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The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing

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The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing by Al Ries and Jack Trout

The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing by Al Ries and Jack Trout

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  • 1. The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketingby Al Ries and Jack Trout
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 2. Slideshow put together by:
    Colin Postpost.colin@gmail.comWeb development and e-marketing campaignsImport / export management for US-South AmericaInmersiones ingleses en CundinamarcaFreelance writingwww.expat-chronicles.com
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 3. The Law of Leadership
    It’s better to be first than it is to be better.
    1st person to fly the Atlantic Ocean solo? Charles Lindbergh
    2nd person? Bert Hinkler did it faster w/ less fuel, but who cares?
    List of 1st’s to market:
    Gillette
    IBM
    Coca-Cola
    TIME magazine
    Tylenol
    Tide
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 4. The Law of the Category
    If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in.
    Who was the 3rd person to fly across Atlantic, or 1st woman to fly across Atlantic? Amelia Earhart.
    1st’s in new category:
    AmstelLite (imported light beer)
    Charles Schwab (discount brokerage firm)
    Lear’s (mature woman’s magazine)
    Dell (computers sold by phone)
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 5. The Law of the Mind
    It’s better to be first in the mind
    than to be first in the marketplace.
    The MITS Altair 8800 was the first personal computer on the market, but the Apple II was the first in consumers’ minds.
    Once minds are made up, it’s almost impossible to change them.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 6. The Law of Perception
    Marketing is not a battle of products, it’s a battle of perceptions.
    All truth is relative. There is no objective reality, only perception.
    In Japan, Honda became known for motorcycles and sells almost no cars. Could Harley-Davidson sell cars in the US?
    Why is Campbell’s soup #1 in the US and nowhere in the United Kingdom? Why is Heinz soup #1 in the UK and a failure in the United States?
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 7. The Law of Focus
    The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind.
    FedEx = overnight
    IBM = computer
    Xerox = copier
    Hershey’s = chocolate bar
    Coke = cola
    Crest = cavities
    Domino’s = delivery
    Nordstrom = service
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 8. The Law of Exclusivity
    Two companies cannot own the same word
    in the prospect’s mind.
    FedEx can’t co-own ‘worldwide’ with DHL.
    Burger King can’t co-own ‘fast’ or ‘kids’ with McDonald’s.
    GM can’t co-own ‘safety’ with Volvo.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 9. The Law of the Ladder
    The strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder.
    “Avis is only No. 2 in rent-a-cars. So why go with us? We try harder.”
    “Ask yourself … Where are we on the ladder in the prospect’s mind? … Then make sure your program deals realistically with your position on the ladder.”
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 10. The Law of Duality
    In the long run, every market becomes a two-horse race.
    Coke and Pepsi
    Energizer and Duracell
    “Only businesses that are No. 1 or No. 2 in their markets could win in the increasingly competitive global arena. Those that could not were fixed, closed, or sold.” – GE CEO Jack Welch
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 11. The Law of the Opposite
    If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader.
    In strength there is weakness. If you’re #2, attack the leader.
    100 year-old Coke was the classic. Pepsi became the “new generation.”
    TIME magazine features colorful writing, so Newsweek focused on a straightforward style.
    Scope attacked Listerine’s bad taste by calling itself the “good-tasting mouthwash that kills germs.”
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 12. The Law of Division
    Over time, a category will divide and become two or more categories.
    Automobiles segmented into luxury, full-size, economy, more.
    Beer segmented into premium, light, craft, etc.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 13. The Law of Perspective
    Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time.
    It takes years for perceptions to change, positive or negative consequences to culminate.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 14. The Law of Line Extension
    There’s an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand.
    “When you try to be all things to all people, you inevitably wind up in trouble.”
    Line Extension failures
    A1 poultry sauce
    Life Savers gum
    Tanqueray vodka
    Heinz baby food
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 15. The Law of Sacrifice
    You have to give up something in order to get something.
    - opposite of line extension
    Narrow focus is key:
    Victoria’s Secret – sexy undergarments
    Foot Locker – athletic shoes
    Marlboro – cowboy
    FedEx – overnight
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 16. The Law of Attributes
    For every attribute, there is an opposite, effective attribute.
    - don’t emulate the leader
    Toothpaste brands and attributes:
    Crest – fights cavities
    Aim – tastes good
    Ultra brite – whitens teeth
    Close-up – freshens breath
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 17. The Law of Singularity
    In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results.
    Of all the attacks on GM over the years, only two flanking moves bore fruit. Japanese makers with small, inexpensive cars on low-end and German makers with expensive super-premium cars on high-end.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 18. The Law of Unpredictability
    Unless you can write your competitors’ plans, you can’t predict the future.
    The unexpected always happens … Research does best at measuring the past … New ideas and concepts are almost impossible to measure.”
    e.g. Xerox market research said nobody would pay five cents for a plain paper copy.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 19. The Law of Succes
    Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure.
    “You start thinking you can do anything … I got into frozen pizzas for a while and that was a disaster. If I hadn’t … Domino’s would probably would have a lot more stores by now.” – Tom Monaghan of Domino’s Pizza
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 20. The Law of Failure
    Failure is to be expected and accepted.
    Recognize failure early and cut your losses.
    Don’t be afraid to fail.
    Ready, Fire, Aim.
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 21. The Law of Hype
    The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press.
    Big-hype failures: New Coke, personal helicopters, manufactured home, videophones.
    Un-hyped phenomenon: fall of Soviet Union and communism, arrival and dominance of Japanese autos
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 22. The Law of Acceleration
    Successful programs are not built on fads, they’re built on trends.
    A fad is a wave in the ocean, and a trend is the tide.
    “If faced with a rapidly rising business with characteristics of a fad, you should dampen the fad. Stretch it out so it becomes like a trend.”
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  • 23. The Law of Resources
    Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off the ground.
    “You’ll get further with a mediocre idea and a million dollars than with a great idea alone.”
    “Who has the most money to drive in the idea? … The more successful marketers front load their investment … Money makes the marketing world go round.”
    Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com