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Research methods
 

Research methods

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    Research methods Research methods Presentation Transcript

    • The Science of PsychologyBasicResearch: conducted to advance scientific knowledgeApplied Research: designed to solve practical problems
    •  Is this an example of basic or applied research?
    • The Science of Psychology: Ethical GuidelinesEthical Guidelines for Human Research Participants: • Informed consent • Voluntary participation • Restricted use of deception • Debriefing • Confidentiality • Alternative activities
    • Research Methods Four key research methods: 1. Experimental 2. Descriptive 3. Correlational 4. Biological
    • Art of Prediction
    • Four Key Research Methods (Continued)1. Experimental Research: carefullycontrolled scientific procedure thatmanipulates variables to determinecause & effect
    • Research Methods— Experimental (Continued)Key features of an experiment:  Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured)  Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)
    • Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determine cause & effect.
    • Research Methods— Experimental (Continued) Potentialresearcher problems:  Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction)  Ethnocentrism (believing ones culture is typical of all cultures)
    • Research Methods— Experimental (Continued)Potential participant problems: Sample bias (research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population) Participant bias (research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions)
    • Research Methods— Descriptive2.Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations
    • Research Methods—Descriptive Three types of descriptive research: • Naturalistic Observation (observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat) • Survey (assessment of a sample or population) • Case Study (in-depth study of a single participant)
    • Pause & Reflect: Psychology at WorkWhat is the advantage of studyingpsychological research methodslike naturalistic observation?
    • Research Methods— Correlational3. Correlational Research: observes ormeasures (without directlymanipulating) two or more variablesto find relationships between them
    • Research Methods— Correlational Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction—either up or down
    • Research Methods— CorrelationalNegative Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction—either up or down
    • Research Methods— Correlational Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same)
    • Research Methods— Correlational
    • Research Methods—Biological 4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system