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Ecomigra

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  • 1. : . “Dekart” (www.dekart.com) “ ” Internet, . ! #" ! !, " $ % % & # . " ! . The Internet “sector", appurtenant to the electronic commerce is considered in the paper. The problems concerned with this human activity field are specified. Special attention is given to the legal aspects of e- commerce. # " & != >> Internet. ? @ A " Internet # # $ " ! , % , %, # @ $"! # ! " . B - % % - = % # A # & " # # @ . = % = != # & = ( % % $ =) Internet & $ ! .E Telcordia Technologies ,% % = A 100 , % # # A45%. " % Internet- # 14 . KL " ! 2,1 . != Web- . O #Internet, ! & , % ! " 350 . , ! % $ , % # ! # " ,@ Internet % # != & " 1 % A , % A A = . ? Internet, " ,« » A , != " , $ = " . S , A Internet " ! " , % "= @ , "! ! , " #! $ # % A A . E A , = % # & Internet $ % [4]. ? !«PricewaterhouseCoopers» (http://www.pwcglobal.com/ru/) 24% , # " A% L !=, & $ ,% # A ! = Internet- #"! % ! # % ! . 74% # # " $ @@ , 71% - @ # & =, 71% - " & " 69% - = . ] L ! = A % = % $ % != = % "! (60%), % " (60%), # != A (59%) A # $ != " # - (57%).1 ^ & $ Internet = # ! % . B ! $ A , % $ ! % @ «? S : » (_ , 28-29 " 2000 A.).
  • 2. B"a ! A L $ # A, $ & / !, A ! % & , " , A # , # $ .? = # & A "a ! e-commerce. b & "! L A ! A, A # Internet A # A on-line & .c « A !=» 2% & & ! % – A # ! & , ! A # ! «" = », !. S A # A #$ & " % # , , % A , % $ A # , # $ " . B L Internet- A # $ & != Internet, A % " , % # L & != & % - & .E A , % # " – – A # , " % & #$ Internet ! @ != . O ! ! «" - », «" -" » # $ " % @ ! (telephone-banking), % # Internet (Internet-banking). f ! ] gh # 30 $2000 A. # ! A != & . & f] gh, != " #" & @ , 73.8 % " A "a & . g # " ! % & , A $ ! % ! % # " $ & $ , ! $ = % , & @ $ "= != != . A # , # $ ! " # , L #$ # & Internet. i # @ != =, ! != A , " – @ # = & - # , # = A % = , % A$ % ,# A # . g ! Internet " $ " L # =. j% !# - $ $ ! , ! % % A # @ . k , General Electric % # $ &" @ % #Internet # $ ! = . 10 $ 2000 A 12 =A = "! #" ! 5000 " & . " & " "A =, =, @ -# =, @ =, = =. E & ! !" & & " ! A !L. ? #! =@ " $100 ! . b = " & A $" & $ www.gefn.com ( & A @ &"!). > % ,% % " "! # " #$ # ! !. g h = " ! #" % A != , $% $ = # ! # kodak, mosfilm3 A . K ,% , " " ! Internet- ,% # @ !, # $ @ = ,2 j % = .3 S «_ @ » L $ % "! "! # , L «Eastman Kodak Company» A ! ! .
  • 3. % « % ». i $ # «b A », A«O -p » A L " A .B$ % %# , # = L A www.kodak.ru $ A A $ @ ! # “Eastman KodakCompany”, ! A = # ( $% !% $ = , A = .) A "! @ ! L ! # , L @ " ( . . # % !A ! # %& ) [5]. # !L != " # " & = & , A, & , A = # $ .? % , " L " # != != # [7]. ^ # – spam. «b % ! » & ! A # , % # % ! = != ! $ % ! % , # $ « % ! » ! # . «g » #$ # & ! "! (% ! , , # != A « = »), % "! # ! != & . B & L # Internet- A " ! = . BqO "! ! & !@ ! # , # $ ! " $ $ @ $@ , B BqO = L & L A % Internet, # != spam "! 4# . B ! , $ L A = , # % A != A % " & .E A , = $ = $ A # . ? & / % # "a , # " # ! «" = » ! A # !, ! % $ , & % , % $ = A != =. E & $, & ! A ! $ . c # Internet, L = A L % , 2000 A 34%. " $ # ! , A eMarketer, L Internet- . ? # " , A $ ! # B , $600% . ] L "! L =, # $ = - & # % != , # ! "! # != != . B ! A $ , % L #-#= A L = , & , " $ = @ $ " A . > "! " . S # ! Internet = A # $ " , @ , A # #% !L B , A % L A " ( @ ) & L .4 B A % & , ! ! % ,% & $ $ " : «This message is being sent to you in compliance withthe Federal legislation for commercial e-mail (H.R.4176 - Section 101, Paragraph (e)(1)(a)) and Bill s.1618 TitleIII passed by the 105th US Congress».
  • 4. # ! ! $ " A " A A , , " , " $ "=# $% A - & " $. ? "= # = # ! ( A # - = % A = ) " " . B % A !L # & A " A & $ : • k = % " ! E & ! % & "= " ( $ , # ) A " % ; ^ "= " % " # " # ; y ! A $ @ ! , ! = , ? & " % $ ? $. • A # ! " ! L & % & ! A , # $% ! @ ; ] # , " $ @ –? & - " @ $( & % A = ) = != A ? $ " # A A . • ? ! " ! • ? " ! A " • _ - % " ! • ? = A % " ! K ! ! .B & $@ # != A " # .k % # ! $ !# , A $ " # L != , $ ! ! ! A " & . ? ! " ! A ! , & != , " $ $ ! L = $ & A " .k 1996 A ( $ @ 1998 A.) A # "a != "! # " , % L # UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce. 2000 A. y " b " . A & ! " $ = A " & @ . b A # " Internet " % !, Internet- A # @ , & # $ $ . y " , & . Internet A ! = , # !A ! A !, A A != & != & # % ! . $ 2000 A. & A # % B # " $ A . k % A " & ! = = L ] $ % A # ,
  • 5. % & != &" " 130 .? " , % @ A !% & , $ « % » !: , A " A , ! "!% #$ & % & != & . ! ! & ! &" " « !=» A. ? ! ! " ! " , = % , A " # - A # ( , " «? » gh) $ ! L $ " ! . ^ ! A $ ! (BqO,^ !, S ), & A $ & " . k " # , $ ! L " !" – A , A $ - & & ! ( & , & , & , % # ! "! # ). % % , # = # ( Internet ) B^p - " - % & -% , @ !, # " #! @ != L . ^ , % = = B^p " $ 5 L " A . p K g h # " - @ , A , #& , . K . " Internet h A ! # A g 2001 - 2006 A ! % ,% # A L = @ != = A , Internet, A ! # A != .h A ! A A A & $ % $ A # & ! " # A # A , # A " = = A != , $% # # , & , . ^ " & ! % ! # % , ! L = ? A !, $ : • @ " #! ! A % & A # A # , • L A # - A " % A , " "! = % A != L A " % "! # =# != . ? A ! " , != @ @ ! @ & ! : 1. # ! # ! A ; 2. $ != " # != - A != ! A "" # -" # " "" # - " ";5 « A $ # », ! & ="! L A BBBg " @ != = A .^ , & « A $ =» A = – # & #" & A = L " , ! # A # !L .
  • 6. 3. # " A = # & != A != A ; 4. # A != ! A ; 5. @ ! != " != A != , # != A ; 6. # @ @ ! @ ! @ ( # " ! ! @ ! # " " @ "); 7. # % " - != " A A . 20 " 2000 A. ? g " _# " != %Internet, # " != ! - K ] A L. ## A , # & # $% # A % =% # $ ! .K ,% A - , Internet A = != . & A # ,# ! ! " # ! % $ A . ^ A " = % UNCITRAL Model Law onElectronic Commerce. " A $ .^ ,% # # " # % , " ! " .i "a ,% = A # $ @ L & % A != . } " , # # A A , A " A % % @ != != " . " " = $ != # . " % " # % # = # % = A @ . ^ ,CyberPlat @ # ! ASSIST. ? !? $ @ % , ! @ $ ? . % A ? $ @ $ % # A? . ? # # ( "= % # # ! !" $ = " =) % ? % ? , ! ? $.B " & A , # L .^ , " ! . B ! # , % A Internet- , & A "= , A = % , = . # Internet- " $ L & . K A % "! # " != " "= A " ! " . ? " &UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce % , % # @ != = A , !% = , # "= - #A L , « ! », « ! », « = ! ( A )». g A L A # $ ! , % "! # # @ , @ , % A " & A
  • 7. . # UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce – # « !=» ( " & ) # != . ^ , & "=# $ $ % $ @ . E 2001 A. A & ! # !f @ K y .? @ $ % !, "! , # L % $ % = " . ^ "= # ,% ! A & ! A ! " # (L ~ BqO 01.05.1995A.) & " " ! # ! !. ? = A @ # % # A A A # -f @ ! != $% . B $ = @ $ # ! A # , VeriSign, EnTrust, Microsoft,Thawte, RSA, ATT. i ! $ @ ! # A & , % ( ) . # $ $ % " # $ = != & L $ " # . B ! & ! ! ( & "! A ! & ) # " ! @ $% @ $ @ . K ! A # & ! L = % !, # $ = @ . E & !L A # @ % ! (« & ») ! @ , " # , A # @ . ? ! # A " & !. k q L A A % " WISEKey (World International Secure ElectronicKey), # % # % ! % != @ $ " % " # A # A . - # = % ! A L " . = @ "! "a ,% $ 2000 A." ! ! ! " # Ay ! BqO, @ " L . E & $, % % # $ % & !# $ # .k p « @ » . B A $ p & hgp $" & "! @ # @ , . . " % $ # L A A , # A "! # ! @ !% & . % % % &( ). c != # != , , % $ , ! p , « " % » « @ » L $ # $% $ . A A & @ & " % $ $ = @ :# $% , @ , @ @ # @ .E % $ , , % @ # ! @ " % $ " L , % "!% , pE hgp @
  • 8. % # " % # = A @ ! . b !, = , ! $ A A & $, L ! A % " #!, & A "! !$ - = % L " . €$" & A # , ! "! A " $ " #"a " , = , & A # # != % != " , # . * + 1 E ! O. S @ != A @ % = # ! @ // Acta Academia, E L , 1999. B.135 – 142 2 OA . ? A A " , @ , : ! p // _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 2 " 1999 A. 3 OA . b @ ( ) : - #// _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 28-29 " 2000 A. 4 k @ K. ? S : " " ! A A // _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 28-29 " 2000 A. 5 ~. ? " !# ! # g // _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 28-29 " 2000 A. 6 c ^. b $% A - & S : ! $ % " !// _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 28-29 " 2000 A. 7 O. ? != // _ ! @ «? S : », _ , 28- 29 " 2000 A. 8 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce 9 Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December on a Community framework for electronic signatures 10 Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce in the Internal Market 11 O ., ? . i - A " # ?// k # ! % - % @ "? ! = A A >>I ", E L , 2000. B. 29 – 31 12 ? .? & ! " % : " ! // k # ! _ & A # "_ $ $ - # @ !". E L , 1999. B. 91 - 92.
  • 9. 13 . B - = A ! & S //E .15 " 1997 A.(http://www.dekart.com/publ/smintrn3/smintrn3.html) ? A _ = % = , L % ! , E “Dekart”. O 25 " != " ( % A @ ). g 16 @ 1966 A. e-mail: petrova@dekart.com