Orbital Space Settlements and a Solar System Wide Web<br />Sourabh kaushal<br />Humanity could be life&apos;s ticket to th...
www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/photos/sts71/mir-imax/hmg0018.jpg<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
People Live Everywhere<br />Every continent, including Antarctica<br />Hottest, driest deserts<br />Coldest, iciest region...
Life is Everywhere<br />On nearly all land areas<br />In nearly all waters<br />In the rocks under the Earth<br />In near-...
Next Target: Orbit<br />Your lifetime: thousands of people living in orbit<br />A few centuries: most of humanity in orbit...
Orbital Space Settlement<br />Who? Ordinary people. <br />What? Artificial ecosystems inside gigantic rotating, pressurize...
Who<br />Today: highly trained astronauts.<br />$20-40 million tourist trip to Mir<br />Survivor in Space <br />Tomorrow: ...
What<br />A space settlement is a home in orbit, not just a place to work.  <br />Live on the inside of air-tight, kilomet...
Where<br />In orbit, not on a planet or moon. <br />Moon (1/6g) and Mars (3/8g) gravity too low. <br />Children will not h...
How<br />Materials<br />Moon<br />Oxygen, silicon, metals, some hydrogen for water.<br />Near-Earth Asteroids<br />Wide va...
Why<br />Growth = survival.<br />Largest asteroid converted to space settlements can produce living area ~500 times the su...
Real Estate Features<br />Great views<br />Low/0-g recreation<br />Human powered flight<br />Cylindrical swimming pools<br...
When<br />A few decades should be sufficient to build the first one.<br />No serious effort now.<br />Technology requireme...
How much will it cost?<br />If you have to ask, you can’t afford it. <br />How much did Silicon Valley cost? <br />Orbital...
Key Problem: Launch<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
Launch Data Systems<br />Major opportunities for information technology.<br />SIAT: wiring trend data were very difficult ...
Information Power Grid<br />IPG: integrated nationwide network of computers, databases, and instruments.<br />The Network ...
Integration Timeline<br /><ul><li>Single building
A few supercomputers
Many workstations
Mass storage
Visualization
Remote access</li></ul>IPG<br /><ul><li>Nation wide
Many supercomputers
Condor pools
Mass storage
Instruments
Solar system wide
Terrestrial Grid
Satellites
Landers and Rovers
Deep space comm.</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
Relevant IPG Research<br />Reservations<br />insure CPUs available for close encounter<br />Co-scheduling<br />insure DSN ...
IPG Launch Data System Vision<br /><ul><li>Complete database: human and machine readable
Software agent architecture for continuous examination of the database
Large computational capabilities
Model based reasoning
Wearable computers/augmented reality
Multi-user virtual reality optimized for launch decision support
Automated computationally-intensive software testing</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
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  1. 1. Orbital Space Settlements and a Solar System Wide Web<br />Sourabh kaushal<br />Humanity could be life&apos;s ticket to the stars<br />(The dinosaurs weren’t space-faring)<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  2. 2. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  3. 3. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  4. 4. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  5. 5. http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/photos/sts71/mir-imax/hmg0018.jpg<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  6. 6. People Live Everywhere<br />Every continent, including Antarctica<br />Hottest, driest deserts<br />Coldest, iciest regions<br />Wettest rain forests<br />On water<br />For short periods, in orbit<br />6,000,000,000 people on Earth<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  7. 7. Life is Everywhere<br />On nearly all land areas<br />In nearly all waters<br />In the rocks under the Earth<br />In near-boiling water<br />In ice<br />On desert rocks<br />On a spacecraft on the Moon<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  8. 8. Next Target: Orbit<br />Your lifetime: thousands of people living in orbit<br />A few centuries: most of humanity in orbit. <br /><ul><li>Next millenium: generation ships to the stars</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  9. 9. Orbital Space Settlement<br />Who? Ordinary people. <br />What? Artificial ecosystems inside gigantic rotating, pressurized spacecraft. <br />Where? In orbit; near Earth at first. <br />How? With great difficulty.<br />Why? To grow. <br />When? Decades. <br />How much will it cost?If you have to ask, you can&apos;t afford it.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  10. 10. Who<br />Today: highly trained astronauts.<br />$20-40 million tourist trip to Mir<br />Survivor in Space <br />Tomorrow: everyone who wants to go.<br />100 - 10,000,000 people per colony<br />Ultimately, thousands or even millions of colonies<br />Sounds unrealistic?<br />A hundred years ago nobody had ever flown in an airplane.<br />Today ~ 500 million person/flights per year.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  11. 11. What<br />A space settlement is a home in orbit, not just a place to work. <br />Live on the inside of air-tight, kilometer scale, rotating spacecraft.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  12. 12. Where<br />In orbit, not on a planet or moon. <br />Moon (1/6g) and Mars (3/8g) gravity too low. <br />Children will not have the bones and muscles needed to visit Earth.<br />Orbital colonies rotate for 1g.<br />Continuous solar energy.<br />Large-scale construction easier.<br />Much closer: hours not days or months.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  13. 13. How<br />Materials<br />Moon<br />Oxygen, silicon, metals, some hydrogen for water.<br />Near-Earth Asteroids<br />Wide variety of materials including water, carbon, metals, and silicon.<br />Radiation protection<br />Life support: Biosphere II scientific failure, engineering success!<br />Transportation critical and difficult.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  14. 14. Why<br />Growth = survival.<br />Largest asteroid converted to space settlements can produce living area ~500 times the surface area of the Earth. <br />3D object to 2D shells<br />Uncrowded homes for trillions of people. <br />Newland.<br />Nice place to live.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  15. 15. Real Estate Features<br />Great views<br />Low/0-g recreation<br />Human powered flight<br />Cylindrical swimming pools<br />Dance, gymnastics<br />Sports: soccer<br />Environmental independence<br />Custom living<br />Weather art<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  16. 16. When<br />A few decades should be sufficient to build the first one.<br />No serious effort now.<br />Technology requirements:<br />Safer, cheaper launch<br />Extraterrestrial materials<br />Large scale orbital construction<br />Closed ecological life support systems<br />And much more<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  17. 17. How much will it cost?<br />If you have to ask, you can’t afford it. <br />How much did Silicon Valley cost? <br />Orbital space settlements will be far more expensive:<br />all materials imported<br />transportation difficult<br />build all life support <br />hostile environment<br />new techniques must be developed<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  18. 18. Key Problem: Launch<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  19. 19. Launch Data Systems<br />Major opportunities for information technology.<br />SIAT: wiring trend data were very difficult to develop.<br />Some launch failures caused by software<br />Sea Launch second flight<br />Ariane V<br />The comma “,”<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  20. 20. Information Power Grid<br />IPG: integrated nationwide network of computers, databases, and instruments.<br />The Network is the Computer<br />IPG value<br />help reduce launch costs and failure rates <br />support for automation necessary to exploit solar system exploration by thousands of spacecraft<br />Problems:<br />low bandwidths<br />long latencies<br />intermittent communications <br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  21. 21. Integration Timeline<br /><ul><li>Single building
  22. 22. A few supercomputers
  23. 23. Many workstations
  24. 24. Mass storage
  25. 25. Visualization
  26. 26. Remote access</li></ul>IPG<br /><ul><li>Nation wide
  27. 27. Many supercomputers
  28. 28. Condor pools
  29. 29. Mass storage
  30. 30. Instruments
  31. 31. Solar system wide
  32. 32. Terrestrial Grid
  33. 33. Satellites
  34. 34. Landers and Rovers
  35. 35. Deep space comm.</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  36. 36. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  37. 37. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  38. 38. Relevant IPG Research<br />Reservations<br />insure CPUs available for close encounter<br />Co-scheduling<br />insure DSN and CPU resources available<br />Network scheduling<br />Proxies for firewalls<br />Extend to represent remote spacecraft to hide:<br />low bandwidth<br />long latency<br />intermittent communication<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  39. 39. IPG Launch Data System Vision<br /><ul><li>Complete database: human and machine readable
  40. 40. Software agent architecture for continuous examination of the database
  41. 41. Large computational capabilities
  42. 42. Model based reasoning
  43. 43. Wearable computers/augmented reality
  44. 44. Multi-user virtual reality optimized for launch decision support
  45. 45. Automated computationally-intensive software testing</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  46. 46. 2020 Tourism<br />Hotel<br />Doctors<br />Maids<br />Cooks<br />Recreational directors<br />Reservation clerks<br />etc.<br />These may be the first colonists.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  47. 47. Low/0-g Handicapped/Elderly Colony<br />No wheelchairs needed.<br />No bed sores.<br />Easy to move body even when weak.<br />Never fall and break hip.<br />Grandchildren will love to visit.<br />Need good medical facilities.<br />Telemedicine<br />Probably can’t return to Earth.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  48. 48. www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  49. 49. AsterAnts: A Concept for Large-Scale Meteoroid Return<br />Deliver extraterrestrial materials to LEO<br />Support solar system colonization<br />Al Globus, MRJ, Inc.<br />Bryan Biegel, MRJ Inc.<br />Steve Traugott, Sterling Software, Inc.<br />NASA Ames Research Center<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  50. 50. Near Earth Object Materials<br />Mining of large NEOs very difficult to automate<br />Mining involves large forces<br />Materials properties are unknown and variable<br />Capture of small NEO may not require human life support<br />10 million - 1 billion 10m diameter NEOs<br />Far more 1m diameter NEOs<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  51. 51. Solar Sail in Earth Orbit<br />World Space Foundation<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  52. 52. Znamia 1993<br />Guy Pignolet<br /><ul><li> 20 meter diameter spinning mirror
  53. 53. deployed from Progress resupply vehicle</li></ul>www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  54. 54. Solar Sailing 1<br />Net force<br />Photons<br />Sail<br />Sun<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  55. 55. Solar Sailing 2<br />Orbital velocity<br />Outward spiral<br />Propulsive force<br />Sail<br />Orbital velocity<br />Sun<br />Inward spiral<br />Sail<br />Propulsive force<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  56. 56. NEO Characterization Project<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  57. 57. Solar System Exploration<br />High launch cost of launch = small number exploration satellites <br /> one-of-a-kind personnel-intensive ground stations.<br />Model based autonomy = autonomous spacecraft<br />Requirement drivers<br />Autonomous spacecraft use of IPG resources<br />low bandwidths<br />long latencies<br />intermittent communications <br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  58. 58. Each Spacecraft<br />Represented by an on-board software object. <br />Communicates with terrestrial proxies to hide communication problems<br />know schedule for co-scheduling and reservations<br />Data stored in Web-accessible archives<br />virtual solar system<br />Controlled access using IPG security for computational editing<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  59. 59. Spacecraft Use of IPG<br />Autonomous vehicles require occasional large-scale processing <br />trajectory analysis<br />rendezvous plan generation <br />Proxy negotiates for CPU resources, saves results for next communication window<br />Proxy reserves co-scheduled resources for data analysis during encounters<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  60. 60. Conclusion<br /> The colonization of the solar system could be the next great adventure for humanity. There is nothing but rock and radiation in space, no living things, no people. The solar system is waiting to be brought to life by humanity&apos;s touch. And computer science can help.<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  61. 61. NEO Composition<br />Widely varied, includes large amounts of:<br />Water<br />Carbon<br />Metals, particularly iron<br />Silicon<br />Spectral studies don’t agree very well with meteorite analysis<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  62. 62. Detection of 1-meter diameter meteoroids<br />Current Earth-based optical asteroid telescopes<br />Smallest found &lt; 10m diameter<br />Maximum 1m detection distance ~ 106 km<br />2,000 to 200,000 within range at any given time<br />5-7 hit the Earth each day<br />Radar required for accurate trajectory and rotation rate<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  63. 63. Solar sail experience<br />Solar sailing used by Mariner 10 mission to Mercury for attitude control<br />Enabled multiple returns to Mercury by reducing control gas consumption<br />Ground deployment test by World Space Foundation<br />Zero-g deployment test by U3P in aircraft<br />Russian Znamia mirror February, 1993<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  64. 64. Solar sail meteoroid return<br />Characteristic acceleration of 1 mm/s2 produces 1.3 km/s delta-v per month<br />170-182 meters square sail for 500 kg NEO return at 0.25 mm/s2 characteristic acceleration<br />Once design is refined, mass production of AsterAnts spacecraft<br />?NASA build first one open source, then pay for meteoroid materials by the ton?<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  65. 65. Summary<br />Capture ~1 m diameter NEOs (Near Earth Objects)<br />Return to LEO (Low Earth Orbit)<br />Solar sails for propulsion<br />Start with one small spacecraft, scale up with copies<br />Early returns have scientific value, later materials for construction and resupply<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />
  66. 66. Conclusion<br />consumables<br />Challenges<br />Benefits<br />small down payment (one small spacecraft)<br />scales by mass production<br />missions can probably be automated<br />no 1m NEO detection difficult<br />solar sails have little flight experience<br />geosynchronous applications require space manufactured sails<br />www.engineerkaushal.webnode.com<br />

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