Festivals October 27 – Feast of the Holy Souls - fiesta de Los Santas Animas October 31 – Halloween November 1 – All saints day November 2 – All souls day November 4 – Mischief night November 7 - Mayan day of the dead (Last day)
Origin of the name Originally All Hallows Eve The night before All Hallows Day (All Saints Day)
Early History Many historians attribute the origins of Halloween to the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, and also linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain (Summer‟s End) Linked to Christianity because the church had converted many yet they continued to celebrated Samhain. Catholic Church declare Nov 1 All Saints Day and Nov 2 All Souls day.
Early History A celebration linked to the preparation for the winter months (Similar to Thanksgiving) A time for honoring the saints and the dead. Supposedly the time of the year which the spirit world and the physical world are closest Goal was to honor your ancestors so that they ensure good luck while also warding off evil spirits.
Early History The Irish built huge, symbolically regenerative bonfires and invoked the help of the gods through animal and perhaps even human sacrifice Halloween didn‟t arrive in American until the 19th century with Irish and Scottish Immigrants
Symbols Jack-O‟-Lantern – traditionally made out of turnips were a way to honor souls lost in purgatory. Americans carve pumpkins because they were easier to carve and more readily available. Originally simply a harvest tradition. Harvest imagery such as pumpkins, corn husks, scarecrows. The devil and evil is associated with Halloween because the church had wanted to discourage samhain at first.
Symbols Trick or Treating – Children dress up as spirits and go door to door collecting candy or money while asking the question trick or treat? Trick being a mostly idle threat. In Ireland it is a custom that the children preform a trick to earn candy. Sing songs / tell ghost stories. late medieval practice of souling, when poor folk would go door to door on Hallowmas (November 1), receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls Day (November 2).
Symbols Costumes started off to represent souls and ghost, then incorporated other supernatural figures, and later other archetypes and recognizable characters such as celebrities, politicians, and cartoons A time to be whoever you want to be, possibly making some sort of statement or breaking cultural norms. Costume Parties – festivities to wear costumes, and often includes playing games and tricks.
Symbols Bobbing for apples is a traditional came to play during Halloween. The object of the game is to pick out a floating apple from a barrel with only your teeth. Some traditional games are forms of divination and fortune telling. Telling of ghost stories or watching horror films during the holiday atmosphere Haunted attractions
Foods Barmback – Yeasted bread with sultranas and raisins Bonfire toffee Candy apples / toffee apples Candy corn / candy pumpkins Colcannon - mashed patatoes kale and cabbage Pumpkin, pumpkin pie, pumpkin bread Roasted pumpkin seeds Roasted sweet corn Soul cakes
Halloween around the world Europe – Halloween is deeply imbedded in some countries especially the United Kingdom, while others it is a somewhat new tradition some only celebrating it as late as the late 90‟s. In some countries it seems Halloween is waning such as Switzerland because of “festival overload”. Central and South America – Celebrated similarly to North Americans often with more of a Christian slant.
Halloween around the world Asia - it is often celebrated only in large cities as it is more recently introduced through pop culture. Australia – Halloween is frowned upon because of it lack relevance to Australia„s culture. It‟s popularity is on the rise but it is more common to see parties rather than trick-o‟-treating