Libraries in the Age of        Google       Paul N. Courant      Wolverine Caucus         Lansing, MI        17 April 2012
Introduction:Revolutions in the     Library
The LibraryImage  source:  UNC  School  of  Information  &  Library  Science  
What does theAcademic Library do? Supports scholarship -   Provides relevant information/materials     to students and fac...
Publication and               Scholarship    Ideas must be conveyed to qualify as ideas     Books                         ...
ProgressYou can t make it or sustain it without alibraryIn fact, you can t do much without alibrary**I get to define do, m...
SharingThe Library is for Everyone -- Stephen Clark
Some economics of    libraries         You are          here
What does this mean?                  Cost for libraries:                  relatively highCost for users:relatively low   ...
Public GoodsSamuelson on public goods:      Each individual s consumption of that good leads tono subtraction from any oth...
Digitization can change it             all          You are           here
Annual Cost of Storing a        BookOpen Stack: $4.26High Density $ .86 (but not as usable)HathiTrust   $ .15 (average)Big...
A fact about our world Except  for  the  most   arcane  materials  and  users,  that  which  is  not   available  online  ...
Copyright
The goal of copyright                                                               promote  the               Progress  o...
Copyright  
The length of copyrightCopyright, the good old days:        14 years 14 years             And you had to register  Copyrig...
Copyrights between 55 and 75 years              old that were still valuable in 1998Data  source:  Congressional  Research...
The street value of copyright     Out of print = 95%Plausibly in copyright: 66.6%     Public Domain: 28.4%                ...
Once upon a time, copying   (aka printing) was       expensive              Now copying is cheap
Distributing copies was       expensive                    Now, also cheap The business model no longer     fits the busin...
Cheap copying ought to helpPublication facilitates collaboration,standing on the shoulders of both giantsand the verticall...
Google & HathiTrust
Google Books Project
Google SettlementAccess for our CampusPublic Benefits- Print Disabilities- Public Library Kiosks- Browsing in the Bookstor...
Google Settlement       ControversyMonopolyOrphan WorksPipe Dreams of Various Flavors- Nonprofits should & would have done...
What s in HathiTrust?              10,110,821 total volumes                5,372,802 book titles                 266,547 s...
Language Distribution (1)                  The top 10 languages                  make up ~86% of all                  cont...
Language Distribution (2)                        The next 40                        languages                        make ...
The Future
ChallengesIntellectual property environmentTechnology and ScaleRising journal prices, especially in Science,Technology and...
OpportunitiesScholarship benefits from easy sharingWe are the information experts in theInformation Age, and hard problems...
What to Do    Revise the rights environment to exploit the technology    Revise individual libraries missions to exploit t...
Two Futures
Thank youpnc@umich.edu
April 2012 Wolverine Caucus Event Featuring Paul N. Courant
April 2012 Wolverine Caucus Event Featuring Paul N. Courant
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April 2012 Wolverine Caucus Event Featuring Paul N. Courant

  1. 1. Libraries in the Age of Google Paul N. Courant Wolverine Caucus Lansing, MI 17 April 2012
  2. 2. Introduction:Revolutions in the Library
  3. 3. The LibraryImage  source:  UNC  School  of  Information  &  Library  Science  
  4. 4. What does theAcademic Library do? Supports scholarship - Provides relevant information/materials to students and faculty - Provides reliable, stable, approximately permanent access to the scholarly record and associated source material. Authentic and secure. Used to go together, now not so much.
  5. 5. Publication and Scholarship Ideas must be conveyed to qualify as ideas Books Polls Experiments Statistics Articles ReportsAnd without libraries, that which we know (knew) gets lost
  6. 6. ProgressYou can t make it or sustain it without alibraryIn fact, you can t do much without alibrary**I get to define do, much, and library
  7. 7. SharingThe Library is for Everyone -- Stephen Clark
  8. 8. Some economics of libraries You are here
  9. 9. What does this mean? Cost for libraries: relatively highCost for users:relatively low - Building - Infrastructure - Time - Maintenance - Research - Staff - Travel - Acquisitions - And so on...
  10. 10. Public GoodsSamuelson on public goods: Each individual s consumption of that good leads tono subtraction from any other individual s consumption ofthat good.Jefferson on information: Its peculiar character, too, is that no one possesses the less, because every other possesses the whole of it. Hewho receives an idea from me, receives instruction himselfwithout lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening me. Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of property.
  11. 11. Digitization can change it all You are here
  12. 12. Annual Cost of Storing a BookOpen Stack: $4.26High Density $ .86 (but not as usable)HathiTrust $ .15 (average)Big Potential Saving
  13. 13. A fact about our world Except  for  the  most   arcane  materials  and  users,  that  which  is  not   available  online  will   simply  not  be  read.  
  14. 14. Copyright
  15. 15. The goal of copyright promote  the   Progress  of  Science  and  the  useful  Arts,  by  securing  for   limited  times  to  Authors  and  Inventors  the  exclusive  right   to  their  respective  Writings  and  Discoveries  .  .  .     United  States  Constitution,  Article  I  The  original  requirements  for  gaining  copyright  protection  (i.e.,  registration,  publication,  &  limited  scope  and  endurance)  were  more  consistent  with   learning  and  promoting  access  than  with  promoting  property.  
  16. 16. Copyright  
  17. 17. The length of copyrightCopyright, the good old days: 14 years 14 years And you had to register Copyright today:Life of the author +70 years No registration required (unless you want to sue)
  18. 18. Copyrights between 55 and 75 years old that were still valuable in 1998Data  source:  Congressional  Research  Service,  Copyright  Term  Extension:  Estimating  the  Economic  Values  
  19. 19. The street value of copyright Out of print = 95%Plausibly in copyright: 66.6% Public Domain: 28.4% Unknown: 5% UM s print collection: 7.3 million volumes
  20. 20. Once upon a time, copying (aka printing) was expensive Now copying is cheap
  21. 21. Distributing copies was expensive Now, also cheap The business model no longer fits the business(es).
  22. 22. Cheap copying ought to helpPublication facilitates collaboration,standing on the shoulders of both giantsand the vertically challenged, which is thefundamental methodAnd new information technology greatlyreduces the cost of publication, improvingaccess across time and space . . . .
  23. 23. Google & HathiTrust
  24. 24. Google Books Project
  25. 25. Google SettlementAccess for our CampusPublic Benefits- Print Disabilities- Public Library Kiosks- Browsing in the BookstoreResearch CorpusCollection Management
  26. 26. Google Settlement ControversyMonopolyOrphan WorksPipe Dreams of Various Flavors- Nonprofits should & would have done it- Should have been public policyCurrent state of play
  27. 27. What s in HathiTrust? 10,110,821 total volumes 5,372,802 book titles 266,547 serial titles 3,538,787,350 pages 453 terabytes 120 miles 8,215 tons2,803,202 volumes (~28% of total) in the public domain
  28. 28. Language Distribution (1) The top 10 languages make up ~86% of all content. *As of June 13, 2011 30
  29. 29. Language Distribution (2) The next 40 languages make up ~13% of all content. 31 *As of June 13, 2011
  30. 30. The Future
  31. 31. ChallengesIntellectual property environmentTechnology and ScaleRising journal prices, especially in Science,Technology and MedicineProblem of preservation and future access withlicensingNew Responsibilities- Large data sets- Web 2.0 (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube)
  32. 32. OpportunitiesScholarship benefits from easy sharingWe are the information experts in theInformation Age, and hard problems requireexpertiseIf we can organize to cover costs, the sky isthe limitNo matter what, Michigan will be a leader
  33. 33. What to Do Revise the rights environment to exploit the technology Revise individual libraries missions to exploit the technology- Sharing and scale- Local layers on top- (cataloging as poster child) Digitize wherever possible, and use digital copies wherever appropriate and legal- Information to Artifact continuum Preserve and curate the old and the new (Display the treasures) Create Institutions to Support Collaboration
  34. 34. Two Futures
  35. 35. Thank youpnc@umich.edu
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