the concept of using low-cost material to construct toilets in its operational area. In its pilot phase, 26 households own low-cost toilets. Determinants for the ramping up of this project include: • Type of soil • Local availability of construction material • Water availability and its use in different types of toilets • The degree of individual maintenance required
  77. 77. 71 Usha Martin Group: Clean Environment for Healthy Living Impact Two key and inter-related thrust areas of KGVK under its TVM model are a sustainable and equitable access to safe water and an adequate sanitation system. A study conducted by KGVK to analyse the impact of sanitation facilities on mortality rates of children below five years, based on a retrospective data analysis with selected indicators, took inputs from 450 beneficiaries across Namkom and Patratu. Table A Diseases Before KGVK Intervention (Nos of cases) Nos of Deaths After KGVK Intervention (Nos of cases) Nos of Deaths % De- crease In nos of cases Patratu Namkom Patratu Namkom Diarrhoea 65 34 7 12 6 Nil 450 Jaundice 9 3 2 1 1 Nil 300 Malaria 45 23 1 40 18 Nil 17.24 Source: KGVK’s Primary Survey The above data indicates a steady decline of child mortality, more marked in Namkom. In both locations, this decrease was closely related to the decline in diarrhoeal mortality and decrease in incidences of malaria and jaundice. An investigation into the causes revealed greater vaccination coverage, increased literacy and more homes with piped water supply. Conclusion Impure/unusable water and lack of access to improved sanitation pose a major threat to human health. Disease analysis suggests that lack of access to safe water supply, sanitation and hygiene is the third most significant risk for poor health in Jharkhand. The simple act of washing hands regularly can reduce the number of
  78. 78. Corporate Sector’s Involement in Sanitation 72 diarrhea infection by up to 35%. The United Nations Millennium Declaration confirmed the central role of water and sanitation in sustainable development and the major contribution that extended access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation can make to poverty alleviation. KGVK endeavours to empower communities to seek health-seeking behaviour by developing sustainable access to safe water and sanitation. It seeks to create a positive ripple- effect of better health, enhanced human productivity, income and leisure, better school attendance, among others.
  79. 79. Back Cover Inside Blank