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Fuel Cells In Reducing Global Warming
 

Fuel Cells In Reducing Global Warming

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CEan Arjun_rp

CEan Arjun_rp

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    Fuel Cells In Reducing Global Warming Fuel Cells In Reducing Global Warming Presentation Transcript

    • ELECTRONICS FOR ENVIRONMENT
    • GLOBAL WARMING ~HOW FUEL CELLS CAN HELP SOLVE THE PROBLEM~ PRESENTED BY ARJUN. R. PALANIAPPAN
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Global warming is the increase in mean earth surface temperature
      • Global surface temperature increased by 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century
      • Global warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the lifespan of CO 2 in the atmosphere
    •  
    • CAUSES
      • The green house gases like CO 2 , methane, NO 2 are the main causes of global warming
      • Power plants
      • Automobile emissions
      • Deforestation in large scale
      • Usage of fossil fuels
    • IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT
      • Rise in sea level
      • Arctic shrinkage
      • Melting of polar ice sheets
      • Expansion of desert regions
      • Changes in rainfall pattern
      • Ozone layer depletion
      • Shrinkage of rainforests
      • Reduction in crop yields
    • FOSSIL FUEL AND ITS EFFECT IN GLOBAL WARMING
      • The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year
      • Combustion of fossil fuels generates sulfuric, carbonic, and nitric acids, which fall to Earth as acid rain, impacting both natural areas and environment causing threat to marine and plant life
    • FOSSIL FUEL AND ITS EFFECT IN GLOBAL WARMING
      • Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly uranium and thorium, that are released into the atmosphere. In 2000, about 12,000 metric tons of thorium and 5,000 metric tons of uranium were released worldwide from burning coal.
      COAL MINED FOR FUEL
    • FUEL CELLS
      • It is a voltaic cell
      • It converts chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity without combustion
      • It works by fuel and oxygen
      • Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained
    • EVOLUTION OF FUEL CELLS
      • The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838
      • Based on this work, the first fuel cell was demonstrated by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove in the February 1839
    • EVOLUTION OF FUEL CELLS
      • In 1955, W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company (GE), further modified the original fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte
      • United Technologies Corporation was the first company to manufacture and commercialize fuel cells
    • CONSTRUCTION OF FUEL CELL
      • It consists of two porous electrodes ,anode and cathode
      • Electrodes are made of compressed carbon
      • Electrolyte solution such as NaOH or KOH is filled between the electrodes
      • The electrodes are connected to the device to be powered
    • WORKING OF FUEL CELL
      • In a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell, hydrogen is bubbled through anode
      • Oxygen is bubbled through cathode
      • At cathode, the cell reaction is
      • O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4e -  4OH -
      • At anode, the cell reaction is
      • 2H 2 + 4OH -  4H 2 O + 4e -
    • WORKING OF FUEL CELL
      • The overall cell reaction is
      • 2H 2 + 2O 2  2H 2 O
      • Thus the energy of the fuel is directly converted into electricity
    • FUEL CELLS IN REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING
      • It directly converts fuel and air into electricity
      • It generates more electricity for the same amount of fuel
      • There is no combustion process
      • Therefore it produces less number of pollutants and there is only negligible amount of emission, thereby reducing global warming
    • ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS
      • Undisrupted source of energy
      • High efficiency- 70% more efficient than conventional method of generating electricity
      • Silent operation
      • Environmentally safe
      • No emission of pollutants
      • High power density
    • ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS
      • The product is only water
      • Independence from traditional infrastructure
      • Can operate in grid panel
      • Highly reliable
    • FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Aircraft industry Spacecraft industry Submarines-submarine with fuel cell propulsion of the German Navy in dry dock Power generator
    • FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Automobile industry
    • FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Cadillac escalade hybrid fuel cell car Fuel cell scooter
    • FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Fuel cell in laptops Mobile charging dock
    • FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS Fuel cell table lamp i-pod charging dock
    • CONCLUSION
      • Compared with mature battery technologies, such as lead–acid or Ni–CAD batteries, fuel cell based battery technology is still in their infancy, leaving much hope for improvement over the next decade
      • Such improvements should arise from changes in battery chemistry and cell engineering for better future to form a green environment
      • Global warming is not just the greatest environmental challenge facing our planet — it is one of our greatest challenges of any kind
      Thank you