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The 22 Immutable
Laws of Marketing
by Al Ries and Jack Trout
Prepared by Colin Post – find me at
www.expat-chronicles.com
Slideshow put together by:
Colin Post
post.colin@gmail.com
Web development and e-marketing campaigns
Import / export manag...
The Law of Leadership
It’s better to be first than it is to be better.
1st person to fly the Atlantic Ocean solo? Charles ...
The Law of the Category
If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new
category you can be first in.
Who was the 3rd pe...
The Law of the Mind
It’s better to be first in the mind
than to be first in the marketplace.
The MITS Altair 8800 was the ...
The Law of Perception
Marketing is not a battle of products, it’s a
battle of perceptions.
All truth is relative. There is...
The Law of Focus
The most powerful concept in marketing is
owning a word in the prospect’s mind.
FedEx = overnight
IBM = c...
The Law of Exclusivity
Two companies cannot own the same word
in the prospect’s mind.
FedEx can’t co-own ‘worldwide’ with ...
The Law of the Ladder
The strategy to use depends on which rung you
occupy on the ladder.
“Avis is only No. 2 in rent-a-ca...
The Law of Duality
In the long run, every market becomes a two-
horse race.
Coke and Pepsi
Energizer and Duracell
“Only bu...
The Law of the Opposite
If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy
is determined by the leader.
In strength there ...
The Law of Division
Over time, a category will divide and become
two or more categories.
Automobiles segmented into luxury...
The Law of Perspective
Marketing effects take place over an extended
period of time.
It takes years for perceptions to cha...
The Law of Line Extension
There’s an irresistible pressure to extend the
equity of the brand.
“When you try to be all thin...
The Law of Sacrifice
You have to give up something in order to get
something.
- opposite of line extension
Narrow focus is...
The Law of Attributes
For every attribute, there is an opposite,
effective attribute.
- don’t emulate the leader
Toothpast...
The Law of Singularity
In each situation, only one move will produce
substantial results.
Of all the attacks on GM over th...
The Law of Unpredictability
Unless you can write your competitors’ plans,
you can’t predict the future.
The unexpected alw...
The Law of Succes
Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance
to failure.
“You start thinking you can do anything … I ...
The Law of Failure
Failure is to be expected and accepted.
Recognize failure early and cut your losses.
Don’t be afraid to...
The Law of Hype
The situation is often the opposite of the way it
appears in the press.
Big-hype failures: New Coke, perso...
The Law of Acceleration
Successful programs are not built on fads,
they’re built on trends.
A fad is a wave in the ocean, ...
The Law of Resources
Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off
the ground.
“You’ll get further with a mediocre idea a...
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The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing

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Transcript of "The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing"

  1. 1. The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing by Al Ries and Jack Trout Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  2. 2. Slideshow put together by: Colin Post post.colin@gmail.com Web development and e-marketing campaigns Import / export management for US-South America Inmersiones ingleses en Cundinamarca Freelance writing www.expat-chronicles.com Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  3. 3. The Law of Leadership It’s better to be first than it is to be better. 1st person to fly the Atlantic Ocean solo? Charles Lindbergh 2nd person? Bert Hinkler did it faster w/ less fuel, but who cares? List of 1st’s to market: Gillette IBM Coca-Cola TIME magazine Tylenol Tide Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  4. 4. The Law of the Category If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in. Who was the 3rd person to fly across Atlantic, or 1st woman to fly across Atlantic? Amelia Earhart. 1st’s in new category: Amstel Lite (imported light beer) Charles Schwab (discount brokerage firm) Lear’s (mature woman’s magazine) Dell (computers sold by phone) Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  5. 5. The Law of the Mind It’s better to be first in the mind than to be first in the marketplace. The MITS Altair 8800 was the first personal computer on the market, but the Apple II was the first in consumers’ minds. Once minds are made up, it’s almost impossible to change them. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  6. 6. The Law of Perception Marketing is not a battle of products, it’s a battle of perceptions. All truth is relative. There is no objective reality, only perception. In Japan, Honda became known for motorcycles and sells almost no cars. Could Harley-Davidson sell cars in the US? Why is Campbell’s soup #1 in the US and nowhere in the United Kingdom? Why is Heinz soup #1 in the UK and a failure in the United States? Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  7. 7. The Law of Focus The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind. FedEx = overnight IBM = computer Xerox = copier Hershey’s = chocolate bar Coke = cola Crest = cavities Domino’s = delivery Nordstrom = service Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  8. 8. The Law of Exclusivity Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind. FedEx can’t co-own ‘worldwide’ with DHL. Burger King can’t co-own ‘fast’ or ‘kids’ with McDonald’s. GM can’t co-own ‘safety’ with Volvo. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  9. 9. The Law of the Ladder The strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder. “Avis is only No. 2 in rent-a-cars. So why go with us? We try harder.” “Ask yourself … Where are we on the ladder in the prospect’s mind? … Then make sure your program deals realistically with your position on the ladder.” Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  10. 10. The Law of Duality In the long run, every market becomes a two- horse race. Coke and Pepsi Energizer and Duracell “Only businesses that are No. 1 or No. 2 in their markets could win in the increasingly competitive global arena. Those that could not were fixed, closed, or sold.” – GE CEO Jack Welch Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  11. 11. The Law of the Opposite If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader. In strength there is weakness. If you’re #2, attack the leader. 100 year-old Coke was the classic. Pepsi became the “new generation.” TIME magazine features colorful writing, so Newsweek focused on a straightforward style. Scope attacked Listerine’s bad taste by calling itself the “good- tasting mouthwash that kills germs.” Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  12. 12. The Law of Division Over time, a category will divide and become two or more categories. Automobiles segmented into luxury, full-size, economy, more. Beer segmented into premium, light, craft, etc. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  13. 13. The Law of Perspective Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time. It takes years for perceptions to change, positive or negative consequences to culminate. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  14. 14. The Law of Line Extension There’s an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand. “When you try to be all things to all people, you inevitably wind up in trouble.” Line Extension failures • A1 poultry sauce • Life Savers gum • Tanqueray vodka • Heinz baby food Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  15. 15. The Law of Sacrifice You have to give up something in order to get something. - opposite of line extension Narrow focus is key: Victoria’s Secret – sexy undergarments Foot Locker – athletic shoes Marlboro – cowboy FedEx – overnight Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  16. 16. The Law of Attributes For every attribute, there is an opposite, effective attribute. - don’t emulate the leader Toothpaste brands and attributes: Crest – fights cavities Aim – tastes good Ultra brite – whitens teeth Close-up – freshens breath Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  17. 17. The Law of Singularity In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results. Of all the attacks on GM over the years, only two flanking moves bore fruit. Japanese makers with small, inexpensive cars on low- end and German makers with expensive super-premium cars on high-end. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  18. 18. The Law of Unpredictability Unless you can write your competitors’ plans, you can’t predict the future. The unexpected always happens … Research does best at measuring the past … New ideas and concepts are almost impossible to measure.” e.g. Xerox market research said nobody would pay five cents for a plain paper copy. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  19. 19. The Law of Succes Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure. “You start thinking you can do anything … I got into frozen pizzas for a while and that was a disaster. If I hadn’t … Domino’s would probably would have a lot more stores by now.” – Tom Monaghan of Domino’s Pizza Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  20. 20. The Law of Failure Failure is to be expected and accepted. Recognize failure early and cut your losses. Don’t be afraid to fail. Ready, Fire, Aim. Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  21. 21. The Law of Hype The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press. Big-hype failures: New Coke, personal helicopters, manufactured home, videophones. Un-hyped phenomenon: fall of Soviet Union and communism, arrival and dominance of Japanese autos Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  22. 22. The Law of Acceleration Successful programs are not built on fads, they’re built on trends. A fad is a wave in the ocean, and a trend is the tide. “If faced with a rapidly rising business with characteristics of a fad, you should dampen the fad. Stretch it out so it becomes like a trend.” Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
  23. 23. The Law of Resources Without adequate funding an idea won’t get off the ground. “You’ll get further with a mediocre idea and a million dollars than with a great idea alone.” “Who has the most money to drive in the idea? … The more successful marketers front load their investment … Money makes the marketing world go round.” Prepared by Colin Post – find me at www.expat-chronicles.com
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