Advanced caching techniques with ehcache, big memory, terracotta, and coldfusion
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  • 1. Rob Brooks-Bilson | @styggiti | rob.brooks-bilson.com cf.Objective() 2014
  • 2. About Me  Sr. Director at Amkor Technology  Involved with ColdFusion for 18 years  Author of the O’Reilly’s books: Programming ColdFusion Programming ColdFusion MX  Adobe Community Professional for ColdFusion  Food Geek  Bed Jumper  Photographer
  • 3. More ColdFusion Goodness
  • 4. Agenda What We’ll Cover And What We Wont…  What is caching?  What’s Ehcache?  Caching tags and functions  Any questions from Dan Wilson  Disclaimer  Caching Evolution in ColdFusion  Scale Up vs. Scale Out  Caching Architecture Review  Replicated Cache  BigMemory Go  Distributed Cache  Terracotta Management Console
  • 5. Legal Mumbo Jumbo: The Disclaimer  Much of what you’re about to see makes use of third-party libraries and applications  Some of it requires you to upgrade versions of libraries that ship with ColdFusion  There are bugs  There are workarounds  There is no official support from Adobe for much of what you’re about to see
  • 6. Ehcache Implementation : Caching Evolution Core cache Ehcache 1.6 9.0  Page caching  Fragment caching  Caching objects and data  ORM caching  Improved Hibernate plug-in, management, XA transactions, write-behind, bulk load, …  Snap-in support for distributed caching, via easy upgrade to Enterprise Ehcache Ehcache 2.0 9.1  New and enhanced functions: cacheGetSession, cacheGetMetadata  Support for new configuration properties  User-defined caches  copyOnRead &copyOnWrite, Explicit locking API, Nonstop Cache, Cache Search  New consistency modes: Strong and Eventual  Automatic Resource Control Ehcache 2.5.1 10.0  Application level caching  Enhanced query cache  Six New functions  Cache region attribute in all functions
  • 7. Ehcache Implementation : Caching Evolution  Fast restartability  Terracotta Management Console Ehcache 2.6.6 11.0  Bug fixes  cacheRemove now takes an array for ID Ehcache 2.8.2 Current Version
  • 8. Scale Up vs. Scale Out ScaleUp Scale Out What about cost? • Hardware • Data center space • Power • Redundancy • Software Licensing* • Operations & Sysadmin How does this change in the cloud? More CPU More RAM More Machines
  • 9. Caching Architectures In-Process (L1 Cache)  Operates in the same process (JVM) as the application server  Limited scalability for 32-bit systems  Must consider possible number of cache variants  Max JVM heap size  Can fail-over to disk storage  Fast  Data/object serialization is not required for memory based in-process cache JVM ColdFusion Cache In-Process Cache
  • 10. Caching Architectures Out-of-Process (L2 Cache)  Operates in its own process, outside of the application server’s JVM  Highly scalable on both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms  Scale out  Utilize spare memory throughout the network  Slower than in-process caching  Data/objects must be serialized/deserialized JVM ColdFusion Cache JVM Cache Out-of-Process Cache 10
  • 11. Technology Ehcache  Java caching API  In-process  Open Source / Commercial  Built-in to ColdFusion BigMemory Go  Off-heap memory storage for the JVM  Stand Alone  Terracotta Management Console  Commercial Terracotta  Distributed in- memory caching array  Out-of-process  Open Source no longer supported as of version 3.7.7 (Pairs with Ehcache 2.6.8)  Commercial: Part of BigMemory Max BigMemory Max  Off-heap memory storage for the JVM  Distributed  Terracotta Management Console  Commercial
  • 12. Caching Architecture Ehcache can be configured to run:  Local: In-process (Ehcache [+ BigMemory Go])  Replicated: In-process (Ehcache [+ BigMemory Go])  Distributed: In-process and Out-of- process (Ehcache + BigMemory Max) ColdFusion Server Ehcache ColdFusion Server Ehcache JVM JVM ColdFusion Server Ehcache ColdFusion Server Ehcache JVM JVM RMI, JMS, JGroups, Terracotta In-Process Cache Replication JVM ColdFusion Cache In-Process Cache JVM ColdFusion Cache JVM Cache Out-of-Process Cache
  • 13. To Help Avoid Confusion…  Terracotta recently retired the Terracotta Server and discontinued the free versions of BigMemory Go and BigMemory Max  To avoid confusion, keep this in mind:  Ehcache = In-Process Java Caching API – Comes built-in with ColdFusion  BigMemory Go = Enterprise Ehcache + Off-Heap Memory Storage for the JVM on a single server - Commercial (90 day trial)  BigMemory Max = Enterprise Ehcache + Off-Heap Memory Storage for the JVM + Distributed In- Memory Caching via the Terracotta Server Array – Commercial (90 day trial)
  • 14. Still Confused? BigMemory Go BigMemory Max Distributed in-memory data store No (standalone JVM) Yes In-memory capacity Unlimited (limit based on license) Unlimited (limit based on license) Number of BigMemory mirrored stripes supported N/A Unlimited (limit based on license) Number of application clients supported N/A Unlimited (limit based on license) Fast search Yes Yes Configurable data consistency guarantees N/A Yes Terracotta Management Console™ Yes Yes Fast Restartable Store™ Yes Yes BigMemory-Hadoop Connector support Yes In-process off-heap storage Yes Yes Advanced security (authentication/authorization) N/A Yes Enterprise support Yes Yes
  • 15. Cache Replication
  • 16. Scalability: Cache Replication (Clustering)  All supported cache types can be replicated  Each CF server in the cluster maintains its own in-process cache  Data is replicated among L1 caches  Replication via RMI, JMS, JGroups or Terracotta  Synchronous or asynchronous  Still hit JVM GC issues/limits  Simple configuration via ehcache.xml file ColdFusion Server Ehcache ColdFusion Server Ehcache JVM JVM ColdFusion Server Ehcache ColdFusion Server Ehcache JVM JVM RMI, JMS, JGroups, Terracotta In-Process Cache Replication 20
  • 17. Potential Replication Gotchas  Synchronous vs. Asynchronous delivery  Asynchronous replication is the fastest method  Because it’s asynchronous the caller returns immediately  Messages are placed in a queue and batched via RMI as they are processed  Potential for data inconsistency exists  Synchronous  Removes potential for data inconsistency  Slower operation as caller waits for replication to complete before returning  Time To Idle  Inconsistent with replicated caching  Data on some nodes will live longer than on others due to cache usage patterns  Do not use unless you don’t care about inconsistent data across cache nodes
  • 18. Replicated Cache Config Per Node – Step 1  Stop your ColdFusion Server  /lib/{servername}/ehcache.xml  Uncomment: <cacheManagerPeerProviderFactory class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMICacheManagerPeerProviderFactory" properties="peerDiscovery=automatic, multicastGroupAddress=230.0.0.1, multicastGroupPort=4446, timeToLive=1" propertySeparator="," />
  • 19. Replicated Cache Config Per Node – Step 2 <cacheManagerPeerListenerFactory class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMICacheManagerPeerListenerFactory" properties="hostName=www1.foo.com, socketTimeoutMillis=120000" propertySeparator="," /> <cache name="myReplicatedCache" maxElementsInMemory="5000" eternal="false"> <cacheEventListenerFactory class="net.sf.ehcache.distribution.RMICacheReplicatorFactory“ /> </cache>
  • 20. Replicated Cache It’s Really That Easy! *Don’t forget to restart ColdFusion
  • 21. BigMemory Go
  • 22. Problems with Application Scalability on the JVM  Slow Applications lead to caching  Large caches lead to latency from Garbage Collection pauses  GC pauses necessitate JVM tuning  Application usage and data grows  More caching is needed  More JVM tuning is needed  As cache size increases, more heap memory is used  More heap memory usage results in unpredictable and longer GC pauses  Eventually you hit a wall  Add more JVMs  Increased deployment and management complexity  Tune! Tune! Tune!
  • 23. The Problem with Memory and the JVM  RAM is outpacing the JVM  32GB is now fairly standard on most servers  Amazon EC2 allows for up to 68.4GB  Most of that memory is used inefficiently if it’s used at all  Cached data ages differently than standard business objects which can confuse the Java garbage collector  The cache expiration determines when the data becomes garbage  And then there's tuning…
  • 24. GC Tuning – Need I Say More?
  • 25. BigMemory to the Rescue  Cache huge amounts of data with no GC pauses  Easy to implement  Pure Java implementation  Works with all JVMs  Works with both standalone and distributed caches  No application code changes necessary to implement  Avoid GC because of pauses  Off heap store on direct memory buffers  Use all available memory on your server (if you want to)  1 million puts per second  1 line of config to use it  JVM doesn’t have to search for garbage because we already know when a cache item needs to be thrown out (cache expiry)
  • 26. Tiered Memory Store and BigMemory Architecture
  • 27. Upgrade Ehcache and Install BigMemory Go  BigMemory Go requires a newer version of Ehcache  Adobe doesn’t officially support upgrading. Do so at your own risk!  There’s currently a bug you need to be aware of in CF 10 (as of updater 11):  3339491: After upgrading Ehcache, ehcache.xml is ignored. You’ll need to use auth-ehcache.xml for now. (Marked as Fixed, but not yet deployed in a hotfix) 60
  • 28. Upgrade Ehcache and Install Big Memory: Step 1  Stop your ColdFusion server  Rename the following files in your servername/lib directory:  ehcache-core-2.5.1.jar  ehcache-core-2.5.1.jar.original  slf4j-api-1.5.6.jar slf4j-api-1.5.6.jar.original  slf4j-log4j12-1.5.6.jar  slf4j-log4j12-1.5.6.jar.old
  • 29. Upgrade Ehcache and Install Big Memory: Step 2  Download BigMemory Trial (It will give you Max even if you select Go):  http://terracotta.org/products/bigmemorygo  Extract the following files into your servername/lib directory: From /apis/ehcache/lib ehcache-ee-<version>.jar slf4j-api-<version>.jar From /common/lib bigmemory-<version>.jar  Copy the terracotta-license.key file you received by email after downloading BigMemory into your servername/lib directory
  • 30. Upgrade Ehcache and Install Big Memory: Step 3  Download the Slf4j version bundle that matches the version in your BigMemory download from http://www.slf4j.org/dist/  Extract the slf4j-log4j12-<version>.jar into your servername/lib directory
  • 31. Upgrade Ehcache and Install Big Memory: Step 4 ehcache.xml (auth-cache.xml): <cache name="sample-offheap-cache" maxElementsInMemory="100000" eternal="true" memoryStoreEvictionPolicy="LRU" overflowToOffHeap="true" maxMemoryOffHeap="2G"/> Start your ColdFusion server JVM Config in ColdFusion Admin: -XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=3G Restart your ColdFusion server
  • 32. ColdFusion Memory Footprint w/ BigMemory Go
  • 33. Distributed Caching with BigMemory Max
  • 34. Scalability: Distributed Tiered Caching with BigMemory Max
  • 35. BigMemory Max
  • 36. Scalability: Distributed Caching (Commercial)  Commercial license  Runs out-of-process  Tiered caching  Hottest data in L1 (< 1 μs access)  Everything in L2 (< 2 ms access)  "Snap-in scale"  Works with single node Ehcache or replicated Ehcache  Simple config via ehcache.xml  High data capacity: 2TB+  Highly available Enterprise Ehcache Terracotta Server Array Terracotta Server Array ColdFusion Enterprise Ehcache ColdFusion … Terracotta Server Array Terracotta Server Array
  • 37. • Stop your ColdFusion server • Rename the following files in your servername/lib directory: ehcache-core-2.5.1.jar  ehcache-core- 2.5.1.jar.original slf4j-api-1.5.6.jar slf4j-api-1.5.6.jar.old slf4j-log4j12-1.5.6.jar  slf4j-log4j12-1.5.6.jar.old • Add the following jar files: From apis/ehcache/lib ehcache-ee-<version>.jar slf4j-api-<version>.jar From apis/toolkit/lib terracotta-toolkit-runtime-ee-<version>.jar Ehcache Terracotta Server ColdFusion Ehcache ColdFusion … Distributed Cache Configuration: Step 1/3
  • 38. Edit your ehcache.xml <ehcache> <terracottaConfig url="someserver:9510"/> <defaultCache maxElementsInMemory="10000" timeToLiveSeconds="120“ overflowToOffHeap="true" maxMemoryOffHeap="2G"> <terracotta clustered="true"> </defaultCache> </ehcache> Ehcache Terracotta Server ColdFusion Ehcache ColdFusion … Distributed Cache Configuration: Step 2/3
  • 39. Start ColdFusion JVM Config in ColdFusion Admin: -X:MaxDirectMemorySize=3G Stop ColdFusion Start the Terracotta server, then restart ColdFusion bin/start-tc-server.sh bin/start-tc-server.bat Ehcache Terracotta Server ColdFusion Ehcache ColdFusion … Distributed Cache Configuration: Step 3/3
  • 40. Terracotta Gotchas  The Terracotta server must be running before you bring up your ColdFusion server, otherwise your page request (that tries to do a cache operation) will spin until the connection times out and an error is returned  Terracotta can only be used with ColdFusion Enterprise. There’s a bug if you try to use it with the Developer Edition where ColdFusion will return an error telling you it’s an Enterprise Only feature.
  • 41. Cache Monitoring
  • 42. Installing the Terracotta Management Console 1. Ensure JAVA_HOME is set 2. Extract the BigMemory go files 3. Start the monitor server: /management-console/lib/start-tmc.bat 4. Configure ehcache (auth_cache.xml) and add monitoring line: <managementRESTService enabled="true" bind="0.0.0.0:9888" /> 5. Open the web browser to http://localhost:9889/tmc
  • 43. Terracotta Management Console
  • 44. Q&A Rob Brooks-Bilson Senior Director 1900 South Price Road Chandler, AZ 85286 Tel (480) 786-7748 Fax (480) 821-9777 rbils@amkor.com Twitter: @styggiti