Selective perception• Selective perception means that people focus on certain features of their environment to the exclusion of others. (De Mooij 2010 p50)
Perception: • The process by which each individual selects, organizes, and evaluates stimuli from the external environment to provide meaningful experiences for him- or herself. (Adler 1993 p63, in De Mooij 2010 p50)
Perception 6 Individual & Comm. tutorial 1
You probably all know howto look at this picture…
Why do things look asthey do?• Things are what they are: – Objective registrations of the physical world• Things are what our nerves tell us they are – Nerves are intermediaries between our brain and the environment• Things are what we are: – Perception is influenced by past experience, present attitudes and motivations 11
Schemata • A schema is a kind of mental template or framework, which we use to make sense of things. (Chandler 2006) 12
Neural association networksresult in mental schemata, thesecan be expressed in pictures:
Per ceptual patter ns (De Mooij 2010 p50-51)•Perceptual patterns are learnedand culturally determined.•We perceive what we expect toperceive.•You see what you want to see,and you don’t see what youcannot see because it does not fitwith your experience, your priorlearning.•We perceive things according toour cultural map.•We become confused whenthings appear to be different fromwhat we expected, and we maydraw the wrong conclusions.
PerceptualdistortionsA. Stereotyping: Category or class features become individual featuresB. Halo effects: attribute of a person or situation to overall impressionC. Projection: assignment of ones personal attributes to othersD. Self-fulfilling prophecy: create or find what you want to create or find 18
Perceptual distortion A):Stereotyping(De Mooij 2010 p51)• Stereotyping means mentally placing people in categories..
Perceptual distortion A):Stereotyping(De Mooij 2010 p51)• Stereotyping means mentally placing people in categories.• Advertising depends on the use of effective stereotypes because it must attract attention and create instant recognition.• Advertisement simplifies reality and thus has to use stereotypes.• Different cultures have different stereotypes of other cultures.
Perceptual distortion A):Stereotyping & Positioning• According to Ries & Trout (inventors of ‘positioning’) people define products/ brands/ people with seven associations.• Example: 1. Woman 2. Black 3. …• A person is put into a category within a split second.• It will take a lot of influencing energy to be categorized differently.
Perceptual distortion A):Stereotyping• One advantage of a stereotype is that it enables us to respond rapidly to situations because we may have had had a similar experience before.• One disadvantage is that it makes us ignore differences between individuals; therefore we think things about people that might not be true (i.e. make generalisations).
Perceptual distortion B):Halo effect (1) The halo effect is a cognitive bias whereby the perception of one trait (i.e. a characteristic of a person or object) is influenced by the perception of another trait (or several traits) of that person or object. An example would be judging a good-looking person as more intelligent.
Perceptual distortion B):Halo Effect (2)• Halo effects happen especially if the perceiver does not have enough information about all traits, so that he makes assumptions based on one or two prominent traits—these one or two prominent traits "overshadow" other traits
Perceptual distortion C): Projection• One "projects" ones own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires, and feelings onto someone else. 25
Image measurement model(Vos & Schoemaker) First free associations that respondent • Primary impression has towards Brand X. • Familiarity What is the relation of respondent with Brand X. WHAT characteristics do respondents • Perception attribute to Brand X. • Preference What are MOST IMPORTANT characteristics, according to respondents. • Position Position in relation to other brands, according to respondents. These stages are explained in the following slides.
Primary impression First free associations that respondent has towards Brand X.
Familiarity What is the relation of respondent with Brand X.• Never heard of Coke.• Seen ads for Coke.• Know some one who drinks Coke.• Have drunk Coke once.• Regular user.• Regular customer.
Perception WHAT characteristics do respondents attribute to Brand X.• Brown• Sparkling• Refreshing• Sweet• Makes me fat• Makes me look good while I drink it
Preference What are MOST IMPORTANT characteristics, according to respondents.1. Refreshing2. Makes me feel good while I drink it3. Sweet
Position Position in relation to other brands, according to respondents. Quality Price
Positioning Matrix vs. Perception Map• Position according to • Perception of target management. audience.• Inside-out. • Outside-in.
Perception• Differs from person to person, related to each person’s characteristics.• People often don’t understand each other due to different expectations related to different perceptions.• For example: management and target audience don’t understand each other. Both hold stereotypes of each other. Resulting in messages, products, services that do not meet expectations.