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Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg
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Justice in the Green Economy by Joachim Spangenberg

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  • 1. Global Management of Resource use Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Dept. Community Ecology, Halle, Germany Presentation at the European High-Level Conference on Rio +20: High- “Achieving Global Justice in the Green Economy” Brussels, March 15th 2012 Brussels,Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 2. The threat: Our resource consumption cannot be globalised because this would be environmentally and/or socially unsustainable and thus pose a risk for peace.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 3. Inhabitants with a per capita income above 200 US $/day consume most resources Inhabitants with a per capita income below 1 US $ a day (total: 3.5 billion) suffer from energy and resource poverty. This will not change as long as purchasing power decides about access.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 4. A Green Economy in the con- con- text of SD (improving well-being in an well- inclusive way, while respecting the planetary boundaries) promises not only a response to the multi- multi- crisis (climate, food, water, energy, . biodiversity, economy, social), but promises an escape from a development path which produced or permitted such crises to one proactively addressing and avoiding them. Will them.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07 it deliver??
  • 5. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It It contains within it two key concepts: …Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 6. (definition cont.) 1. The concept of “needs”, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given, and 2. The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organisation on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.” (WCED 1987, p.43) p.43)Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 7. Sustainable Development: the basic concepts are justice and limits: limits: No justice – no sustainability! sustainability!Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 8. Sustainable Development History Lessons: Four options for escaping the scarcity trap Three opt for an expansionist paradigm 1. · The imperial option 2. · The liberal option 3. · The engineering option One opts for an adaptation paradigm 4. · The political sustainability option incl. resource efficiency, consumption limits and social justice. Expansionist options have dominated in the past – and Europe (Raw Materials Strategy) and the NATO Member States seem prepared to try them again. The Resource Efficiency Strategy is a first step out of this trap.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 9. …including conservation of landscape, agriculture, beauty & biodiversityDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 10. Resource efficiency means less demand, less supply conflicts, similar services, less waste and pollution, and often more jobsDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 11. Innovative environmental technologies combining emission reduction and recycling are needed but not really new and insufficient. E.g.: Metal dust recovery system, enforced by regional kings „to avoid damage to neighbouring fields and grazing grounds”. Source: Agricola, G. (1556). De re metallicaDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 12. The biggest market failure ever: E.g. •in the producing industry, in average ½ of the total expenditure is for resources (3% for energy), 1/5 is for personnel. •20% of resource cost can be saved with a payback time of less than 1 year, another 20% pays out in less than 3 years. •The savings potential is equivalent to the total personnel costs, increasing productivity, profit and competitiveness. •On the macro level, an increase of energy and material efficiency by 20% would create up to 1 million new jobs in Germany.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 13. Besides innovation, ex-novation is urgently needed. EU companies sell unsustainable consumption and EU citizens benefit …Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 14. Market failures must be corrected The market lacks social sensitivity, dedication to development, environmental awareness and over all a long term view. For Development to be successful, Government must not serve the market, but complement it, providing social, developmental and environmental guard rails, and a long- long- term visionDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 15. Government is responsible for - distributional justice and social equality, - gender justice, equity and non- discrimination; - good work (minimum standards for work quality and salary levels, cooperation with business and trade unions); - poverty alleviation (hardly attractive for business) and inclusiveness; - compatibility with social, cultural and political valuesDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 16. A really Green Economy requires limitations ... … to certain activities, in order to allow replenishing of natural resources or natural capital, justice and social equality. The alternative is collapse (e.g. fisheries), and with it a complete loss of jobs. Green investments are generally more labour intensive, and can have direct effects for poverty reduction, in particular by improving the agro-productivity of rural smallholdersDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 17. But: for decreasing resource consumption, efficiency is not enough What we need is absolute decoupling of economic development and resource consumption, not a relative one with increasing emissions and waste generation. Rebound effect: The money saved through efficiency (win-win solutions) is spent, consuming resources and compensating (part of) the efficiency gains. Jevons‘ Paradox: Efficiency decreases the relative cost of a resource, generating incentives to use more of it, and it stimulates growth and thus resource use. ∑ Conclusion: Efficiency without skimming off (part of) the gains may lead to perverse outcomes.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 18. A really long way to go • from low tech low resource societies • via low tech high consumption and high tech high resources • to high tech low resource societies Local resources for local use support income & jobs but not world market & high tech production. Re-domesticate he money, keep it local not nationalDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 19. A Green Economy is not per se reaching the MDGs (a frequent illusion), but it offers opportunities to overcome the failures of past market radicalism (too much was deregulated trusting self-regulation) A regulation example: feed-in tariffs - strengthen local participation; - allow for community & coop - ownership; - has mobilised billions of private capital for restoring and protecting the public goodsDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 20. A Great Transition… … involves the emergence not only of a new economy, but also of a new society. We should shape it consciously, with justice a key orientation: with limits to growth, (re-) distribution becomes central. 5 P’s on/off the agenda Peace – what happened to the peace dividend? Power – where has empowerment gone (Ag. 21)? Planet – Resource efficiency is not enough People – social cohesion is crumbling Prosperity – for all, all profit for the few?Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 21. The best way to explore the future is to invent it. Do it. Sustainably.Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07
  • 22. Thank you for your attention For the presentation and other papers see http://seri.academia.edu/JoachimHSpangenberg Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Halle Joachim.Spangenberg@ufz.deDr. Joachim H. Spangenberg, Biodiversity and SPAC, Belgrade 9.10. 07

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