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Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management
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Use of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment in decision making: the case of Waste Management

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by Adriana Del Borghi …

by Adriana Del Borghi

Department of Civil Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental (DICCA), University of Genoa

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 USE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN DECISION MAKING: THE CASE OF WA S T E M A N A G E M E N T Adriana Del Borghi Department of Civil Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental (DICCA), University of Genoa Fiera di Genova_ Italy October, 30 2013 DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 2. Sustainable Development Team PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 Sustainable development of processes M.Del Borghi, P.Costamagna, A.Del Borghi, M.Gallo, C.Strazza Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), eco-design, environmental labels and certifications 1 kg M-Bi Loose Filler 100.00 % Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and climate change, environmental impact studies 1.05 kg M-Bi gran. PE 0.715 kg Amido patate 0.166 kg PVOH 23.55 % 1.96 kg Patate Solid waste, wastewater and air emissions treatments 0.9 MJ En.el. Italia media tensione 89.23 % 8.65 % 0.0246 kg KAS 1.68 % 0.000963 kg Active pesticide 3.18 % 36.53 % 2.29 MJ MJth gas energy 0.121 kg PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) 12.74 % 34.53 % 0.368 MJ MJth diesel tractor 2.27 % 10.77 % 1.05 p Trasp. PVOH (mare) 1.53 % 1.93 MJ En.el. Italia media tensione 23.13 % 2.83 tkm Transoceanic ship 1.53 % 0.121 kg Vinyl acetate 33.07 % Statistical analysis of process and environmental data Process simulation, fault detection in process plants through pattern recognition techniques CE.Si.S.P. (Interuniversity Centre for the Development of Product Sustainability) among University of Genoa (Administrative seat), Polytechnic of Turin, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies of Pisa www.cesisp.unige.it DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 3. Waste and the environment PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 The amount of waste we are creating is increasing. The nature of waste itself is changing. EU waste management policies aim to reduce the environmental and health impacts of waste. However, the increasing complexity of current waste management systems and the increasingly demanding environmental protection targets make it challenging to optimise waste management strategies and policies. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 4. The waste hierarchy PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 The Waste Framework Directive introduces a five-step waste hierarchy where prevention is the best option, followed by re-use, recycling and other forms of recovery, with disposal such as landfill as the last resort. EU waste legislation aims to move waste management up the waste hierarchy. More information: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/was te/legislation/index.htm DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 5. A life cycle approach PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 All products and services have environmental impacts, from the extraction of raw materials for their production to their manufacture, distribution, use and disposal. The new Waste Framework Directive has introduced the concept of life-cycle thinking into waste policies. A key goal is to avoid actions that shift negative impacts from one stage to another. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 6. Decision making tools PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 Decisions are made based on information of different kinds. Several tools have been developed to facilitate the inclusion of environmental aspects in decision-making on different levels. Which tool to use in a specific situation depends on the decision context. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) are both analytical tools applicable in process selection, decision making, design and optimisation. A recent survey showed that a considerable number of decision models and methodologies for the integration of lifecycle thinking and risk assessment into waste management have been developed for several waste streams and wastemanagement and treatment technologies. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 7. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 Life Cycle Assessment, ruled by ISO 14040 (2006), is an environmental management tool that enables quantification of environmental burdens and their potential impacts over the whole life cycle of a product, process or activity. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 8. Risk Assessment (RA) PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 Risk Assessment is a scientifically based process comprising four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 9. PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale LCA and RA Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 LCA and RA are two approaches often used separately for quantifying potential effects of products. LCA RA If the decision-making situation concerns a choice between different waste management options, such as recycling, incineration and landfilling To study certain substances within the waste system, e.g., for incineration plants LCA covers potential impacts throughout the life cycle and does not include local and specific impacts RA tool may complement the information provided as concerns issues such as compliance with legislation, product safety, site-specific decision making, prioritisation and evaluation of risk reduction measurements DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 10. Combining LCA and RA PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 The most common approach of combining LCA and RA is to include ecotoxicological and toxicological parameters in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) used in a LCA. Regulatory risk assessment and the impact assessment part of LCA use the same type of inherent properties data for the assessment of toxic impacts. In waste sector, the combined tools can be successfully applied in several ways with a special focus on human health. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 11. Life Cycle Impact Assessment PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 12. PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Communicating LCA and RA results Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 To be effective and efficient tools the approaches of LCA and RA needs to be harmonised. In the framework of Type III environmental labels (ISO 14025), (www.environdec.com), specific rules (PCR 2008:02, Product Category Rules) have been developed allowing the comparability of the environmental results in the whole life cycle of the studied waste management services. Common and harmonized calculation rules have been established in a participatory way to ensure that similar procedures are used for data collection and handling. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 13. System Boundaries PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 14. Conclusions PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 The Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) concept and quantitative tools such as LCA and RA can provide an informed and science-based support to a more environmentally sustainable decision-making in waste management. By using LCA and RA tools, decision-makers may get general advice on choice of waste management options, but they also gain knowledge regarding the aspects that may have a significant influence on the choice of alternative. Data and knowledge from RA are used as input to model the impact assessment of chemical substances of LCA or LCA can act as a strategic tool to prioritise the data to acquire and the risk assessments to perform. LCA and RA are often used separately, but an harmonisation of their approach and an integration into a common tool or approach that combines them is a strategic challenge to make more robust decisions possible. DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA
  • 15. PRESENTAZIONE CONGIUNTA DELLE ATTIVITA’ DI RICERCA DEI DIPARTIMENTI RICERCHE Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale Genova, 19 Dicembre 2012 www.cesisp.unige.it adry@unige.it @cesisp_GE @ADelBorghi DICCA Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica ed Ambientale UNIVERSITA’ DI GENOVA SCUOLA POLITECNICA Dipartimento di Scienza per l’Architettura DSA

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