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Carbon Assessment Tools for Urban Development Colin Beattie, Jessica Bunning, Joanne Stewart, Peter Newman, Martin AndaCurtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (CUSP), Murdoch University Third International Conference on Climate Change 21-22 July 2011, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Outline Cities’ carbon emissions Research project model Carbon Assessment Tools Framework & Model for Sources of CO2-e Emissions CCAPPrecinct and e-Tool Case studies
Cities and CO2-e Emissions Cities play a major role in build-up of CO2-e emissions in global atmosphere Varying reports of degree of contribution Uncertainty of location and direct responsibility for CO2-e emissions in cities Need to measure CO2-e outputs of urban developments and determine CO2-e impacts of infrastructure (energy supply, water, waste, transport) Need to quantify CO2e emissions involved in: material & construction processes in built environment & infrastructure; usage of energy within buildings; mode and usage of transport; operational energy required for distribution and service provision of electricity, gas and water; and the management of waste
Research Project Model Decarbonising Cities and Regions: Australian Research Council Linkage Grant Western Australian Case Studies:- Cities Urban development (greenfield): lifestyles more car dependent, consumer orientated Urban redevelopment (brownfield): lifestyles more focused on walkable/public environments vs private consumption Regions Mining camps:lifestyles focused on daily fluctuations of intensive on-site high energy use, and then long periods where workers are off-site at their mines Remote Indigenous communities: lifestyles are simple but the settlement is often dependent on energy intensive infrastructure and services and can have large fluctuations in population size
Carbon Assessment Tools Global development industry transition:
Carbon Assessment Tools 21 different precinct-based tools (AILA) e.g. US’s LEED-ND; UK’s BREEAM Communities; Australia’s Green Star–Communities Yet to address carbon metrics in life cycle of a development – but offer frameworks for assessing overall sustainability of a settlement Precise nature of a carbon metric is lost in the broadly, semi-quantitative and arguably subjective nature of sustainability assessment
Framework for Sources of CO2-e Emissions in Urban Development
Cockburn Coast – The High Performance Case... KEY FINDING: Improvements in performance from implementing green infrastructure achievable at only $5,600 per dwelling * Excluding the cost of light rail Plus increased affordable housing 17
Comparison of solar PV and diesel CO2-e (tonnes)
Discussion Critical need for improved understanding of CO2-e consequences of urban development - as entire metabolic system There is a gap in tools’ market for carbon metric to monitor CO2-e emissions Need to establish quantifiable data on CO2-e emissions Need a suite of tools so gaps in construction and waste CO2-e emissions can be closed by: a) identifying tools to address gaps b) creating tools specifically designed to address shortfalls
Discussion Recognise importance of linkages across the framework model for holistic outcome Information will: guide decision-makers on choices of infrastructure and low carbon design initiatives for sustainable urban development assist stakeholders understand mitigation opportunities and appropriate targets for delivering strategies for carbon reduction action
Conclusion This study has produced a framework to identify and measure CO2-e emissions in life cycle of a development Research has shown no tools meet all requirements of the framework except - CCAPPrecinct and eTool, which can efficiently model and predict the carbon consequences of various urban development pathways, and monitor them over time or compare them to other base-line alternatives or sustainable development projects.
Thank you Acknowledgements: Australian Research Council (ARC) the ARC Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (CUSP), Murdoch team : Vanessa Rauland, Colin Beattie, Jessica Bunning, Joanne Stewart, David Goodfield Parsons Brinkerhoff (PB), Kinesis Horizon Power Cedar Woods North Port Quay