The Science of PsychologyBasicResearch: conducted to advance scientific knowledgeApplied Research: designed to solve practical problems
Is this an example of basic or applied research?
The Science of Psychology: Ethical GuidelinesEthical Guidelines for Human Research Participants: • Informed consent • Voluntary participation • Restricted use of deception • Debriefing • Confidentiality • Alternative activities
Research Methods Four key research methods: 1. Experimental 2. Descriptive 3. Correlational 4. Biological
Art of Prediction
Four Key Research Methods (Continued)1. Experimental Research: carefullycontrolled scientific procedure thatmanipulates variables to determinecause & effect
Research Methods— Experimental (Continued)Key features of an experiment: Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured) Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)
Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determine cause & effect.
Research Methods— Experimental (Continued) Potentialresearcher problems: Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction) Ethnocentrism (believing ones culture is typical of all cultures)
Research Methods— Experimental (Continued)Potential participant problems: Sample bias (research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population) Participant bias (research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions)
Research Methods— Descriptive2.Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations
Research Methods—Descriptive Three types of descriptive research: • Naturalistic Observation (observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat) • Survey (assessment of a sample or population) • Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant)
Pause & Reflect: Psychology at WorkWhat is the advantage of studyingpsychological research methodslike naturalistic observation?
Research Methods— Correlational3. Correlational Research: observes ormeasures (without directlymanipulating) two or more variablesto find relationships between them
Research Methods— Correlational Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction—either up or down
Research Methods— CorrelationalNegative Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction—either up or down
Research Methods— Correlational Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same)
Research Methods— Correlational
Research Methods—Biological 4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system