Journey Not A Race. Dra. Shannon Lockhart. Especialista En Primera Infancia Usa.

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Foro Mundial de grupos de trabajo por la Primera Infancia. …

Foro Mundial de grupos de trabajo por la Primera Infancia.
Ministerio de Educación Nacional

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  • Slide 3: To be used with the Learning Environment—Supportive research to “Guidelines for Planning the Indoor Environment”—Central Ideas on Materials In the longitudinal part of the study, across all 15 countries , the variety and number of materials made a difference in children’s cognitive development. When children were able to use materials and a variety of materials, children’s cognitive development increased.


  • 1.
  • 2. Early Childhood is a Journey, Not a Race! Shannon Lockhart Senior Early Childhood Specialist [email_address]
  • 3. What do you want young children to gain from being in your ECCE programs? (think about several characteristics you want to encourage) Self-Confident Independent Socially well adjusted Creative Good problem solver Shows initiative Cooperative Healthy Risk taker Intelligent Self-sufficient
  • 4. Current Status
    • According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report (2007), ½ the world’s countries have no early childhood care and education policies for children under three. (UNESCO)
    • In some countries that do have policies, they are not enforced.
    • Most policies/licensing regulations that are in place for ECCE are minimum standards and do not indicate high-quality.
  • 5. Current Status
    • “ Comprehensive group care programs that address the development of the whole child are relatively rare in resource-poor countries.”
    • “ Even in resource-rich nations, the availability and quality of programs to ensure good care for infants and toddlers remains problematic.”
    • Estimates as many as 40% of children in US are attending child care programs judges to be of low quality (Danziger, Wallfogel 2000; Currie 2001).
    Qualities of Caring: Good Practices in the Infant-Toddler Group Care. World Bank January 1999
  • 6. Learning Environment: Percentage of Total Score for Safe and Healthy Environment 3% 41% 8% 17% 31%
  • 7. Learning Environment: Percentage of Total Score For Sensory Materials Accessible 5% 29% 24%
  • 8. Schedules and Routines: Percentage of Total Score For Overall Daily Schedule 3% 13% 20% 36% 28%
  • 9. Adult-Child Interactions: Percentage of Total Score For Children’s Relationships with Caregivers 7% 15% 36% 27%
  • 10. Child Observation and Planning: Percentage of Total Score for Caregivers Observe Children 27% 4% 15%
  • 11. III-D. Adults Encourage Child Language: Percentage of Total Score for All Countries 26% 26% 48%
  • 12. III-F. Adults as Partners in Children’s Play: Percentage of Total Score For All Countries 55% 14% 28% 3%
  • 13. III-F. Adults as Partners in Children’s Play: Percentage of Total Score by Country
  • 14. Why Strive for High Quality Experiences?
    • Research has shown that high quality early childhood experiences has long term affects. (HighScope Perry Preschool Project, Carolina Abecederian Project, HighScope IEA Preprimary Project)
    • Well targeted ECD programs cost less– and produce more dramatic and lasting results– than education investment at any other level. (World Bank June 2004)
    • Low quality experiences have negative affects on children’s growth and development.
  • 15. What Brain Research Tells Us:
    • The brain is 2 ½ times more active from 0-3 than it will ever be again in a lifetime.
    • The human brain develops as it wires. It wires as it experiences the world (learns).
    • Relationships play a major role in the wiring of intelligence.
    • There are critical windows of opportunities which produce optimal learning.
    “ When we fail to use the information and what we know and have learned about children, it is malnourishment— Malpractice!” Dr. Pam Schiller
  • 16. Let’s Discuss
    • What elements contribute to a high quality infant and toddler program?
    • Or what is it that we need to do to provide the best high-quality experiences for infants and toddlers?
  • 17.
    • A child development curriculum
    • Low enrollment limits
    • Staff trained
    • Supervisory support and inservice training
    • Parent Partnership
    • Developmentally appropriate evaluation procedures (child and program)
    • Sensitivity to non-educational needs of children
    Elements of High-Quality Early Childhood Programs Schweinhart, L. 2004. A School Administrator’s Guide To Early Childhood Programs, 2 nd Ed. HighScope Press: Ypsilanti, MI
  • 18. Generally, Curriculum is Defined as:
    • A system of teaching, learning, assessment, and teacher training
    • Provides a philosophy
    • Provides a set of decision-making tools based on sound child development principles
    • Guides daily planning and decision making about instruction, educational activities
    • Guides ongoing interactions with children and families
    • Includes child and program evaluation tools consistent with the program's philosophy
  • 19. Curriculum serves 4 purposes:
    • Curriculum shapes our understanding of child development
  • 20. 2. Curriculum guides our educational practices
  • 21. 3. Curriculum supports staff training
  • 22. 4. Curriculum provides evidence of effectiveness
  • 23. A Child Development Curriculum
    • Emphasizes child development
    • Focuses on child-initiated activities
    • Supports independent decision making
    • Incorporates active learning
  • 24. HighScope: A Comprehensive Model Comprehensive IT Curriculum HighScope Caregiver Training and Support Grounded in Research
  • 25. Active Learning
    • Key content areas of development for Infants and Toddlers
      • Sense of Self Communication & Language
      • Social Relations Exploring Objects
      • Creative Rep. Early Quantity & Number
      • Movement Space
      • Music Time
    Caregivers become better observers of development which allows them to plan for their children’s learning more effectively. Materials Choice Manipulation Child Communication and Language Adult Scaffolding
  • 26. Adult-Child Interaction
    • Ingredients of supportive adult-child interactions:
    • Establish policies that promote attachment:
      • Primary Caregivers
      • Small Group Sizes
      • Continuity of Care
    • Create a climate of trust
    • Form partnerships
    • Support children’s intentions
    “ Interest in children and nurturing behaviors are considered more critical qualifications than education or trained staff.” (World Bank)
  • 27. Primary Caregivers
    • Assigned specific children
    • Form trusting relationships with the child and family
    • Care for the child while the child is at the center
    • Observe, record and share observations of the child with the parents and teaching team for planning.
  • 28. Parent Partnership
    • Parents are the child’s first teachers
    • Be respectful of their cultures and traditions
    • Model for parents
    • Working with parents is not a competition
  • 29. Low enrollment limits, with caregiving teams assigned to small groups of children, because:
    • Small group sizes foster rich interactions
    • Promotes personal contact
    • Gives children a sense of belonging and stability
    • Recommendations:
    • 1-3 infants/primary caregiver-- max 6
    • 1-3 older infants/primary caregiver-- max 9
    • 1-4 toddlers/primary caregiver-- max 12
  • 30. Continuity of Care
    • Children and caregivers stay together from year to year.
    • Caregivers’ schedules fit around children’s needs.
    • Caregivers tell children and parents about caregiver absences and returns.
  • 31. Learning Environment
    • Build order and flexibility
    • Provide comfort and safety for both children and adults
    • Provide materials that support children’s sensory-motor development
  • 32. Cognitive Performance HI LOW HI Materials Phase 3 Finding: As the number and variety of materials in settings increased , children’s age-7 cognitive performance improved . © 2003 IEA Preprimary Project
  • 33.
    • The best toy for a young child is the invested, caring adult - someone to pay attention, to engage and to play with the child using words, song, touch, and smile.
    • Bruce Perry, Lea Hogan, and Sarah Marlin “Curiosity, Pleasure, and Play: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective,”
    • available at
  • 34. Daily Schedules and Caregiving Routines
    • Create an overall daily schedule that is predictable yet flexible
    • Incorporate active learning, including adult support, into each event and caregiving routine
  • 35. Child Observation
    • Observe children throughout their daily routine
    • Record anecdotes and collect other documentation
    • Interpret observations using the Infant-Toddler COR or appropriate observation assessment
    • Use the information for:
            • Daily team planning
            • Family conferences
            • Program evaluation
            • Staff development
  • 36. Program Evaluation
    • Self Assessment
      • Identify your own areas of strength
      • and areas for improvement.
    • Supervision and Observation/Feedback
      • Supervisor and staff member together assess areas of strength and improvement.
      • Identify areas for further training.
      • Setting program goals. (Plan for improvement)
  • 37. Program Evaluation
    • Research and Evaluation
      • Comparisons of quality in different program settings.
      • Pre-service training tool for evaluation.
    • Information and Dissemination
      • Explaining the effectiveness of your program to a variety of funders, individuals, and agencies.
  • 38. High Quality Teacher Training
    • The HighScope Training of Trainers Evaluation shows that systematic in-service teacher training improves the quality of early childhood programs and promotes children’s development.
  • 39. Why Look for Proven Training?
    • Independent observers rated trained HighScope programs significantly higher than comparison programs on:
      • Providing a good physical environment that was organized and gave children access to diverse materials.
      • Creating a consistent daily routine that encouraged children to plan, carry out, and review their work.
      • Establishing supportive patterns of adult-child interaction that promoted children’s reasoning and language skills.
  • 40. Training Improves Program Quality!
    • Novice teachers benefit from systematic in-service training which provides both needed information on theory and practical information on implementation in the classroom.
    • Veteran teachers benefit, too. HighScope training provides a coherent curriculum framework including current research and innovation, renewing their commitment to working with children and families.
  • 41. Summary #1 The elements of quality:
    • Are vital for effective early childhood programs
    • Are based on child development curriculum grounded in child-initiated activities and research
    • Include trained staff that will provide warm, friendly, responsive and respectful relationships
  • 42. Summary # 2:
    • Implementing a child development curriculum is valuable because caregivers become :
    • More knowledgeable about child development
    • Better observers of infant and toddler’s development
    • More thoughtful and purposeful in their interactions
    • More focused on daily planning
  • 43. We can ensure that what we want for our children, will happen!