Linguis'c	
  landscape:	
  New	
  contexts,	
  
competencies,	
  and	
  direc'ons	
  for	
  the	
  
language	
  classroom	...
Linguis'c	
  what?	
  
April	
  23,	
  2014:	
  hNp://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/chinese-­‐only-­‐sign-­‐reignites-­‐language-­‐debate-­‐in-­‐richmond...
January	
  10,	
  2004:	
  hNp://www.ny'mes.com/2004/01/10/nyregion/ethnic-­‐fric'on-­‐over-­‐signs-­‐that-­‐lack-­‐transl...
August	
  14,	
  2007:	
  hNp://www.nydailynews.com/new-­‐york/queens/give-­‐sign-­‐ar'cle-­‐1.235771	
  
“Women’s”	
  and	
  “Men’s”	
  restrooms	
  at	
  a	
  park	
  outside	
  Seoul,	
  Korea,	
  2004	
  
“Drug	
  Free	
  Zone”,	
  Berkeley,	
  CA,	
  2004	
  
“Cultured	
  Ci'zens	
  Pass	
  on	
  the	
  Le`”	
  –	
  stairs	
  in	
  a	
  Seoul	
  subway	
  sta'on,	
  2007	
  
“Namu	
  reul	
  Sarang	
  Hapsida”	
  –	
  on	
  a	
  walking	
  path	
  in	
  Dongdaemun,	
  Seoul,	
  2004	
  
Berkeley,	
  CA	
  ,	
  2012	
  
Some	
  ques'ons	
  to	
  begin	
  with	
  
•  Who	
  is	
  speaking	
  to	
  whom	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  all	
  
aro...
Outline	
  for	
  today	
  
1.  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
2.  Some	
  standards	
  and	...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  
(studies)	
  
	
  
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
defini'ons	
  
“The	
  language	
  of	
  public	
  ...
"we	
  argue	
  for	
  an	
  approach	
  to	
  language	
  from	
  the	
  
vantage	
  point	
  of	
  the	
  social	
  circ...
 Urban	
  sociolinguis'cs 	
  Globaliza'on	
  and	
  transna'onal	
  	
  
(strong	
  Fr.	
  tradi'on) 	
   	
  flows	
  of	...
•  	
  LL	
  as	
  an	
  “independent	
  variable”	
  
•  “…the	
  presence	
  or	
  absence	
  of	
  rival	
  languages	
...
We	
  do	
  things	
  with	
  language,	
  produce	
  effects	
  
with	
  language,	
  and	
  we	
  do	
  things	
  to	
  l...
We	
  do	
  things	
  with	
  signs,	
  produce	
  effects	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
with	
  signs,	
  and	
  we	
  do	
 ...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  LL	
  contexts,	
  issues,	
  ques'ons:	
  The...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  LL	
  contexts,	
  issues,	
  ques'ons:	
  The...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  LL	
  contexts,	
  issues,	
  ques'ons:	
  The...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Christopher	
  Stroud	
  and	
  Zannie	
  Boc...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Christopher	
  Stroud	
  and	
  Zannie	
  Boc...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Christopher	
  Stroud	
  and	
  Zannie	
  Boc...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Tedros	
  Weldemichael	
  (University	
  of	
...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Jackie	
  Jia	
  Lou	
  (City	
  University	
...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Jackie	
  Jia	
  Lou	
  (City	
  University	
...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Guy	
  Puzey	
  (University	
  of	
  Edinburg...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Guy	
  Puzey	
  (University	
  of	
  Edinburg...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Jabulani	
  Donga	
  (North	
  West	
  Univer...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Jabulani	
  Donga	
  (North	
  West	
  Univer...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Quen'n	
  Williams	
  (University	
  of	
  We...
1.	
  Introduc'on	
  to	
  Linguis'c	
  Landscape	
  (studies)	
  
	
  
	
  
Quen'n	
  Williams	
  (University	
  of	
  We...
Ethnographic	
  
Inves'ga'ons	
  into	
  	
  
bilingual	
  authorship	
  	
  
and	
  viewing	
  prac'ces	
  
in	
  contest...
•  What is the symbolic and political
significance of bilingualism and
multilingualism in the lingusitic landscape?
•  What is the symbolic and political
significance of bilingualism and
multilingualism in the lingusitic landscape?
•  Who...
•  Use ethnographic methods to engage
with issue of code choice and
authorship in the LL
•  Use ethnographic methods to engage with
issue of code choice and authorship in the
LL
•  Findings suggest a view of the...
 
“linguis'c”	
  landscape?	
  
	
  
…we	
  are	
  keen	
  to	
  emphasize	
  the	
  way	
  wriNen	
  discourse	
  interac...
 
linguis'c	
  “landscape”?	
  
	
  
Landscape,	
  we	
  suggest,	
  doesn’t	
  merely	
  signify	
  or	
  symbolize	
  
p...
 
Is	
  LL	
  a	
  field?	
  And	
  if	
  so,	
  what	
  are	
  its	
  limits?	
  
	
  
Whatever	
  we	
  call	
  it,	
  is...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  	
  
LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
beginning	
  li...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
linguis'c	
  an...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
mul'modal	
  li...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
ACTFL	
  Na'ona...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
translingual,	
...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
translingual,	
...
2.	
  Some	
  standards	
  and	
  competencies	
  for	
  LL	
  in	
  the	
  language	
  classroom	
  
	
  
interdisciplina...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  	
  
in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
EFL	
  contexts:	
  Sayer	
  (2010)	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
EFL	
  contexts:	
  Sayer	
  (2010)	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
L2	
  context:	
  Dagenais	
  et	
  ...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
Dagenais	
  et	
  al.	
  (2009)	
  a...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
Innova'on	
  in	
  LL	
  concept	
  ...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
my	
  classroom	
  experience	
  (I)...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
Culture	
  in	
  Place:	
  Korean-­‐...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
	
  
UC	
  Berkeley	
  -­‐	
  Suwon	...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
my	
  classroom	
  experience	
  (II...
3.	
  Examples	
  of	
  linguis'c	
  landscape	
  in	
  teaching	
  contexts	
  
	
  
EALANG	
  39:	
  Reading	
  the	
  M...
4.	
  LL-­‐inspired	
  ac'vi'es,	
  resources,	
  and	
  possible	
  	
  
areas	
  for	
  collabora'on	
  
4.	
  LL-­‐inspired	
  ac'vi'es,	
  resources,	
  and	
  possible	
  areas	
  for	
  collabora'on	
  
•  Linguis'c	
  Land...
4.	
  LL-­‐inspired	
  ac'vi'es,	
  resources,	
  and	
  possible	
  areas	
  for	
  collabora'on	
  
Network	
  for	
  LL...
references	
  
	
  	
  
•  Barni,	
  M.,	
  &	
  Bagna,	
  C.	
  (2009).	
  A	
  mapping	
  technique	
  and	
  the	
  lin...
Thank	
  you!	
  	
  
감사합니다	
  
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"
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David Malinowski "Linguistic Landscape: New Contexts, Competencies, and Directions for the Language Classroom"

  1. 1. Linguis'c  landscape:  New  contexts,   competencies,  and  direc'ons  for  the   language  classroom   Columbia  University  Language  Resource  Center   May  2,  2014     David  Malinowski   Yale  Center  for  Language  Study   david.malinowski@yale.edu    
  2. 2. Linguis'c  what?  
  3. 3. April  23,  2014:  hNp://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/chinese-­‐only-­‐sign-­‐reignites-­‐language-­‐debate-­‐in-­‐richmond-­‐b-­‐c-­‐1.1788427  
  4. 4. January  10,  2004:  hNp://www.ny'mes.com/2004/01/10/nyregion/ethnic-­‐fric'on-­‐over-­‐signs-­‐that-­‐lack-­‐transla'ons.html  
  5. 5. August  14,  2007:  hNp://www.nydailynews.com/new-­‐york/queens/give-­‐sign-­‐ar'cle-­‐1.235771  
  6. 6. “Women’s”  and  “Men’s”  restrooms  at  a  park  outside  Seoul,  Korea,  2004  
  7. 7. “Drug  Free  Zone”,  Berkeley,  CA,  2004  
  8. 8. “Cultured  Ci'zens  Pass  on  the  Le`”  –  stairs  in  a  Seoul  subway  sta'on,  2007  
  9. 9. “Namu  reul  Sarang  Hapsida”  –  on  a  walking  path  in  Dongdaemun,  Seoul,  2004  
  10. 10. Berkeley,  CA  ,  2012  
  11. 11. Some  ques'ons  to  begin  with   •  Who  is  speaking  to  whom  in  the  language  all   around  us,  and  what  exactly  are  they  saying?   •  Who  has  the  right  to  write  in  public?  Where,   when,  and  how?   •  Who  is  included,  and  who  is  excluded,  from   representa'on  in  public  space?  (esp.  w/   reference  to  mul'lingual  spaces)   •  What  can  be  done  about  it?  
  12. 12. Outline  for  today   1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)   2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in   the  language  classroom   3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching   contexts   4.  LL-­‐inspired  ac'vi'es,  resources,  and  possible   areas  for  collabora'on  
  13. 13. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape   (studies)    
  14. 14. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     defini'ons   “The  language  of  public  road  signs,  adver'sing   billboards,  street  names,  place  names,   commercial  shop  signs,  and  public  signs  on   government  building  combines  to  form  the   linguis'c  landscape  of  a  given  territory,  region   or  urban  agglomera'on”     Landry  &  Bourhis  (1997)  
  15. 15. "we  argue  for  an  approach  to  language  from  the   vantage  point  of  the  social  circula'on  of  languages   across  spaces  and  different  semio'c  ar'facts"       “aNen'on  needs  to  be  paid  to  how  constructs  of   space  are  constrained  by  material  condi'ons  of   produc'on,  and  informed  by  associated   phenomenological  sensibili'es  of  mobility  and   gaze.”       Stroud  &  Mpendukana  (2009)       1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     defini'ons  
  16. 16.  Urban  sociolinguis'cs  Globaliza'on  and  transna'onal     (strong  Fr.  tradi'on)    flows  of  people,  products,  info                Language  policy   Urban  studies          Language  planning   Cultural  geography              Environmental   Mul'modal,  spa'al,          psychology   material  “turns”  in  social   theory  &  discourse  studies    Prolifera'on  of  image,            geospa'al  technologies   1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     some  origins  
  17. 17. •   LL  as  an  “independent  variable”   •  “…the  presence  or  absence  of  rival  languages  in   specific  domains  of  the  linguis'c  landscape  can   come  to  symbolize  the  strength  or  weakness  of   compe'ng  ethnolinguis'c  groups  in  the   intergroup  seqng.  Exclusion  of  the  in-­‐group   language  from  public  signs  can  convey  a  message   to  the  effect  that  one’s  own  language  is  not   valued  and  has  liNle  status  within   society”  (Landry  and  Bourhis,  1997,  p.  28).     1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     consequence  
  18. 18. We  do  things  with  language,  produce  effects   with  language,  and  we  do  things  to  language,   but  language  is  also  the  thing  that  we  do.   Language  is  a  name  for  our  doing:  both  “what”   we  do  (the  name  for  the  ac'on  that  we   characteris'cally  perform)  and  that  which  we   effect,  the  act  and  its  consequences.     (Butler,  1997,  on  the  agency  of  language)     1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     consequence  
  19. 19. We  do  things  with  signs,  produce  effects               with  signs,  and  we  do  things  to  signs,                               but  signs  are  also  the  thing  that  we  do.                   Signs  are  a  name  for  our  doing:  both  “what”  we   do  (the  name  for  the  ac'on  that  we   characteris'cally  perform)  and  that  which  we   effect,  the  act  and  its  consequences.       1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     consequence  
  20. 20. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)      LL  contexts,  issues,  ques'ons:  The     LL6  workshop,  Cape  Town  (April  9-­‐11,  2014)       Workshop  website:  hNp://www.linguis'clandscapes6.co.za/    
  21. 21. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)      LL  contexts,  issues,  ques'ons:  The     LL6  workshop,  Cape  Town  (April  9-­‐11,  2014)       Workshop  website:  hNp://www.linguis'clandscapes6.co.za/    
  22. 22. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)      LL  contexts,  issues,  ques'ons:  The     LL6  workshop,  Cape  Town  (April  9-­‐11,  2014)       Workshop  website:  hNp://www.linguis'clandscapes6.co.za/    
  23. 23. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Christopher  Stroud  and  Zannie  Bock  (University  of  the  Western  Cape),     “Zombi  landscapes:  Representa'ons  of  apartheid  in  the  discourses     of  young  South  Africans”      
  24. 24. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Christopher  Stroud  and  Zannie  Bock  (University  of  the  Western  Cape),     “Zombi  landscapes:  Representa'ons  of  apartheid  in  the  discourses     of  young  South  Africans”      
  25. 25. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Christopher  Stroud  and  Zannie  Bock  (University  of  the  Western  Cape),     “Zombi  landscapes:  Representa'ons  of  apartheid  in  the  discourses     of  young  South  Africans”      
  26. 26. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Tedros  Weldemichael  (University  of  the  Western  Cape),     "Signs  of  hope  in  the  linguis'c  landscape  of  Asmara"    
  27. 27. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Jackie  Jia  Lou  (City  University  of  Hong  Kong),     “Naviga'ng  linguis'c  landscape:  A  par'cipatory  visual  ethnography     of  a  gentrifying  neighborhood  in  urban  Hong  Kong”  
  28. 28. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Jackie  Jia  Lou  (City  University  of  Hong  Kong),     “Naviga'ng  linguis'c  landscape:  A  par'cipatory  visual  ethnography     of  a  gentrifying  neighborhood  in  urban  Hong  Kong”  
  29. 29. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Guy  Puzey  (University  of  Edinburgh),     “Exploring  linguis'c  (in)tolerance  through  the     linguis'c  landscapes  of  Norway  and  Scotland"  
  30. 30. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Guy  Puzey  (University  of  Edinburgh),     “Exploring  linguis'c  (in)tolerance  through  the     linguis'c  landscapes  of  Norway  and  Scotland"  
  31. 31. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Jabulani  Donga  (North  West  University),     “The  1369  lights  from  monopolated  light  and  power:     Migrant-­‐semio'cs  from  Gauteng”    
  32. 32. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Jabulani  Donga  (North  West  University),     “The  1369  lights  from  monopolated  light  and  power:     Migrant-­‐semio'cs  from  Gauteng”    
  33. 33. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Quen'n  Williams  (University  of  Western  Cape)  response,     “Linguis'c  ci'zenship  and  linguis'c  landscape  studies:     Representa'ons  of  agency  and  voice"    
  34. 34. 1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)       Quen'n  Williams  (University  of  Western  Cape)  response,     “Linguis'c  ci'zenship  and  linguis'c  landscape  studies:     Representa'ons  of  agency  and  voice"    
  35. 35. Ethnographic   Inves'ga'ons  into     bilingual  authorship     and  viewing  prac'ces   in  contested  spaces   -­‐  Oakland,  2003-­‐5   -­‐  Seoul,  2006-­‐7     Malinowski  (2009,  2010)   1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     my  research  projects  
  36. 36. •  What is the symbolic and political significance of bilingualism and multilingualism in the lingusitic landscape?
  37. 37. •  What is the symbolic and political significance of bilingualism and multilingualism in the lingusitic landscape? •  Who is responsible for these meanings? How do we understand authorship in the linguistic landscape?
  38. 38. •  Use ethnographic methods to engage with issue of code choice and authorship in the LL
  39. 39. •  Use ethnographic methods to engage with issue of code choice and authorship in the LL •  Findings suggest a view of the‘author’ of signs as a complex, dispersed entity who is only somewhat in control of the meanings that arise from what s/he produces.
  40. 40.   “linguis'c”  landscape?     …we  are  keen  to  emphasize  the  way  wriNen  discourse  interacts   with  other  discursive  modali'es:  visual  images,  nonverbal   communica'on,  architecture  and  the  built  environment.  For  this   reason,  ‘linguis'c’  is  only  one,  albeit  extremely  important,   element  for  the  construc'on  and  interpreta'on  of  place”       Jaworski  &  Thurlow,  2010,  p.  2     1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     cri'ques  
  41. 41.   linguis'c  “landscape”?     Landscape,  we  suggest,  doesn’t  merely  signify  or  symbolize   power  rela'ons;  it  is  an  instrument  of  cultural  power,  perhaps   even  an  agent  of  power  that  is  (or  frequently  represents  itself   as)  independent  of  human  inten'ons.     Mitchell,  1994,  p.  1-­‐2     1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     cri'ques  
  42. 42.   Is  LL  a  field?  And  if  so,  what  are  its  limits?     Whatever  we  call  it,  is  linguis'c  landscape  a  phenomenon  calling   for  a  theory,  or  simply  a  collec'on  of  somewhat  disparate   methodologies  for  studying  the  nature  of  public  wriNen  signs?       Spolsky,  2009,  p.  25     1.  Introduc'on  to  Linguis'c  Landscape  (studies)     cri'ques  
  43. 43. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for     LL  in  the  language  classroom  
  44. 44. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     beginning  literacy  and  vocabulary  
  45. 45. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     linguis'c  and  pragma'c  competence   •  Public  language  is  “authen'c,  contextualized  input   which  is  part  of  the  social  context”     •  LL  claimed  to  enhance  students’  sensi'vity  to   connota'onal  values  of  language   •  Incidental  language  learning   See,  for  instance,  Gorter  &  Cenoz  (2008);  Rowland  (2012)    
  46. 46. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     mul'modal  literacies   •  “different  aspects  of  meaning  are  carried  in   different  ways  by  each  mode”  (JewiN  and  Kress,   2003,  p.  3)   •  New  London  Group  (1996)  iden'fies  Linguis'c,   Audio,  Visual,  Gestural,  Spa'al,  and  Mul'modal   Design  as  dis'nct  and  interrelated  meaning-­‐ making  processes    
  47. 47. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     ACTFL  Na'onal  Standards  for     Foreign  Language  Educa'on   The  5  C’s  in  context  of  mul'lingual  texts,  neighborhoods:     •  Connec'ons  (“Students  reinforce  and  further  their   knowledge  of  other  disciplines  through  the  foreign   language”);     •  Comparisons  (“Students  demonstrate  understanding  of   the  nature  of  language/the  concept  of  culture  through   comparisons  of  the  language  and  cultures  studied  and   their  own”);     •  Communi'es  (“Students  use  the  language  both  within   and  beyond  the  school  seqng”)  
  48. 48. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     translingual,  transcultural  competence   •  The  LL  “signals  what  languages  are  prominent  and   valued  in  public  and  private  spaces  and  indexes   the  social  posi'oning  of  people  who  iden'fy  with   par'cular  languages  (Dagenais  et  al.,  2009,  p.  254)   •  Language  learners  should  be  led  toward  the  ability   to  “operate  between  languages”  and  cul'vate   heightened  symbolic  awareness  (Modern   Language  Associa'on,  2007)    
  49. 49. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     translingual,  transcultural  competence   •  Ideological  posi'oning  of  self  and  other  with  code   choice:  “[Students]  learn  to  comprehend  speakers   of  the  target  language  as  members  of  foreign   socie'es  and  to  grasp  themselves  as  Americans— that  is,  as  members  of  a  society  that  is  foreign  to   others”  (MLA,  2007)  
  50. 50. 2.  Some  standards  and  competencies  for  LL  in  the  language  classroom     interdisciplinary  learning  and     the  language  classroom   •  Intersec'ng,  source  fields:  linguis'cs,  geography,   educa'on,  sociology,  poli'cal  science,  environmental   studies,  semio'cs,  communica'on,  architecture,   urban  planning,  literacy,  applied  linguis'cs,  economics   (cf.  Shohamy  and  Gorter,  2009,  p.  1)   •  Ethnographic  and  other  research  methods:  students   use  signs  as  “'ps  of  icebergs”  to  “a  deeper  and  more   complex  meaning  which  is  embedded  in  histories,   cultural  rela'ons,  poli'cs  and  humanis'c  inter-­‐ rela'ons”  (Shohamy  &  Waksman,  2009)   •  “Is  it  possible  to  define  the  work  of  faculty  in  ways   that  reflect  more  realis'cally  the  full  range  of   academic  and  civic  mandates?”  (Boyer,  1990)  
  51. 51. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape     in  teaching  contexts  
  52. 52. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     EFL  contexts:  Sayer  (2010)  in  Oaxaca,   Mexico;  Rowland  (2012)  in  Chiba,  Japan     Prompt:  “Why  is  English  so  prevalent  around   you,  and  why  is  it  there?”     •  Students  photograph  instances  of  TL  in  everyday   environments   •  Print,  discuss,  and  classify  photos  according  to   “purpose”  of  TL  
  53. 53. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     EFL  contexts:  Sayer  (2010)  in  Oaxaca,   Mexico;  Rowland  (2012)  in  Chiba,  Japan     ‘Helping’  ques'ons   •  What  type  of  sign  is  it?     •  Where  is  the  sign  located?     •  Who  made  the  sign?   •  Who  is  the  intended  audience  of  the  sign?     •  Why  do  you  think  English  is  used  on  the  sign?     •  Why  do  you  think  Japanese  is  not  used  in  place  of   English  on  the  sign?  (see  Rowland,  2012,  p.  498)  
  54. 54. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     L2  context:  Dagenais  et  al.  (2009)   •  LL  as  site  for  cri'cal  pedagogies—“literacy   ac'vi'es  that  encourage  children  to   interrogate  texts  in  terms  of  issues  of  power   and  privilege”  (p.  256)   •  Elementary  school  Ss  with  high  %  of  non-­‐ English/French  L1s  in  Montreal,  Quebec  and   Vancouver,  Bri'sh  Columbia,  led  to  analyze   the  “prominence”  and  “value”  of  languages  in   public  and  private  spaces.    
  55. 55. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     Dagenais  et  al.  (2009)  ac'vi'es   •  Neighborhood  descrip'ons  and  exchange  of  narra've  texts  with   partner  schools  in  other  ci'es/regions   •  Drawings  of  familiar  or  favorite  places  and  elicita'on  by  T  of   languages  seen,  heard  in  these  places   •  Students’  examina'on  of  corpus  of  LL  photos  compiled  by   teacher/researchers   •  Walking,  observa'on,  note-­‐taking  on  “three  dimensions  of  the   LL  that  include  the  geographical,  the  sociological,  and  the   linguis'c  aspects  of  the  geosemio'c  system”  and  chart  these   using  X-­‐Y  coordinate  system   •  Students’  own  neighborhood  photography,  documenta'on  of   linguis'c  diversity   •  Hand-­‐drawn  mapping  ac'vi'es   •  Discussion,  wri'ng  ac'vi'es  on  ques'ons  of  legi'macy  and   illegi'macy,  power  and  representa'on  in  neighborhood  spaces  
  56. 56. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     Innova'on  in  LL  concept  &  method  as   “immanent  pedagogies”   •  Dell  Hymes’  SPEAKING  mnemonic  adapted  to  LL  studies:  S   =  seqng  or  scene;  P  =  par'cipants;  E  =  ends;  A  =  act   sequences;  K  =  key;  I  =  instrumentali'es;  N  =  norms;  G  =   genre  (Huebner,  2009)   •  Mapping  language  contact  and  change  in  mul'cultural   contexts  through  “synchronous  and  diachronous   surveying,”  geo-­‐referencing,  detailed  classifica'on  and   annota'on  of  “linguis'c  traces”  (Barni  and  Bagna,  2009).     •  Accompanied  walking  tours  with  study  par'cipants  in   order  to  access  the  “cogni've  and  emo'onal  verbal   responses  elicited  and  triggered  by  close  physical   proximity  and  explicit  reference  to  [‘migrant  cityscaping’   in]  the  LL”  (Garvin,  2010,  p.  254).  
  57. 57. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     my  classroom  experience  (I)   Culture  in  Place:  UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  58. 58. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     Culture  in  Place:  Korean-­‐English  LL  telecollabora'on    Goals   •  Foster  learns’  abili'es  to  read  and  discuss  how   linguis'c,  cultural,  and  social  meanings  are   cons'tuted  in  mul'ple  modes  through  signs   •  Develop  learners’  fluency  across  languages  as   they  interact  with  fluent  speakers   •  Create  a  context  for  mo'va'on  as  language  is   linked  to  real  places  and  ac'vi'es  in  the  TL  
  59. 59. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  60. 60. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  61. 61. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  62. 62. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  63. 63. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  64. 64. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  65. 65. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  66. 66. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts       UC  Berkeley  -­‐  Suwon  U.  Korean-­‐English  telecollabora'on  (2005)    
  67. 67. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     my  classroom  experience  (II)  
  68. 68. 3.  Examples  of  linguis'c  landscape  in  teaching  contexts     EALANG  39:  Reading  the  Mul'lingual  City  
  69. 69. 4.  LL-­‐inspired  ac'vi'es,  resources,  and  possible     areas  for  collabora'on  
  70. 70. 4.  LL-­‐inspired  ac'vi'es,  resources,  and  possible  areas  for  collabora'on   •  Linguis'c  Landscape  2015  workshop:  UC  Berkeley,  May   7-­‐9     •  Zotero  Group  bibliography  run  by  Rob  Troyer,  Western   Oregon  University:   hNps://www.zotero.org/groups/ linguis'c_landscape_bibliography   •  Diigo  (social  bookmarking)  group*  for  sharing  web   content,  set  up  yesterday:   hNps://groups.diigo.com/group/linguis'clandscape   (*brand  new!)   •  Flickr  “Linguis'c  Landscape”  group:   hNps://www.flickr.com/groups/linguis'clandscape/    
  71. 71. 4.  LL-­‐inspired  ac'vi'es,  resources,  and  possible  areas  for  collabora'on   Network  for  LL  as  pedagogical  resource?     –  Collabora've  image  collec'on,  annota'on,  discussion   –  Lesson  plan  database   –  Joint  field  trips,  projects   –  Telecollabora've  partnerships  w/  other  language  classes   –  Cross-­‐disciplinary  partnerships  w/  other  departments,   programs   •  Visual  and  performing  arts,  photography,  sculpture  (murals  etc.)   •  City  and  regional  planning,  involvement  in  language  policy  issues   •  Immigrant  and  refugee  support  services   •  Other  areas  of  engaged  scholarship,  community-­‐based  learning  
  72. 72. references       •  Barni,  M.,  &  Bagna,  C.  (2009).  A  mapping  technique  and  the  linguis'c  landscape.  In  Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the  scenery  (pp.  126–140).  New  York:   Routledge.   •  Dagenais,  D.,  Moore,  D.,  Saba'er,  C.,  Lamarre,  P.,  &  Armand,  F.  (2009).  Linguis'c  landscape  and  language  awareness.  In  E.  Shohamy  &  D.  Gorter  (Eds.),   Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the  scenery  (pp.  253–269).  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Garvin,  R.  T.  (2010).  Responses  to  the  linguis'c  landscape  in  Memphis,  Tennessee:  An  urban  space  in  transi'on.  In  E.  Shohamy,  E.  Ben-­‐Rafael,  &  M.  Barni   (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape  in  the  city  (pp.  252–271).  Bristol,  UK:  Mul'lingual  MaNers.   •  Cenoz,  J.,  &  Gorter,  D.  (2008).  The  linguis'c  landscape  as  an  addi'onal  source  of  input  in  second  language  acquisi'on.  IRAL  -­‐  Interna'onal  Review  of  Applied   Linguis'cs  in  Language  Teaching,  46(3),  267–287.   •  Huebner,  T.  (2009).  A  framework  for  the  linguis'c  analysis  of  linguis'c  landscapes.  In  E.  Shohamy  &  D.  Gorter  (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the   scenery  (pp.  70–87).  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Jaworski,  A.,  &  Thurlow,  C.  (Eds.).  (2010).  Semio'c  landscapes:  Language,  image,  space.  London  &  New  York:  Con'nuum.   •  JewiN,  C.,  &  Kress,  G.  R.  (2003).  Mul'modal  literacy.  New  York:  P.  Lang.   •  Landry,  R.,  &  Bourhis,  R.  Y.  (1997).  Linguis'c  Landscape  and  Ethnolinguis'c  Vitality.  Journal  of  Language  and  Social  Psychology,  16(1),  23–49.     •  Malinowski,  D.  (2009).  Authorship  in  the  linguis'c  landscape:  A  mul'modal-­‐performa've  view.  In  E.  Shohamy  &  D.  Gorter  (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape:   Expanding  the  scenery  (pp.  107–125).  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Malinowski,  D.  (2010).  Showing  seeing  in  the  Korean  linguis'c  cityscape.  In  E.  Shohamy,  E.  Ben-­‐Rafael,  &  M.  Barni  (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape  in  the  city  (pp.   199–215).  Bristol,  UK:  Mul'lingual  MaNers.   •  Mitchell,  W.  J.  T.  (1994).  Landscape  and  power.  Chicago:  University  of  Chicago  Press.   •  MLA  (Modern  Language  Associa'on;  Ad  Hoc  CommiNee  on  Foreign  Languages).  (2007).  Foreign  languages  and  higher  educa'on:  New  structures  for  a   changed  world.  New  York:  Modern  Language  Associa'on.  Retrieved  from  hNp://www.mla.org/flreport   •  New  London  Group.  (1996).  A  pedagogy  of  mul'literacies:  Designing  social  futures.  Harvard  Educa'onal  Review,  66(1),  60–92.   •  Rowland,  L.  (2012).  The  pedagogical  benefits  of  a  linguis'c  landscape  project  in  Japan.  Interna'onal  Journal  of  Bilingual  Educa'on  and  Bilingualism,  1–12.     •  Sayer,  P.  (2009).  Using  the  Linguis'c  Landscape  as  a  Pedagogical  Resource.  ELT  Journal.     •  Shohamy,  E.,  &  Gorter,  D.  (Eds.).  (2009).  Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the  scenery.  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Shohamy,  E.,  &  Waksman,  S.  (2009).  Linguis'c  landscape  as  an  ecological  arena:  Modali'es,  meanings,  nego'a'ons,  educa'on.  In  E.  Shohamy  &  D.  Gorter   (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the  scenery  (pp.  313–330).  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Spolsky,  B.  (2009).  Prolegomena  to  a  sociolinguis'c  theory  of  public  signage.  In  E.  Shohamy  &  D.  Gorter  (Eds.),  Linguis'c  landscape:  Expanding  the  scenery   (pp.  25–39).  New  York:  Routledge.   •  Stroud,  C.,  &  Mpendukana,  S.  (2009).  Towards  a  material  ethnography  of  linguis'c  landscape:  Mul'lingualism,  mobility  and  space  in  a  South  African   township1.  Journal  of  Sociolinguis'cs,  13(3),  363–386.    
  73. 73. Thank  you!     감사합니다  
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