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School-related gender-based violence: evidence of effective interventions
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School-related gender-based violence: evidence of effective interventions


This presentation outlines Concern Worldwide's education programme approach and outcomes, key questions, challenges and findings within the context of gender-based violence. It was presented at at the …

This presentation outlines Concern Worldwide's education programme approach and outcomes, key questions, challenges and findings within the context of gender-based violence. It was presented at at the Global Education Conference in Oxford in September 2013.

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  • Ecology model (Bronfenbrenner)Children’s inner world (cognitive, emotional and spiritual)Children’s outer world (physical, social, behavioural)Peers (other children and youth)FamilyCommunity, natural and built environmentCivil Society, government and non-governmentalCultural, social, economic, civic and political


  • 1. SRGBV – Evidence of effective interventions Presentation to UKFIET conference, Oxford. 10th September 2013 Bríd Knnedy
  • 2. Concern and SRGBV  Concern established since 1969 – poverty elimination  Currently working in 27 countries  Development and emergency response programmes through addressing LS, Education, Health and HIV & AIDS at micro, meso and macro levels  Assets and return on assets, inequality, risk and vulnerability are central to all Concern’s work  Basic Education Policy (2003) pinpoints access, quality and equality  Commitment to GBV prevention and response in Strategic Plan (2004)  Gender equality highlighted throughout and SRGBV integrated within education programmes in Malawi, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Bangladesh, Somalia and Ethiopia  P4 (Programme participation protection policy) signed by all employees, partners and associates
  • 3. How Concern Understands Extreme Poverty Lack of and/or Low Returns on Basic Assets Risk and Vulnerability
  • 4. Concern Education Programme Outcomes Quality Well-being Access Successful learners Confident individuals Effective contributors Responsible citizens
  • 5. SRGBV identified as a problem SRGBV a significant barrier to children accessing and completing education Enfringes on rights to protection, participation, life & survival and development Without rights to protection, equality and quality in education MDGs and EFA goals will not be achieved Hannah Mavuto, Bwangu Primary School (2012)
  • 6. Why is SRGBV important?
  • 7. Key questions for Concern re SRGBV  Where has there been successful intervention in SRGBV? How was this accomplished?  What examples of good practice are available?  What M&E process was used? What indicators and evidence are available?  Is integration of SRGBV in education programmes the best way to address it?  What are the staff development implications?
  • 8. The 2012 SRGBV review: selected agencies and projects Actionaid International /Institute of Education London  Stop Violence against Girls in School (SVAGS), Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, 2008-13  Transforming Education for Girls in Nigeria and Tanzania (TEGINT), 2007-12 USAID  Safe Schools Program in Ghana and Malawi, 2003-8  C-Change SRGBV Prevention Project, DRC, 2010-12 Plan International  Promoting Safe, Child-friendly Schools in Uganda, 2008-11; Prevention of SRGBV in Uganda (with Raising Voices), 2012-14  Learn without Fear in Malawi, 2008-10 N.B. All based in areas where the organisation had previously worked
  • 9. Concern’s approach Holistic: activities to address violence embedded in programmes of broad support to basic education at every level of the system Gender-based: gender underpins analysis and intervention Only Actionaid/IOE TEGINT project takes both a holistic and a gender approach All others target SRGBV specifically, so not ‘holistic’.
  • 10. 5 key outcomes 1. A legal and policy framework that addresses violence against children in and around school, especially girls (macro level) 2. Improved prevention and response mechanisms (macro, meso and micro level) 3. Increased awareness of SRGBV and attitude and behaviour change (macro, meso and micro level) 4. Provision of a safe learning environment, especially for girls, i.e. reduction in school violence (micro level) 5. Increased enrolment and retention, especially of girls (micro level).
  • 11. Macro, meso and micro activities National level  Advocacy/lobbying to change policy and legislation, and improve response mechanisms to reported cases  Strengthening/revising teachers’ code of conduct  Creating coalitions and networks of agencies  Media campaigns and awareness raising Community level  Awareness raising for teachers, SMC/PTA members on child rights, gender, making schools safe etc  Developing community response mechanisms  Media campaigns (e.g. local radio), Open Days and cultural events  Encouraging role models
  • 12. Micro level activities contd. School level  Extra-curricular activities: clubs, debates, mock parliaments, peer networks, exchange visits  Physical improvements: sex-specific latrines, clean classrooms and school compounds, fencing etc  Child-friendly learning environments: school codes of conduct, class charters, suggestion boxes, alternative means of discipline, student representation on councils and SMCs/PTAs  Training in child protection, SRGBV, positive discipline, gender-responsive pedagogy etc  Developing effective response systems to violence  Curriculum development: life skills, gender awareness materials, training manuals
  • 13. Key findings  Challenges of M&E; no proven methodology to measure behaviour change; reliance on statistical data  Mixed evidence of attitude change, no objective evidence of behaviour change  Over-reliance on short term training and awareness raising  Most impact from gender/girls’ clubs and physical improvements  Less success with policy and legal reform and community/school response mechanisms  Influence of female teachers and link between project inputs and increased enrolments/reduced dropouts not clear cut
  • 14. M&E challenges  Identifying a suitable methodology for interviewing children about experiences of violence in institutional settings  Developing a model for rigorous M&E  Measuring impact, not just progress in meeting targets  Measuring behaviour change: attitude change is not a proxy for behaviour change  Routine monitoring and critical enquiry as integral to the project  Rigorous research methods: robust data from multiple sources  Ethical issues of working with children
  • 15. Recommendations for Concern: programming  Ring-fence SRGBV component within the ‘holistic’ approach  Work with well respected local partners at different levels  Develop a coherent and viable M&E framework  Allocate resources to routine monitoring and base/endline surveys  Build up strong relationships with schools and identify key allies  Ensure confidential response systems are established; monitor their effectiveness  Support teacher training to ensure gender aware teachers  Long term commitment (min 5 years)
  • 16. Time to rest and study Literacy success HIV and AIDS knowledge No sexual exploitation by teachers Role in school Equality in access to education Voice heard Space to play