Corporate Story: (Riel 2007 p144)• A corporate story is a structured textual description that communicates the essence of the company to all stakeholders, helps strengthen the bonds that bind employees to the company, and successfully positions the company against rivals.• It is built up by identifying unique elements of the company, creating a plot that weaves them together, and presenting them in an appealing fashion.
Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 — December 18, 1978)• Who Says What In Which Channel To Whom With What Effect S x R effect Who Sender S Says what Message x In which Channel channel / medium To Whom Receiver R With what Effect Effect
Corporate branding strategies (Van Riel 2007 p123) High Medium Strong endorsement endorsement Agree onParent visibility Low Stand alone Weak endorsement Nick Leeson Low high Agree on Starting points
Endorse & storyhttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endorse ; 9 January 2012Verbendorse (third-person singular simple present endorses, present participle endorsing, simple past and past participle endorsed)• to support, to back, to give ones approval to, especially officially or by signature• To write ones signature on the back of a cheque when transferring it to a third party, or cashing it• To give or receive an endorsementEndorse:to support, to back, to give ones approval to,especially officially or by signature
Endorse & storyhttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endorse ; 9 January 2012Verbendorse (third-person singular simple present endorses, present participle endorsing, simple past and past participle endorsed)• to support, to back, to give ones approval to, especially officially or by signature• To write ones signature on the back of a cheque when transferring it to a third party, or cashing it• To give or receive an endorsement
Endorse & storyEndorse:to support, to back, to give ones approval to,especially officially or by signature• Stories are used to frame our understanding and to encourage individuals to want to become a part of the story itself and to identify with a brand and or its characters. (Fill 2011 p386)
Communication is aboutstorytelling• Content, message; x• Which characters play a role in this story? (Mother company, ING; CEO, Steve Jobs; etc.)• Who has the main role?• Does the brand have the main role?• Who are friends and enemies in this story?• Who endorses who?
Creating content &messages (free after Fill p397) 1. Examine the importance and characteristics of source credibility. 2. Explore the advantages and disadvantages of using spokespersons in message presentation. 3. Discuss the impact of user-generated content. 4. Examine ideas concerning message framing and storytelling. 5. Consider the characteristics of different types of message appeal. 6. Indicate how informational and transformational motives can be used as tactical tools in advertising.
1. Examine the importance and characteristics of source credibility.Characteristics of a source (Kelman 1961 in Fill 2011, p376):1.Level of perceived credibility: perceived objectivity & expertise2.Degree to which source is regarded attractive.3.Degree of power that source is believed to posses: ability to reward & punish.Answer these questions for:…
1. Examine the importance and characteristics of source credibility. (continued)Key components of source credibility(Fill 2011 p376)1. What is the level of perceived expertise (how much relevant knowledge the source is thought to hold)?2. What are the personal motives the source is believed to posses (what is the reason for the source to be involved)?3. What degree of trust can be placed in what the source says or does on behalf of the endorsement?
2. Explore the (dis)advantages of usingspokespersons in message presentation.Four main types of spokesperson (Fill p378-381): 1.Expert – 2. Celebrity3. Chief Executive Officer – 4. Consumer
3. Discuss the impact of user- generated content.• Other consumers can be credible spokespersons.• They can play an important role in the story and endorse the brand.• In our era of social media it is important to reserve a role for consumers.• Mass media present a story to consumers S–[x]->R • Explain how product/ brand should be perceived. • Roles: Sender OR Receiver. with social media consumers can play a role in the story. • Making sense together. • Roles in story: Participant , ‘dance partner’.
4. Examine ideas concerning message framing and storytelling. Categories of stories (Fill 2011 p386):Framing puts the 1.Myths & origins: How the companymessage/ brand/ started, how it overcame difficulties,product in a context. where it stands for.Communicationprofessionals thus try 2.Corporate prophecies: Predictionsto associate it with about organization’s future.happiness & avoidpain. 3.Hero stories: Employees etc. who overcame a dilemma. 4.Archived narratives: Changing names, merges, etc.
4. Examine ideas concerning message framing and storytelling. Categories of stories (Fill 2011 p386): 1.Myths & origins: How the company started, how it overcame difficulties, where it stands for.http://www.philips.com/about/company/histor 2.Corporate prophecies: Predictionsy/index.page about organization’s future.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImE8ZyoKUaQ 3.Hero stories: Employees etc. who overcame a dilemma. 4.Archived narratives: Changing names, merges, etc.
5. Consider the characteristics ofdifferent types of message appeal.• In Corporate Communication we mainly (but not only!) think inside-out: which story do we want to tell?• But storytelling will not be effective if the message is not appealing to the audience.=>Tension: – Need to transmit information versus – Need to appeal emotions
5. Consider the characteristics of different types of message appeal. Need to appeal emotions;Need to transmit information; Emotional & TransformationalInformational appeals appeals (Fill p388-392)• Factual • Fear• Slice of life • Humor• Demonstration • Animation• Comparative advertising • Sex • Music • Fantasy & surrealism = Form of the message.
6. Indicate how informational and transformational motives can be used as tactical tools in advertising. • The effect of the message is that a product/ brand is associated in the receiver’s brain with informational motives or transformational motives. • Motives make people move: buy a product etc. Transform to positive emotion:Reduce uncertainty/ fear/ • dull elated By providing lifestyle.negative emotion. • bored exitedBy providing product information. • apprehensive flattered = Content of the message.
Balance sender & receiverTension: Who organization is: – transmit information Current Corporate Identity versus versus – appeal emotions What receivers desire: Desired Corporate Identity Organization has to adapt to what receivers desire BUT Organization should maintain its own identity in order to remain recognizable and attractive for employees, investors, consumers etc. THEREFORE Organization needs a Sustainable Corporate Story
Reputation Platform (1)• Messaging content that managers want to convey in their corporate communication. (Van Riel 2007 p131)• Anchor for corporate communication (free after Van Riel 2007 p131)• “starting point” for more detailed descriptions of company’s strategic position and direction. (Van Riel 2007 p131)• “starting point” for the development of what Van Riel (2000) calls “sustainable corporate stories”. (Van Riel 2007 p131)
Reputation Platform (2)• The distinguishing characteristic of a reputation platform is that everyone recognizes the JUST DO IT company on the basis of Starting point: Action that platform. (Van Riel 2007 p132)• A reputation platform describes the root positioning that a company adopts when it presents itself to internal and external Starting point: Speed & Service observers.
Criteria for quality ofReputation Platform(Van Riel 2007 p136)Is the Reputation Platform1. Relevant2. Realistic Fill:3. Appealing Tension: transmit information versus appeal emotions
Corporate Story: (Riel 2007p144) no• l d be 07 shou ie A corporate story is a structuredy textual l 20 r ora te sto ords. (R description that communicates0 the essence of corp 0-60 w A good an 40 the company to allnstakeholders, helps lo ger t h strengthen the bonds) that bind employees to p146 the company, and successfully positions the company against rivals.• It is built up by identifying unique elements of the company, creating a plot that weaves them together, and presenting them in an appealing fashion.
Building Blocks of CorporateStories (Riel 2007 p145-146)• Unique elements• Similar to product USP: Unique Selling Points.• What makes this company different/ better/ more attractive thanothers?• According to management: “Starting Points” (Nike: Action). But is thisreally appealing for employees, consumers, investors etc.?• Unique plots• Who are actors & what are actions?• Rabo Bank: no investors therefore customers play main role.• Apple story = Steve Jobs story.• Unique presentation • Symbols : Visual Communication: Art • Communication : Textual Communication: Copy JUST DO IT
Visual & Textual Communication2D, 3D & experience
Visual & Textual Communication2D, 3D & experience
Elements of good CorporateStories (Riel 2007 p146)The story:• Introduces unique words to describe the company• Refers to the company’s unique history• Describes the company’s core strengths• Personalizes and humanizes the company• Provides a plot line• Addresses the concerns of multiple stakeholders
Creating CorporateStories (Riel 2007 p148-159)• Step 1: positioning the company• Step 2: linking the corporate story to the company’s identity• Step 3: linking the story to the company’s reputation• Step 4: plotting the story• Step 5: implementing the story• Step 6: monitoring the story’s effectiveness
Further reading• Riel, Cees van & Charles Fombrun (2007) Essentials of Corporate Communication, Routledge London – New York • Chapter 6 Developing a Reputation Platform (28 p’s)• Fill, Chris (2011) Essentials of Marketing Communications, Prentice Hall, Pearson • Chapter 15 Content: credibility, messages and creative approaches (22 p’s)