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Storage and Storage Devices

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  • 1. Storage and Storage Devices By Nilabh Verma
  • 2. Storage Measurement
    • Bit (b)
    • Nibble (n)
    • Byte (B)
    • Kilo Byte (KB)
    • Mega Byte (MB)
    • Giga Byte (GB)
    • Tera Byte (TB)
    • Peta Byte (PB)
    • Exa Byte (EB)
    • Zetta Byte (ZB)
    • Yotta Byte (YB)
  • 3. Storage Characteristics
    • Can be Internal, External & Remote
    • Are nonvolatile
    • Two main things for storage:
      • Device
      • Media
    • Mainly of four types:
      • Magnetic Disks
      • Optical Disks
      • Tape
      • Mobile Storage
  • 4. Magnetic Disk
    • Most commonly used in today's storage systems.
    • Use mangnetic particles to store data on disk surface.
    • Data held on a disc in block fomed by tracks and sectors.
    • Tracks and sectors are created when disk is first formatted.
    • Data written and read by read/write heads.
    • Common types:
      • Hard disks
      • Floppy disks
      • Zip disks
    • Important to keep away from magnetic field.
  • 5. Floppy Disk & Drive
    • Low capacity removable disk.
    • Mostly of 3.5” and holds 1.44/2.8 MB.
    • Not widely used today.
    • Sometimes reffered as a legacy drive.
    • Generally use PATA interface. Also available in USB.
    • Zip drive works similar with 100 to 250 MB of storage.
  • 6. Hard Disk Drive
    • High capacity disk.
    • Most common media of storage.
    • Use one or more metal magnetic disks.
    • Can be internal, external or remote.
    • Typically holds 80 GB to several Tbs.
    • Generally use following interface:
      • PATA
      • SATA
      • SCSI
      • USB
  • 7. Hard Disk Drive
    • High capacity disk.
    • Most common media of storage.
    • Use one or more metal magnetic disks.
    • Can be internal, external or remote.
    • Typically holds 80 GB to several Tbs.
    • Generally use following interface:
      • PATA
      • SATA
      • SCSI
      • USB
  • 8. Optical Disk Drive
    • High capacity disk which store data optically.
    • Can be internal or external.
    • Can be read only, recordable or rewritable.
    • Standard sized disk is 120 mm. Minis are 80 mm.
    • Standard CD holds upto 700 MB of data.
    • Standard DVD holds 4.7 GB (single layer) or 8.5 GB (double layer) of data.
    • High definition DVD or blue-ray disks can hold upto 50 GB typically (17-27 GB) of data.
    • Generally use following interface:
      • PATA
      • SATA
      • USB
  • 9. Optical Disk Drive
    • Read only disks can be
      • Read but no write.
      • CD/DVD of same storage capacity.
    • Recordable disks can be
      • Written to but can't be erased or resuse.
      • CD/DVD of same storage capacity.
    • Rewritable disks can be
      • Written, erased and overwritten just like a magnetic disk. Needs software to write (not necessary).
      • CD/DVD of same capacity.
    • All disks use the appropriate device to perform task. DVD writer can handle almost kind of tasks.
  • 10. Optical Disk Drive
    • Read only disks can be
      • Read but no write.
      • CD/DVD of same storage capacity.
    • Recordable disks can be
      • Written to but can't be erased or resuse.
      • CD/DVD of same storage capacity.
    • Rewritable disks can be
      • Written, erased and overwritten just like a magnetic disk. Needs software to write (not necessary).
      • CD/DVD of same capacity.
    • All disks use the appropriate device to perform task. DVD writer can handle almost kind of tasks.
  • 11. Flash Memory Systems
    • No moving parts, less vibration, less power, makes no sound, ultra portable, easy to use.
    • Can be in form of USB or card flash disks.
    • Can be directly connected with system or through appropriate card reader.
    • Flash cards can be of 1 GB to 8 GB or higher. Commonly used in mobiles, gaming systems.
    • USB flash drive can be of 2 GB to 64 GB or higher. Commonly used as a magnetic disks.
  • 12. Storage for Large Computers
    • Usually use a storage server.
    • Containing multiple high spped HDDs.
    • Generally used in big corporates having
      • Multiple servers.
      • Hundreds of users.
      • Tremendous amount of data.
  • 13. DAS, NAS and SAN
    • Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
      • Most basic type of storage.
      • Simple storage which is directly connect to the server.
    • Network Attached Storage (NAS)
      • Storage server connect to a network to provide storage for computer on that network.
      • Use TCP/IP protocol, Low performance.
    • Storage Area Network (SAN)
      • Network of storage devices that provides storage for another network of computers.
      • Use fiber channel.
      • Generally use RAID, Backup and restore, High performance, less load on network.
  • 14. RAID
    • Redundant Arrays of Indipendent Discs (RAID) is a method of storing data on two or more hard drives that work together to do the job of larger drive.
      • Usually involves recording redundant copies of stored data.
      • Most commonly used
        • RAID 0: Stripping (atleast 2 disks, usage n).
        • RAID 1: Mirroring (atleast 2 disks, usage n/2).
        • RAID 5: Stripping with distributed parity (atleast 3 disks, usage n-1).
  • 15. Magnetic Tape Systems
    • Works similar as magnetic disk.
    • Primarily used for backup.
    • Low cost per MB.
    • Mostly in form of cartridge tape.
    • Can be individual or with tape library.
    • Capacity from 4 GB to several TBs.
  • 16.