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By Joanne Byrne, Thomas Jørgensen, Tia Loukkola
The ARDE project aimed at demonstrating how quality assurance for doctoral education has been implemented in European universities. As the Bologna Process has developed, universities have put great effort into professionalising their quality assurance as well as their doctoral education, albeit often in separate processes. However, the two processes are beginning to merge. Doctoral education is being managed more professionally through doctoral schools and institutions are giving more attention to accountability and quality enhancement. This publication describes the developments, outlines recommendations and
underlines the differences between quality assurance for doctoral education and quality assurance for the first and second cycle.