1926 Subpart X - Stairways and Ladders This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA 10-hour Construction Industry outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
Reference – OSHA Publication 3124, Stairways and Ladders
Reference 1926.1051(a) This is true unless a ramp, runway, embankment, or personnel hoist is provided. Point of access - All areas used by employees for work-related passage from one area or level to another.
Handrail - A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support. Stairrail system - A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.
Reference 1926.1052(c)(5) Handrails and the top rails of the stairrail systems must be capable of withstanding, without failure, at least 200 pounds of weight applied within 2 inches of the top edge in any downward or outward direction, at any point along the top edge.
Reference 1926.1052(c) Handrails must provide an adequate handhold for employees to grasp to prevent falls. Temporary handrails must have a minimum clearance of 3” between the handrail and walls, stairrail system and other objects. OSHA has specific height requirements for handrails. Check the standard to ensure these are met during installation of handrails, stairrails and guardrails
Reference 1926.1052(c) All stairways of 4 steps or more must have a handrail. If there is a fall hazard of 6 feet or more on an exposed side of the stairs, then a stairrail system must be provided to prevent workers from falling off the side.
Reference 1926.1052(a)(3) and (a)(2)
Reference 1926.1052(b)(1) Temporary Service Stairway - A stairway where permanent treads and/or landings are to be filled in at a later date. The pans are are just “concrete forms” that are filled with concrete after the stairs have been set in place. Secure metal pan landings and metal pan treads in place before filling. Relpace all treads and landings when worn below the top edge of the pan. Workers may not use spiral stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure.
Reference 1926.1052(a)(1) and (b) Stairway landings 6 feet or more above the surrounding area need to be provided with a guardrail system along the exposed perimeters of the landing
Reference 1926.1052(a)(4) Remember that a guardrail system may also be needed on a platform with a swinging door to protect from potential falls of 6 feet or more.
Reference 1926.1052(a)(7) and (a)(6) In addition to the components of a stair system, it is important to address other potentially dangerous conditions such as slippery stairs, rails or landings due to weather conditions or the composition of the stair material (e.g. smooth, metal surfaces).
Reference 1926.1053(a) and (b)
Reference 1926.1053(a) and (b)
Reference 1926.1053(b)(8), (b)(6), (b)(7), and (b)(1) Ladders placed in areas such as passage-ways, doorways, or driveways, or where they can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic must be secured to prevent accidental movement, or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away from the ladder.
Reference 1926.1053(b)(15), (b)(6)(ii) and 1926.1053(a)(4)(ii) See the OSHA web site at: www.osha.gov/SLTC/construction_ecat/falls/4ladders.html Portable Ladder: a ladder that can be readily moved or carried. Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level and uniformly spaced. The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material or treated to minimize slipping.
Reference 1926.1051(a)(2) Double-cleat Ladder - A ladder with a center rail to allow simultaneous two-way traffic for employees ascending or descending. When there is only one point of access between levels, it must be kept clear to permit free passage by workers. If free passage becomes restricted, a second point of access must be provided and used.
Reference 1926.1053(a)(12) Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except identification or warning labels on one face only of a side rail.
Reference 1926.1053(b)(5) Working length of ladder – Distance along the ladder between the foot and top support
Reference 1926.1053(b)(1) When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface. When such an extension is not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a grab rail must be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder. A ladder extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip off its support.
Reference 1926.1053(a)(18) and (a)(19) Fixed Ladder: a ladder that cannot be readily moved or carried because it is an integral part of a building or structure. In using a cage or well, ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections, and landing platforms must be provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet Use a fixed ladder at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees horizontal measurement from the back of the ladder. A fixed ladder must be able to support at least 2 loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. It must also support added anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging and impact loads resulting from using ladder safety devices.
Reference 1926.1053(b)(14) A metal spreader or locking device must be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.
Reference 1926.1053(b)(16) Ladders must be inspected on a periodic basis and after any incident that could affect their safe use. Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent injury from punctures or lacerations and prevent snagging of clothing.
Reference 1926.1060(a) Retraining - Employers must retrain each employee as necessary to maintain the understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with the standard.
1. Stairways and Ladders
2. <ul><li>Stairways and ladders cause many injuries and fatalities among construction workers </li></ul><ul><li>About half the injuries caused by slips, trips and falls from ladders and stairways require time off the job </li></ul>Hazards Improper use of the top rung of a step ladder
3. <ul><li>At the end of this training, you should be able to list or describe: </li></ul><ul><li>Safety guidelines and requirements for stairways </li></ul><ul><li>used at a construction site </li></ul><ul><li>Safe practices and requirements for ladders </li></ul><ul><li>used at a construction site </li></ul>Slips, Trips and Falls On Stairways and Ladders
4. There must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more. At least one point of access must be kept clear. 19 inches Break in elevation Stairway or Ladder
5. Handrail vs. Stairrail Stairrail Handrail System
6. Rails must be able to withstand a force of 200 pounds Handrail and Top Rail Strength
7. Handrails Stairways with four or more risers, or higher than 30 inches, must be equipped with at least one handrail. The stairway to this platform has more than 4 risers and is not guarded. The platform requires guarding.
8. Stairways with four or more risers or more than 30 inches high must have a stairrail along each unprotected side or edge . Stairrails
9. Install between 30 and 50 degrees. Must have uniform riser height and tread depth, with less than a 1/4-inch variation. Uniform - 30 & 50 deg. angle No more than 1/4 inch variation in any stairway system Stairs
10. Only use pan stairs if filled with filler material at least to the top edge of each pan. Pan Temporary Stairways
11. Stairways landings must be at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide at every 12 feet or less of vertical rise Unprotected sides of landings must have standard 42 inch guardrail systems Stairway Landings Landing
12. Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, provide a platform that extends at least 20 inches beyond the swing of the door. Platforms and Swing Doors
13. Dangerous Conditions Fix slippery conditions before using. Stairway parts must be free of projections which may cause injuries or snag clothing.
15. Ladders must be kept in a safe condition -- DO – Keep the area around the top and bottom of a ladder clear Ensure rungs, cleats, and steps are level and uniformly spaced Ensure rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches apart Keep ladders free from slipping hazards General Ladder Requirements
16. Use ladders only for their designed purpose -- DON’T – Tie ladders together to make longer sections, unless designed for such use Use single rail ladders Load ladders beyond the maximum load for which they were built, nor beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity General Ladder Requirements
17. Securing Ladders <ul><li>Secure ladders to prevent accidental movement due to workplace activity </li></ul><ul><li>Only use ladders on stable and level surfaces, unless secured </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet </li></ul>This ladder is not on a stable surface
18. Inspect before use for cracks, dents, and missing rungs Design or treat rungs to minimize slipping Side rails -- at least 11 1/2 inches apart Must support 4 times the maximum load Portable Ladders
19. <ul><li>when ladders are the only way to enter or exit a working area with 25 or more employees </li></ul><ul><li>when a ladder will serve simultaneous two-way traffic </li></ul>Double - Cleated Ladder Use a double-cleated ladder ( with center rail) or 2 or more ladders:
20. Don’t paint ladders Don’t use an opaque covering (like varnish) on a wood ladder Painting Wood Ladders
21. Ladder Angle <ul><li>Non-self-supporting ladders: </li></ul><ul><li>(which lean against a wall or other support) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is 1/4 the working length of the ladder </li></ul></ul>
22. When using a portable ladder for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface Ladder Rail Extension
23. Tall Fixed Ladder Requirements <ul><li>Equip a fixed ladder 24 feet or longer with either a: </li></ul><ul><li>Ladder safety device </li></ul><ul><li>Self-retracting lifelines with rest platforms every 150 feet or less </li></ul><ul><li>Cage or well, and multiple ladder sections, each section not exceeding 50 feet </li></ul>
24. Near Energized Electrical Equipment If using ladders where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment, they must have nonconductive siderails such as wood or fiberglass. This is an unsafe condition
25. Do not use the top or top step of a stepladder as a step Top Step
26. Don’t use crossbracing on the rear of a stepladder for climbing - unless the ladder is designed for that On this ladder the back rungs are designed for use Crossbracing
27. A competent person must inspect ladders for visible defects, like broken or missing rungs If a defective ladder is found, immediately mark it defective or tag it "Do Not Use” Withdraw defective ladders from service until repaired Damaged or Defective Ladders Missing rung
28. Face the ladder when going up or down Use at least one hand to grab the ladder when going up or down Do not carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance Climbing the Ladder
29. <ul><li>A competent person must train each employee in the following areas, as applicable: </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of fall hazards in the work area </li></ul><ul><li>The correct procedures for erecting, </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining, and disassembling the fall </li></ul><ul><li>protection systems to be used </li></ul><ul><li>The proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all stairways and ladders </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders </li></ul>Training
30. Summary Key Components for Stairway Safety <ul><li>Treads </li></ul><ul><li>Rails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>handrails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stairrails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guardrails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landings and Platforms </li></ul>
31. Summary Key Components for Ladder Safety <ul><li>A competent person must inspect </li></ul><ul><li>Use the correct ladder for the job </li></ul><ul><li>Use the correct angle, supports, treads, cross braces and rails </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overload </li></ul><ul><li>Your employer must train you in proper use of a ladder </li></ul>