"History of Ministry" Lesson Plans: Katrina Martinez


Published on

Example of the lesson plans that I have created during my internship.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

"History of Ministry" Lesson Plans: Katrina Martinez

  1. 1. Top of Form<br />HISTORY OF MINISTRY<br />At one time in our church it was common to think that church institutions in order to be authentic had to be identified in the New Testament. It was the opinion of many authors that the source had to be found in the New Testament in order to authenticate ministry and authority. Studies in the NT seem to indicate that it is next to impossible to give a clear, factual description of the state of ministries in that era. It is the Spirit's creativity, and the church's response to it that has had to do with the formation of miistries and can continue to give rise to new forms of ministry in the church.<br />It is necessary to assert that community is prior to ministry, and that these have developed according to the needs of this community. Ministry is not limited to the ministry of the ordained, nor has the ministerial structure of the church been fixed for all time. The Second Vatican Council has given impetus to the call of the laity to their minsterial roles in the church for the building of the reign of God. OBJECTIVES1. To study the biblical evidence for ministry.2. To show how the historical development of ministry is related to the social, political and cultural development of society.3. To identify the different changes that occurred in the development of the history of ministry from the established forms of ministry in the early Christian community to our post Vatican II conciliar era.4. To distinguish the main elements that constitute ministry in the church in the different eras of history.5. To analyze reasons for the changes in the idea of ministry throughout history.6. To study changes and improvements in the different ministries as seen in society today. Presupposition: Ministry is the Spirit's creativity, and the Church 's response to it that has had to do with the formation of ministries and continues to give rist to new forms of ministry in the Church. Ministry is not limited to the ordained, nor has the ministerial structure of the Church been fixed for all time. <br />GIFTS THAT DIFFER<br />A History of Ministry<br /> <br />Introduction: The ministering actions of jesus Christ shape and define Christian ministry.<br /> <br />1. OLD TESTAMENT AND TEMPLE PRIESTHOOD<br />     a. Temple graph<br />     b. OT temple priesthood<br />     c. Jesus and the prophetic tradition<br />     d. Shift from OT preisthood/temple to NT priestly people<br />2. THE NEW TESTAMENT EVIDENCE<br />     a. The Ministries of Jesus<br />     b. Ministries to the Reign of God<br />     c. Role of the Holy Spirit: architect of ministry<br />     d. Ministries in Paul<br />     e. Ministries in Acts<br />     f. Study of Words for Ministry in New Testament<br />     g. Five Models of Church in the New Testament<br />     h. Established forms of Ministry<br /> <br />3. FROM IGNATIUS TO GREGORY VII<br />     a. Ignatius- monarchic episcopate<br />     b. Didache- c 160-140<br />     c. Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus<br />     d. Cyprian of Carthage- Roman Ordo<br />     e. Constantine<br />     f. Conclusions<br /> <br />4. FROM GREGORY TO JOHN PAUL II<br />     a. Gregorian Reforms- Threefold policies<br />     b. Council of Trent- 1545-1563<br />     c. Vatican I (1869-1870)<br />     d. Vatican II (1962-1965)<br />Top of Form<br />1 Peter 2:9 = communal priesthood with free access to God without mediators apostolic authority but Christ is the priest and all participate in the priesthood all mediators, no distinction between clergy and laitycommunity: temple of Holy SpiritAll prestly, all have Holy Spirit, all have access to God, all consecratedCarismsCommunity is consecrated people of Godfraternity no laity, brothers and sisters Conclusions:All are priestly not just a fewAll have direct acces to GodAll are equal Hierarchical community with ministerial structure one big plurality of functions, carisms, and ministriesDifferences: apostles, carisms, more ethical than ritualistic, baptismal consecration, continutiey with OT and NT but rupture MINISTRY by Kenan B. Osborne [Study Notes] Chapter One and Two1. Looks at three points of departure for an initial understanding of clergy/laity distinction<br />2. Clergy/laity distinction does not give us a theology of ministry, in ways that one clarifies the other. It was when church leadership followed Greco-Roman ordines that these titles assume <br />church status.<br />3. Canon Law not normative source of theology<br />4. Scripture is a key point of departure--on topic of discipleship is it possible to develop the meaning of church and therefore the meaning of lay and cleric<br />5. Kleros/Laikos    a. NT does not use ordained, ordination, non-ordained      b. laikos not a scriptural term      c. NT Kleros never used for either minister or ministry      d. Apostolic tradition of Hippolytus (c. 215) kleros for church ministers - a century and a half             after Jesus' resurrection<br />6. Ordo     a. no ordination found in NT, disputed by scholars     b. it was order of Greco-Roman world that patterned order in church structure     c. distinction arose between those in an ordo and their remaining populace     d. their real distinguishing mark=to distinguish klerio/laikoi developed because of the <br />insertion of order into church structure      e. the structuring of church along the line of ordines gave rise, in turn, to the theorizing of<br />various ordines      f. In NT no indication that certain ministries taken care of by ordained people and others by<br />non-ordained persons, ordination not biblical term and not part of apostolic community,<br />gradually after Hippolytus it became standard     g. So we cannot look to scripture to say these are to be ordained ministries and these are not. Ecclesial Implications     a. Jesus is basic sacrement of all Ministry     b. Church cotinues sacrament of Jesus, source of all mission and ministry in Church      c. All share through sacraments of initiation in Mission of Jesus: priest, prophet and king     d. Jesus: not cleric or lay, his mission and ministry not clerical or lay     e. SO all ministry has a christocenttic center- both cleric and lay rooted in this      f. Jesus common origin of all ministry and focused on the kingdom Conclusions from the Data<br />1. Kleros/laikos terms used so sparingly in early Christian writings that no generalized conclusions possible. The term kleros did not originate as opposite to laikos<br />2. ORDO fundamental term, colored use of kleros/laikos, ordination based on ordo<br />3. So to understand lay/clergy see church use of ordo for church leadership. Jesus is origin, model of church leadership so Christology not base for clergy/lay distinction<br />4. Church takes structure from Greco-Roman structure, then theologizing begins, starts with OT theology of priesthood then NT writings.<br />5. Patristic writings suspect because they base their work is devoid of gospel foundation.<br />6. As a result, the etymological analysis of klerikos and laikos and even ordo together with their resultant ecclesiological implications, does not provide an adequate point of departure, since too many extraneous, non-Christian, socio-political, neo-platonic elements are involved. <br />1. THE MINISTRIES OF JESUSJesus was a lay person in that he was not a priest from the Aaronic or Levitical line. The ministry of the historical Jesus can best be described thas that of the eschatological prophet- stands in the prophetic line of Israel. Also servant. a. HealerOne of the first and foremost ministries of Jesus was healing (Mt 4:23). In Jesus the reign breakes into the world to heal it of the traumatic effects of evil- Jesus is concerned for the whole person, directed toward human wholeness. b. ExorcistThe reign breaks into the world through the anticipated power of the resurrected when Jesus casts out demons. The miracles of Jesus casting out demons are a powerful sign that the reign of God is stronger than the reign of evil (Mt 12:28; Mk 1:23-28; Mk 6:7; Lk 10:17-18). Note how Church involved exorcisms into sacrament of baptism and also as a ministry. There is need to proclaim victory of Jesus over evil. c. Teacher" Teacher" appears over 50 times in the Gospels, 30 applied to Jesus directly (Mt 22:16; Mk 12:14; Lk 20:21). He was different than the rabbis in that he taught on his own personal authority. He explained that the reign has arrived and was being fulfilled in him. d. ReconcilerJesus announced the coming of the reign through his reconciling ministry. (2Cor 5:18-19-a key passage summarizing Jesus' ministry). (Romans 5:10; Col1:19-20; Mt 5:23-24) Forgiveness was the means to reconciliation (Mt 6:14; Lk 6:37, Mt 9:2,5; Mk 2:5, Lk 5:20,23; 7:48;15:11-32;15:4). Reconciling ministry of Jesus reveals the presence of the reign. e. PeacemakerJesus' reign would bring peace without end. " Blessed are the peacemakers" (Mt 5:9. Also Lk 2:14, Jn 20:21, Rom 16:16) Shalom difficult to translate, when one possessed shalom one was in perfect and assured communion with God. It is a gift Jesus brings which includes harmony, good order in society, the health and welfare of the individual. (Rom 14:17). This peace reveals the activity of God, Rom 16:20, the victory that overcomes the world.  f. Liberator" The Spirit is upon me...to set at liberty those who are oppressed" Lk 4:18. Redemption means liberation for God's people (Rom 8:21; 1 Cor 7:23; Rom 5-8; Gal 5:1).This does not mean that Jesus was limited to these six ministries. Better to see Jesus as having one ministry with six aspects. Ask group if they can think of others. <br />MINISTRIES TO THE REIGN<br />" Ministry may be performed within the church, but it gets its charge, its 'mandate' from Christ proclaiming the reign of God. The church, the community of believers, may have some role in shaping the external form of ministry, but since the reign is broader than the church, the ministries will need to remain open to that part of the reign which is not found in the church. Insofar as the church is a faithful servant to the reign, it can provide a fragile and temporary form for the ministry. It must do so, however, with a humble tetativeness, ever ready to adjust to the new and unforeseen demands of the reign." [William Rademacher Lay Ministry p 20]<br />Ministry is for the reign. the church is for the reign and so ministry is not intended to be a minister to itself. Orientationof ministry is toward the reign of God. So some ministries will not be official church ministries in that these will be ministries in the world which in God's own mysterious ways, are also advancing the coming of the reign.<br />Ministry is ordered somehow to the restoration of full humanity: The whole of [Jesus'] ministry is the God of human beings, concerned for humanity, who wants to make us people of God, in turn, like God, concerned for otherpeople . What is striking about Jesus is his liberating 'humanization' of religion which nevertheless remains the service of God, faithful to death: service to God and humanity. Here there is not question of a choice between the two-God and humanity. Jesus' whole life was a celebration, a doxological celebration, of the rule of God and at the same time an orthopraxis, action in keeping with this kingdom of God, i.e. of God who wants to come into his own in human history, for the happiness of human beins in a society of which shalom prevails. {quoted in Rademacher, pp20-21}<br />The purpose of ministry, therefore, is not simply [primarily?] to save souls, but to bring about a world community of love, freedome, peace and justice.<br />ROLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN CREATION OF MINISTRIES<br />Role evident in two ways:<br />1. as the source and inspiration for all ministry<br />2. as the master artist of the outward forms of ministry, especially through the  charisms given to the baptized.<br /> <br />Basic to the understanding of the biblical theology of ministry is the recognition that all Chrisstian service is grounded on the Spirit (Rom 7:6) It is this new life in the Spirit that gives birth to ministry.<br />In the NT the Holy Spirit is linked with Baptism (Lk 3:16; 1 Cor 12:13; Acts 1:5; Acts 2:38). (Some link Spirit to confirmation only) In NT Christians do not have to wait for another rite, like confirmation of ordination, to receive empowerment from the Spirit.<br />MINISTRIES IN PAULIn Paul's letters the Spirit is not only the source of ministry but also the architect of its external forms. Paul uses three words to describe the spiritual gifts that are revealed in the various outward forms of ministry: 1 Cor 12:     charisms (charaismata)     services (diakoniai)     energies (energemata)These three forms of spiritual gifts flow from a primal charism who is Jesus Christ the Lord (Rom 6:230. " Spirit leads the ministry" . The value of these charisms is not in their possession, but in their exercise for the benefit of the community. They are all functions: preaching, teaching, healing, They are not states of life.  CHARISMATIC MINISTRIES IN PAUL-LIST FROM FOUR EPISTLES 1 Cor 12:8-10: wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discernment, tongues, interpretation 1 Cor 12:28: apostles, prophets, teachers, miracles, healers, helpers, administrators, tongues, interpretation Rom 12:7-8: serving, teaching, exhorting, contribution, giving aid, acts of mercy Ep 4:11: apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers [Rademacher, p 32]Note the tremendous variety and functional nature of all the ministries listed. These are for the " up building" -they are not ontological states (no need for vows). As charisms, these ministries are all relative to the up building of the community. Charisms are given primarily for the community, not for the individual. Paul did not intend on drawing up a final or closed list, but with these listed ministries we can list some of Paul's principles of ministry: 1. Carisms are not limited to a particular group.2. They are given to all the baptized according to the measure of faith.3. They are not given primarily for possession by an individual, but for the up-building of the community.4. They are not necessarily permanent. 5. They cannot be separated from the body of the community.6. Within the body they are interdependent, i.e., the foot needs the hand, etc.7. Within the body the ministers give life to each other.8. It is not the nature of the work, but the degree of love which inspires that work, that makes it ministry.9. Ministry is a function, not a state of life.10. Charismatic ministries are ordinary, not extraordinary.11. Charismatic ministry becomes useful and fruitful through the power of the Spirit, not through appointment, installation, or ordination [Rademacher 35] MINISTRIES IN ACTS1. Teaching: 5:252. Preaching: 8:43. Healing: 5:154. Exorcism: 8:75. Public Prayer: 8:156. Prophesy: 11:27, 21:97. Presbyter: 11:30, 15, 108. Forgiveness: 13:38 Conclusion: In Acts, we see that early church felt an obligation to continue the main ministries of Jesus. The Church was convinced that, through the Pentecostal Spirit, it possessed the same power for ministry that Jesus had. But Acts 6 also shows that the early church did not feel its ministry would be limited to a mere continuatino of the ministry of jesus. With the power of the same Pentecostal Spirit, the early church acted creatively in empowering and raising up new ministries in response to new needs [Rademacher, 38]. WORDS FOR MINISTRY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT(Greek words used to describe the ministry of the early church seen in their cultural context) 1) Hyperetes, 19 times in Synoptics, Acts and Paul, assistant to the helmsman Acts13:36, 20:34, 24:23, !3:5, Lk 122)Doulos (slave) Philippians 2:7, 1:1, and Jn 13:16Ministry is not too modeled on any of this world's ranking system3)Therapeuo, " to care for," attend, serve, treat, to heal; 23 times in NTLk 7:21, Mt 4:23, Lk6:18, Mk 1: 31,41, 5:414) Latreuo, to serve or to worship, 21 times in NTUsually describes a ministry or worship offered to GodRom 1:9, Phil 335) Diakoneo, to serve, to wait on table, with particular reference to a slave who pours out wine to the guests.In NT Jesus seen in diakonia the thing that makes a person discipleLk 22:27, Mk 10:45, Acts 19:22, 1 Cor 12:4-11, 2 Cor 8:10, Rom 15:15, 10:30, 2 Cor 8:1-6,In general, Christian diakonia refers to any service of genuine love. Words not used: Archon, time, hiereus, and laikosArchon: ruler, governor, leaderTime: honor, price respect, compensation, perhaps officeHiereus: priest (noun), when hiereus is used it refers to the Jewish priesthood of the Hebrew Scripture (Mk 8:4)Laikos: Lay person, adjective meant common or profane as opposed to consecrated. Neither the Gospels nor the Pauline Letters ever refer to a baptized Christian as a lay person. Paul uses the word hagioi to refer to the baptized. This word meant " holy,"  " saved." Hagioi described the Christians as the new people of God, taking the place of the OT people of God. FIVE MODELS OF CHURCH IN THE NEW TESTAMENTWe cannot separate ministry from the cultural and historical conditions of the local church. 1. Corinthian Church- Charismatic ministry are in charge. Corinth was a typical city-state autonomous, Paul prepared to le charismatics govern their own church; this was not completely successful.2. Philippian Church- Had bishops, deacons, overseers, different organization in its ministries than that of Corinth.3. Antioch Church- Prophets, teachers in charge, Acts 13:134. Jerusalem Church- With its college of presbyters also known as elders (Acts 15), presbyterial system also seems to have been adopted in the Johannine Churches near Ephesus.5. Titus and Crete Churches- (pastoral letter 1 and 2, Timothy and Titus): Both churches are being attacked by conservative Jewish Christians who continue to observe the Mosaic Law and expert new Gentile Christians to do the same. Consequently, the Church, and its ministry retreats into a defensive posture of rigidly defined ministries to protect itself. So then churches concentrate on the " official" ministries of bishops, prebyters, and deacons (1 Tm 3:2-3).These (non-exhaustive list) give some indication of the flexibility and fluidity of ministry in the church in the NT [Rademacher pp 41-43] " ESTABLISHED" FORMS OF MINISTRYPrimarily functional and some overlap with charismatic forms of ministry1. " The Twelve" found in Matthew and Luke: Notions connected to idea of twelve tribes of Israel, but not significant title to Gentiles, so little use of this notion.2. Apostle- Authorized representative who has the same authority and standing as the person who sends him.     Apostles are:     a. those who are witnesses of the risen Lord, to whom the crucified Lord revealed himself as living     b. those who have been commissioned by the Lord for missionary preaching     Apostle not restricted to the twelve some of Paul's co-workers were named apostles (Phil 2:25; 2 Cor 8:23; Rom 16:7). In time of Paul apostles describes a function rather than a formal office. Note in Rom 16:7, Junias seems to be a female and is called Apostle.3. Deaconess- Rom 16:1; possible that Prisca is deaconess also likely in 1 Tim 3:11, 3:8 [Rademacher p 44]4. Prophets- along with prophetesses played on important role in Early Church (Eph 2:20). these are not chosen or commissioned by the community, but called by the Spirit.6. Teachers- Acts 13:1, 1 Cor 12:28-29, Eph 4:11, Heb 5:12, 1 Tim 2:7, 2 Tim 1:117. Widow- 1 Tim 5:5: who " continues in supplication and prayers night and day" . (1 Tim 5:9, 5:10)8. Leaders- Hebrews 13:7, 17: ministries who direct the Church in Rome.<br />Bottom of Form<br />PASTORAL RELECTIONS- notes from William J. Rademacher We are removed centuries from early Church so we cannot look for complete answers to all our ministry questions we face today. Nonetheless, the NT serves as a locus for reflection on the church and on ministries. Rademacher offers the following points as flexible principles for consideration of church ministries:<br />a. There can be no Christian ministry apart from Jesus Christ. Pagans can feed hungry but this is not Christian ministry.<br />b. There is no ministry apart from the Hoy Spirit and her creative activity continually empowering the minister.<br />c. Christian ministry is done to and for the reign of God. The Church may be the place of ministry, but it is not the goal of ministry.<br />d. There is no ministry apart from a call or a vocation. All baptized have a vocation to some kind of ministry.<br />e. There is no ministry apart from Christian mission. Christian ministry as a caste or state, apart from mission, does not exist in the NT.<br />f. There is no Christian ministry apart from some form of community. Ministry is also for the up-building of the body of Christ; there is no sharism apart from the body of the faithful.<br />g. There is no ministry apart from needs. Since needs change constantly the ministries of the Church change constantly.<br />h. There is no Christian ministry apart from accountability.<br />i. The external forms of ministry cannot be defined in absolute, unchanging categories...The outward form of ministry cannot be bound permanently by ecclesiastical laws or by any historical form of church.<br />j. The orientation for all Christian ministry is given by the Gospel and the Jesus/Lord event. (context, oppression, liberation)<br />k. Women may not be excluded from any ministry in the Church on the basis of the NT. <br />l. Ordination as a rite and ceremony that confers power or office does not exist in the NT. Priesthood as a specific type of ministry does not exist in the NT.<br />m. Ministry or diakonia is a nonsacral word.<br />n. Ministry in the NT is primarily functional. It is concerned with doing, like teaching, preaching, governing.<br />o. The historical Jesus was not a priest- more a prophet of the reign. In letter to Hebrews, Jesus seen as OT priest. In terms of the established priesthood Jesus was a lay person.<br />p. Ministries flow from the call, the gifts, the needs, the faith, the discipleship, and the Holy Spirit. Ordering or structuring the ministries is an after-effect done by responsible ministers themselves and, perhaps, by whomever has the gift of administration (1 Cor 12:27) [Rademacher pp 46-47]. [Some of these assertions need to be challenged. Ask group to discuss them.]<br />2. FROM IGNATIUS TO GREGORY VIIThe history of ministry is shape by many forces: culture, society, politics, revolutions, war, slavery, plagues, hunger, poverty, civil laws, kings, popes, etc. IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCHAntioch played a large role in the missionary activity of the early church. There is where Ignatius (c. 50-c. 110)- on his way to martyrdom in Rome he wrote seven letters, which reveal the shape of the church and its ministries early in the second century.Surrounded by civic unrest and disorder, Ignatius has to deal with complex and largely undefined heresies. In the context of a threefold threat to unity (Gnosticism, conservative Jewish Christians, Docetism), it is understandable that Ignatius would have to take a strong leadership role. It is often assumed, with some justification, that Ignatius was the originator of the monarchic episcopate (p 51). Church of Antioch had three distinct ministries: bishop, presbyters, and deacons- replacing apostles, prophets, and teachers--discipleship in his letters still primary ministry.Many historians conclude that with Ignatius the monarchic episcopate is firmly established- but no complete agreement on this matter yet.He was a Syrian mystic and charismatic. He probably combined his mystical and charaismatic elements with Antioch's patriarchy to fashion a monarchic episcopate to safeguard his infant church. Whatever the historical circumstances, Bishop Ignatius has shaped the episcopacy of the Roman Catholic Church even to our own time. Chapter 3 of Vatican II's Dogmatic Constitution on the Church contains thirteen references to the Ignatian letters in support of its teaching on episcopacy. THE DIDACHEDidach 160 CE and perhaps 140 CE-reveals important role of the prophets in the churches of that time and shows that people played an important role in the selection of their bishops.Prophets of the Didache are in fact equal to apostles.a. distinct possibility that prophets without benefit of ordination, presided at the Sunday liturgy (p 53).Didachis, it seems, reflects a double hierarchy: " bishpos and deacons on the one hand, and apostles, prophets and teaches on the other."  THE APOSTOLIC TRADITION OF HIPPOLYTUSIn 215 Hippolytus of Rome collected documents pertaining to various church orders. His Apostolic Tradition:     -it is first written record of any formal ordination ceremonies     -people still had a voice in the selection of their bishops (p 53)     -a presbyter does not always need ordination or the imposition of hands (confessor- presbyter for example)     -deacon appears to be a secretary to the bishop, but ranks lower than the presbyter      -lists widows, lectors, and sub deacons as recognized but unordained ministers in the church. There are " designated" or " appointed" by the bishop.     -there appears to be a fairly clear distinction at this time between the ordained and the non-ordained ministries. But ordination is not yet an empowerment to the functions of office; it is primarily a public recognition of the presence of the Spirit in the one ordained. The frequent reference to the Holy Spirit in the liturgical texts indicates that it is the Spirit received at baptism, not the ordaining bishop, who empowers the ordained for ministry (p 54) CYPRIAN OF CARTHAGEContext of his life was becoming a Roman city in Africa.Cyprian (c. 200-258), a convert to the faith in 246, a presbyter in 247, and a bishop in 248.     -a lawyer, belonged to wealthy ruling class     -Cyprian helped create a monolithic episcopate, an ecclesiastical ruling class. He modeled his episcopacy in secular officialdom, on Roman law, and on the OT view of sacrificial priesthood. For him the bishops wee the church and the episcopacy was the God-given principle of unity (p 56).     -Bishops not yet trained in Theology     -Cyprian insisted on the authority and independence of the local bishop.     -With Cyprian we are beginnings of the gradual sacralization or sacerdotalization of the ministry (p 56).In the church of Carthage deacons could administer the sacrament of penance (p 37) and probably preside at the celebration of the Eucharist (p 57). This is later forbidden by Council Nicea 325.     -People of Carthage still had a voice in the selection of their bishops.     -Cyprian modeled his church order of ministers in the civil order of the rulers of the city of Carthage.In shaping the episcopal and presbyterial ministries, Cyprian was responding, at least partly, in a very pragmatic way the dual threat of Schism and persecution: " his solution was to gether the developing threats of ecclesiastical order and authority and weave them into a tight system of absolute control" (p 58). With Cyprian we begin to see a clear distinction between the bishops who rule and the laity who are ruled (p 58) Summary:-He makes a clear distinction between the ordo of bishops and laity-He sacralizes the priesthood according to the OT model of sacrifice priesthood.-He establishes a monolithic episcopate which is the same for all of Africa.-He links ministry to sacrifice in image of temple priesthood.-He shapes the Church as a clearly defined institution.CONSTANTINEIn the year 312 Constantine (c. 280-337) won victory over Maxentius, Western emperor; a new Christian emperor.-He appointed bishops without consultation of the people.-Bishops wear miter, staff, ring, probably date back to this period.-Bishops appointed civil officials.-We begin to see a union of priesthood and empire with bishops seen as both civil and ecclesiastical rulers-Acknowledged and suppoerted the existence of a clerical caste-first to use clerics and clerical in this sense- this implied privileges for clergy-Some clergy known to be recruited from uninfluential class.-Constantine organized the church along the lines of the Roman regional districts called dioceses. Bishops became the sole legislators and administrators of Church property (will, disputes, etc.)-When Constantine moved to Bysantium, the new Rome, he left the bishop of Rome as the most important figure in the West. With Constantine the church began a long process whereby the church and its ministry became ever more united to the state. SummaryIgnatius of Antioch gives us the monarchic episcopateCyprian of Carthage makes bishops members of a Roman ordo and separates them from the laityConstantine takes away the people's voice in the selection of bishops and makes them civil magistrates; celibacy helps create a clerical caste that, among other factors, tends to keep women from the church's ministry [Rademacher p 68] Other Factors: From Identidad del los LaicosProphets were central and laityFalse prophets so bishops become prophetic figures4th century monks, prophets, martyrsControl of teachers by bishops, magisterial role of apostles, doctors laity, reevaluation of bishops against heresies.Bishop-teacherOrthodoxy vs. creativityClericalization of theologians and catechistsMinisters functions increase, control and concentration of prophetic functions 3rd century: ordo=bishop-priest-deacon4th century deacon: minor orders, professional training, no spontaneous and charismatic4th century structure set, institutionalization of functionsHierarchy of charisms institutionalized functions4th century reduction of lay state, bishop carisma par excelence [NOTES FROM IDENTIDAD DEL LAICO]1st and 2nd century priest preside at Eucharist, deacon, priest parallel to OT, bishop is the priest, ordo bishop/priest A community with plurality of ministries and charisms, with a group of ministers who exercise their functions from the apostles Functioned collegially, no private priesthood or individual priesthoodConclusion:     ordo of priesthood over against the rest of the community     Eucharist, priesthood, priest acts in the name of Christ in persona Christi, penance, Eucharistic ecclesiologyAmbiguous evolution-positive: sacramental aspects, rites, canons, in charge of communities     negative: distortion of communities, lost of originality and character of existential priesthood 3rd century=first millennium from existential priesthood from baptism to cultural function of ministers From ministerial communities to priests who act individuallySecond millennium continues the first millennium and gives it theological systematation -priesthood as personal, dignity and ordination a sacrament that convers a spiritual power: alter Christus" do Eucharist" Eucharist ecclesiology Origins of the LaityNT has not concept of the laity, church is ministerial, spiritual charisms, ministries Community consecrated and priestly, ecclesiology suffers laity profane not ministers Ambiguous concept no sacred/priest sacred dualism3rd century clergy decline of laity seen in liturgyElection of ministersChurch episcopalizedLaity and church goods 9th and 10th centuriesFrom communal ecclesiology for church and clergyReform laity and world/clergy and churchMinisterial teaching church (docent with authority) and laity (taught and obedient)Pius X church two divisions: shepherd and sheep Sacralization of priest figure OT Influence=personal priestly consecration6th, 7th, 8th and OT Isidore of SevilleChange: NT idea of Christ Secondary, priestly liturgical monopoly laity passive4th century liturgy, vestments, clericalization of the church Monks, preachers, private masses, economic concerns9th century communal to individual (ancient cult)Clericalization of monks FROM GREGORY VII TO JOHN PAUL IIGregory VII (c. 1020-85) THE EFFECTS OF THE GREGORIAN REFORM (1057-1123) In the true monastic style Gregory began immediately to centralize the authority of the papacy in Rome. He held synods that passed laws against simony, concubinage, and the marriage of priests. After signaling the main thrust of his reform through local synods in Rome, he extended the reform to the rest of the church, concentrating on Germany. That part of the reform which shaped the ministry of the church focuses on the implementation of a threefold policy: the adoption of the Roman law, the elimination of lay investiture, and the developments of the " two ends" theory.Roman legal system- adopting Roman legal system and rejecting the laws of other countries was a key factor in centralizing church government in Rome. Thus Roman law comes to shape the ministries of the entire Western church.Lay investiture- In 1075 Gregory VII forbade the practice of lay investiture and thereby incurred the wrath of the emperors of his day. In this way he wrestled the authority of episcopal appointment from the kings and nobles. This put an end to the centuries old tradition of lay control and lay patronage.<br />